HESI Review Flashcards

unlicensed assistive personnel
Terms Definitions
Homozygous
TT
XL
40
tid
3xs
LETHARGIC
sleepy
Deteriorating
Worsening
Deteriorating:
: worsening.
qd
every day
polar
charged tail
Discrete
Distinct, separate
logue
speech dialogue, monologue
magn
large magnum, magnify
capit
head capital, capitulate
Precipitous:
: rapid, uncontrolled.
dispersion
weakest of all
sebacous glands secrete
sebum
Fatty Acids
nonpolar-hydrocarbon tail
FLACCID
Limp, lacking tone
abrupt
sudden or unexpected:
What causes hyperphosphatemia?
Renal failure
Fatigue:
: extreme tiredness, exhaustion.
CNS
brain and spinal cord
EXOGENOUS
Produced outside the body
Affect
Appearance of observable emotions
somatitis
inflammation of the mouth
fac
make or do manufacture, facilitate
status

The paramedic recognized that the patient's status was unstable, which necessitated immediate transport to the nearest medical center.
condition
Dilate:
: to enlarge or expand.
1 gram/ ? gr
15 grains
1 ft =_ in
12 in
Secretes antiduretic hormone (ADH), which causes the body to retain water
Pituitary
tacit
understood without being openly expressed; implied, unvoiced or unspoken
Commensalism
One organism benefits from the relationship and the other is not affected
fatal

The emergency medical technicians arrived too late to save any lives at the scene of a fatal car accident.
resulting in death
1 qt = _ pints
2 pints
ILIUM
lateral portion of the hip bone
Expand
To increase in size or amount
what is nervous tissue composed of
neurons
abstruse
hard to understand, esoteric or secretive
sagacious
having or showing acute mental discernment and keen practical sense; shrewd:
Leaves
Where light is captured by the plant.
The standard ECG contains how many leads?
12
labile

Because the child's temperature was very labile, the nurse instructed the unlicensed assistive personnel to check the temperature frequently.
changing rapidly and often
Cast:
: hard protective device applied to protect a broken bone while the bone heals.
Name the Neurologic NANDA-Approved Nursing Diagnoses?
(5)
Communications, Impaired
Verbal
Dysreflexia
Unilateral Neglect
Sensory/Perceptual
Alterations (Specify
type: visual, auditory,
kinesthetic, gustatory,
tactile, olfactory)
Thought Process, Altered
sensory enters at
dorsal horns of spinal cord
INDOLENT
wanting to avoid activity or exertion. Lazy.
Once circulatig volume is restored, vasopressors may be prescribed to increase venous return. List the main drugs that are used.
Epinephrine(Bronkaid), dopamine(Dopram, dobutamineDobutrex), norepinephrine(Levophed), or isoproterenol(Isuprel
what does the retrina contain
the receptor cells
leeward
pertaining to, situated in, or moving toward the quarter toward which the wind blows (
malign
to speak harmful untruths about; speak evil of; slander; defame:
Charles Darwin
Wrote orgin of species and responsible for natural selection
What is the established minimum renal output per hour?
30 ml/hr
flaccid

After her stroke, the patient could not feed herself because her arms were flaccid.
limp, lacking tone
Potential:
: capable of occuring or likely to occur.
Name the Sexuality NANDA-Approved Nursing Diagnoses?
(2)
Sexual Dysfunction
Sexual Patterns, Altered
PREDISPOSE
to make more susceptible or likely to occur
Type of shock .
related to ischemia or impairment i tisse resulting from MI, serious arrhythmia, or heart failure.All of these cause decreased cardic output
Cardiogenic
autonomic division of the peripheral nervous sytem is divided into what 2 systems
sympathetic and parasympathetic
amenable
ready or willing to answer, open to influence, persuasion, or advice; agreeable
cunning
to be able to; have the ability, power, or skill to:
What is the lab value range for phosphorus?
2-4.5 mEq/L
expand

