hesi A2 biology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
describe crenarchaeota
thermophiles
NUCLEOLUS
PRODUCES RIBOSOMES
describe proteobacteria
N-Fixed bacteria
describe spiochetes
spiral bacteria
ANIMAL VIRUSES
BOVINE, EQUININE
BACTERIA AND ANIMALS
HETEROTROPHS
carbohydrate chains are called
polymers
LIGHT SOURCE
ILLUMINATES THE SPECIMEN
Hydrophilic Heads
Water liking called POLAR
Recessive Allele
The letter is lowercased
fungus
a microorganism that lacks chlorophyll
describe eubacteria
true gram positive bacteria
OCULAR LENS
MAGNIFIES 10X-NEAR YOUR EYE
NUCLEUS
DOUBLE MEMBRANE SURROUNDING THE CHROMOSOMES AND THE NUCLEOLUS. PORES ALLOW COMMUNICATION THE NUCLEOLUS IS A SITE FOR SYNTHESIS OF RNA MAKING UP THE RIBOSOME
SEM
SCANNING 2NM METAL ION STAINING
MEIOSIS
IMPORTANT IN ASSURING GENETIC DIVERSITY IN SEXUAL
SURFACE OF CELL
DEFINED AS MEMBRANE
Photosynthesis
light reactions solar energy to chemical energy.
What process is responsibile for actively transporting small particles across the cell membrane?
Pinocytosis
hemophilia
an X-linked recessive genetic disease, caused by a mutatin in the gene for clotting factor VIII or IX, which leads to abnormal blood clotting
describe kindom plantae
multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that usually conduct photosynthesis.
2 forms of asexual reproduction
grafting, budding
chloramphenicol
an antibiotic that interferes with protein synthesis
KINETOCHORE
STRUCTURE FORMING AT CENTROMERE DURING MITOSIS FOR BINDING MICROTUBULES
NUCLEOSOMES
UNIT OF EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOME--FORMS BEADS ON A STRING
RIBOSOMES
PROTEIN AND RNA COMPLEX RESPONSIBLE FOR PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. SER SMOOTH
FORMS CHANNELS WITHIN THE CELL A SITE FOR SYNTHESIS AND METABOLISM OF LIPIDS. CONTAINS ENZYMES FOR DETOXIFYING CHEMICALS ---DRUGS AND PESTICIDES
ORGANELLES MOST IMPORTANT IN PROVIDING ENERGY TO THE CELL
MITOCHONDRION
STAGE OPENING
ALLOWS LIGHT TO PASS THRU
SCANNING OBJECTIVE LENS
MAGNIFIES 4X- ON NOSEPIECE
PROKARYOTIC CELLS
COCCI, BACCILI, SPIRILLA OR SPIROCHETES HELICAL CELLS
PROTEINS
CATALLYZE MOST LIVING CELLSCONTROL ALL CELLULAR PROCESS
AMINO ACIDS PRODUCE
GLYCINE, PROLINE, SERINE, TYROSINE
ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
HISTIDINE, ISOLEUCINE, LEUCINE, LYSINE, METHIONINE, PHENYLALANINE, THREONINE, TRYPTOPHAN, VALINE.
20 AMINO ACIDS ARE FOUND
IN PROTEINS
AMINO ACIDS
ARE POLAR AND POSITIVELY CHARGED
Which structure is the primary control center for the cellular activities?
Nucleus
polysaccharide
a polymer composed of multiple units of monosaccharide (simple sugar).
genotype
the structure of DNA that determines the expression of a trait
reverse genetics
using linkage analysis and polymorphic markers to isolate a disease gene in the absence of a known metabolic defect, then using the DNA sequence of the cloned gene to predict the amino acid sequence of its encoded protein.
5 biological kingdoms
animalia, fungi, monera, plantae, protista
in situ
refers ro performing assays or manipulations with intact tissues
CELL MEMBRANE
MEMBRANES ARE FLUIDCHANGING AS THEY ALLOW CELLS TO COMMUNICATED WITH EA OTHER
STAGE OF MITOSIS CHROMOSOMES ALIGN IN ONE PLANE
METAPHASE
RIBOSOME
BINDS AN mRNA AND TRANSLATION BEGIN
VACUOLES
MEMBRANE BAGS THAT CONTAIN WATER AND STORAGE MATERIALS IN PLANTS
CYTOSKELETON
NETWORK OF; PROTEIN FILAMENTS, MICROTUBULES, ACTIN FILAMENTS, AND INTERMEDIATE FIBERS. F-ACTIN GREEN FIBERS
What is the name for the small tail-like projection from the cellular membrane that is used for locomotion?