The unlicensed assistive personnel turns the patient frequently so that the size of the skin sore will not expand any further.
to increase in size or amount
ntidiuretic hormone stimulates water reabsorbtion by stimulating insertion of "water channels" or aquaporins into the membranes of kidney tubules. These channels transport solute-free water through tubular cells and back into blood, leading to a
Antidiuretic hormone, also known commonly as arginine vasopressin, is a nine amino acid peptide secreted from the posterior pituitary
Produced outside the body.
Exogenous
Ex. The nurse explained that people with diabetes often need to receive exogenous forms of insulin because their bodies are unable to produce enough insulin.
what is the first product generated in the krebs cycle
citric acid
overwrought
To cause to work too hard, too much, or too long; weary or exhaust with work often used reflexively:
What is the drug given to HIV positive mothers that reduces the neonates chance of acquiring HIV?
Zidovudine (Retrovier)
distended

When a blood vessel is distended, it is easier for the laboratory technician to insert a needle to obtain a blood sample.
enlarged or expanded from pressure
Use______ or _______ if he, she, they, I can be substitued in then who clause
who or whoever
Maintenance of body fluid balance.
Hydration
Ex. The nurse explains that adequate hydration helps keep skin soft and supple.
what do cells produce during aerobic metabolism
water and carbon dioxide
What are the S/S of HIV Encephalopathy?
Memory loss, impaired concentration, apathy/depression, psychomotor slowing (most prominent symptom), incontinence.
supplement

The dietician instructed the patient to supplement their diet with extra calcium tablets to help build strong bones.
to take in addition to or to complete
After the urinary catheter is removed inthe TURP client, what are three priority nursig actions?
Cotinued strict I&O. Cotinued observations for hematuria. Infom clint burning and frequency may last for a week
an adjective that follows a linking verb and helps to explain the subject.
Predicate adjective
eg. My professors are WONDERFUL.
what does white matter consist of
bundles of axons coated with myelin
At what age does a child begin to discard parental standards
6-12 years (school age)
Which action has a higher priority...assisting the client in becoming a part of a support group...or assisting him/her in developing self-esteem?
sense of belonging comes first, and such a sense might help in developing self-esteem
What is the effect of DIC on PT, PTT, platelets, FSPs(FDPs)?
Prothrombin time,prolonged
partial thromboplastin time prolonged
platelets, decreased
fibrin split products, increased
what do peripheral nerves allow
control of muscle groups in the upper and lower extremities and sensory stimulation
What is the intervention for sepsis related to transfusion therapy?
Ensure a patent airway, obtain blood culture, administer prescribed antibiotics and monitor vitals.
List four measurable criteria that are the major expected outcome of a shock crisis
BP mean of 80 to 90mmHg; PO2>50mmHg
CVP above 6cm of H2O
urine output at last 30ml/hr
what is hematocrit made up of
mostly red blood cells but also white blood cells and platelets
What is the relationship of the kidnesy to the cardiovascular system?
Kidneys filter about a liter of blood per minute. If CO is decreased, the amount of blood going through the kidneys is decreased causing urinary output to decrease. A decreased urinary output may be a sign of cardiac problems.
A word or phrase that is used to express an action or a state of being.
Verb
expresses time through a tense. Present- Mary works, Past- Mary worked, Future- Mary will work.
What are the S/S of a patient immediately preceding an MI?
Chest pain at rest or with moderate activity
Described as crushing, pressing or heavy pain (elephant sitting on chest)
Tends to increase in intensity over a few minutes
May be substernal or more diffused - radiating to shoulder, neck/jaw, or back.
what is the function of hair in the integumentary system
maintain body temp and fliter out harmful particles
LXX
70
T
table
s
wiothout
EXPOSURE
Contact
ag
to do.
1pound
16 ounces
parathyroid controls
calcium
PRECAUTION
preventive measure
reg
rule regulate, regal
lude
play interlude, delude
chrom
color chromatic, monochrome
Path
suffering sympathy, pathology
X(LINE OVER IT)
10000
1 kilogram
1000 grams
ADVERSE
Undesired, possibly harmful
NUMBER
can be counted
onym
word, name synonym, acronym
Priority:
: of great importance.
Confinement without authorization?
false imprisonment
postier hormones
oxytocin and ADH
ANNUAL
Happening once a year
INTERNAL
Located within the body
Responsible.
Accountable
Ex. Paramedics are accountable for maintaining up-to-date knowledge of resuscitation techniques.
precipitous
extremely or impassably steep:
Biotic Factors
factors that are living
Exogenous:
: produced outside the body.
meosis
gonads, 23 chromsomes, gametes formed
DISTENDED
Enlarged or expanded from pressure
what insulin is quick acting
regular
rudimentary
pertaining to first principles; elementary:
proportion
two ratios that have equal values
patent