Flagella
What is the weakest of all the intermolecular forces?
Dispersion
This is the sum of all chemical relations that occur in an organism. In a cell reaction takes place in a series of steps called metabolic pathways progressing from a stand point of high energy to low energy.
Metabolism
What cellular organelle is the site of the catabolic pathway leading to cellular energy production?
Mitochondrion
subunit vaccine
a vaccine composed of a purified antigenic determinant that is seperated from the virulent organism.
protein
a polymer of amino acids linked via peptide bonds and which may be composed of 2 or more polypeptide chains
what is a mitochondria
double membrane-bound organelle, makes ATP, contains it's own genome.
hydrogen bond
a relatively weak bond formed between y, a hydrogen atom (which is covalently bound to a nitrogen or oxygen atom) and a nitrogen or oxygen with an unshared electron pair.
describe kingdom fungi
slime moulds, mushrooms, smuts, rusts, mildews, molds, stinkhorns, puffballs, truffles and yeasts. Absorb food in solution directly through cell walls
homologous recombination
the exchange of DNA fragments between 2 DNA molecules or chromatids of paired chromosomes at the site of identical necleotide sequences.
PHAGOCYTOSIS
PROCESS A CELL USES TO INGESTEAT ITS PREY. NEUTROPHILS OR A MACROPHAGE
NEUTROPHIL
MOST ACTIVE AND VORACIOUS WBC IN THE HUMAN BODY
ATOMS IN AMINO ACIDS
HYDROGEN, CARBON, NITROGEN, OXYGEN, SULFUR
MICROSCOPE USED TO STUDY SEQUENCE OF EVENTS OF SEPARATION OF CHROMOSOMES
LIGHT MICROSCOPE
PRODUCED BY HUMANS
10 OF THE 20 AMINO ACIDS
These are found in plants and are the site of photosynthesis.
Chlorplasts
phospholipid
a class of lipid molecules in which a phosphate group is linked to glycerol and 2 fatty acyl groups
what is a vacuole
energy storage housed w/in cytoplasm of cell. bound by single layer membrane. site of protein and metabolite degradation
THE SITE IN THE CELL WALL WHERE PROTEINS ARE SYNTHESIZED AND ASSEMBLED
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
PHENOTYPE
TRAIT YELLOW Y OR GREEN y SEEDS IN GARDEN PEAS
INTERPHASE
RESTING APPEAR TO BE; BUT IT IS A STAGE BETWEEN CELL DIVISIONS AND DIVERSE ACTIVITIES-MAKING MITOSIS POSSIBLE
NEUTRAL FAT
USED TO STORE RESERVES OF ENERGY IN OUR FATTY ADIPOSE TISSUES -CH2- GROUPS
ACTIVE ENZYME
CATALYZE THE EXCHANGE OF GTP FOR GDP BOUND CATALYZETHE PRODUCTION OF MANY MOLECULES cAMP FROM ATP
ALLELES
DIFFERENT FORMS OF GENES. Y AND y OF THE GENE THAT DETERMINES SEED COLOR.
Why is DNA important for metabolic activities of the cell?
Controls syntheisi of enzymes.
The idea of evolution Science process is?
Hypotheses - a statement
Cellular Membrane
This is the most important part to the cell (cell protection). Made up of a phospholipid bilayer and proteins.
describe chromatin in the nucleus
combination of DNA and associated proteins floating in a liquid nucleoplasm, surrounded by nuclear envelope( lipid bilayer)
dominant gene
a gene whos phenotype is when it is present in a single copy
CELL THEORY
LIFE FORMS ARE MADE FROM ONE OR MORE CELLS CELLS ONLY ARISE FROM PRE-EXISTING CELLSTHE CELL IS THE SMALLEST FORM OF LIFE
What is the primary purpose of the flagella on the surface of the cells?
Movement of the cell.
genetic marker
a gene or group of genes used to mark or track the actions of microbes
what is the cytoskeleton made of and it's function
microtubules & microfilaments. provides cell shape and movement
THE ACTIVITY OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
EXPERIMENTAL TESTING TO SUPPORT OR DISPROVE HYPOTHESES
why are unsaturated fats in solid form
because they have no double bonds.
What is the primary cause of water molecules moving into or out of the cell?
Water molecule pressure gradient along the cell membrane.
what do peroxisomes do in the endo/ctomembrane system
break down fatty acids, amino acids, and alcohol.
SIZE OF A VIRUS AND A PLANT CELL
30NM AND 30UM NANOMETERS
what does the rough ER do in the endo/ctomembrane system
sorts and modifies proteins chains delivered by bound ribosomes.
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