The nurse checked to see whether the intravenous needle was patent before giving the patient a medication.
open
Presenting false credentials for the purpose of entering nursing school, obtaining a license, or obtaining employment is termed?
fraud
1 oz = __ T
2 T
SUPEREGO
acts as a self-critical conscience. Involves standards learned from parents/teachers. *contains rigid rules*
Is an unexpected, castrophic pulmonary complication occuring in a person with no previous pulmonary problems?
ARDS
otitis media
inflammation of the middle ear
acrimony
sharpness, harshness, or bitterness of nature, speech, disposition, etc.:
impromptu
made or done without previous preparation:
reciprocals
pairs of numbers that when multiplied together equal 1
HIPAA stands for
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
paroxysmal

The respiratory therapist provided a breathing treatment to stop the patient's paroxysmal breathing difficulty.
beginning suddenly or abruptly
Latent:
: present, but not active or visible.
Name the Pain Nanda-Approved Nursing Diagnoses?
(2)
Pain
Pain, Chronic
CONTRAINDICATION
A reason why something is not advisable or why it should not be done
Contract
To draw together or reduce in size
Composition of the ECG:
Represebts the time required for the impukse to travel from the atria (SA node), through the A-V node, to the Purkinje in the ventricles. s measured from the P wave to the beginning of the QRS complex A-V ndal function 0.12-0.20
PR interval
defecate
to void excrement from the bowels through the anus; have a bowel movement.
torpid
inactive or sluggish; slow, dull or apathetic; lethargic
parish
A building in which people live; residence for human beings. A SMALL ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICT TYPICALLY HAVING ITS OWN CHURCH AND A PRIEST OR PASTOR
divisor
the number by which the dividend is divided
At what age does the anterior fontanelle close?
18 months
potent

The medication was very potent, and it immediately relieved the patient's pain.
producing a strong effect
Name the Teaching/Learning NANDA-Approved Nursing Diagnoses? (5)
Growth and development,
altered
Knowledge deficit (specify)
Noncompliance (specify)
Ineffective management of
therapeutic regimen
(individuals)
Therapeutic regimen:
(community, families):
ineffective management
dendrite to nueron
axon takes info from the nueron
BREECH BIRTH
baby's buttocks or feet come out first
Does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone in a sentence.
Dependent clause
what proteins are found in plasma
albumin, globulin, fibrinogen
whitewash
to defeat by keeping the opponent from scoring:
least common denominator
the smallest multiple that two numbers share
What is Myocardial Infarction?
Disruption or deficiency of coronary artery blood supply resulting in necrosis of myocardial tissue.
contraindication

The patient's excessive bleeding was a contraindication for discharge from the hospital.
a reason why something is not advisable or why it should not be done
What provides the laws that control the practice of nursing in each state?
Nurse Practice Acts
CEASE
come to an end or bring to an end
To voluntarily refrain from something.
Abstain
Ex. The dental hygienist instructed the patient to abstain from smoking to improve his breath odor.
the hypothalamus receives sensory info from
taste and smell receptors
What is the Tx for Inhalation Tularemia?
Antibiotics for 2 weeks
Elevate:
: to lift up or place in a higher position.
Differeniate between acute renal failure and chronic renal failure.
Acute renal failure ofn reversible, abrupt deterioration of kdney fuctin. Chronic real failure: irreversile, slow deterioration of kidney fnton characteized by increasig BUN and creatnine. Eventually dialysis is required.
what is the most complex tissue in the body and is resistant to new growth
nerve tissue
When does a child begin to develop a rational sense of self?
12-18 years (Adolescent)
What is the definition of Maslow's Safety?
Avoiding harm; attaining security, order, and physical safety
What modalities are associated with gate control pain theory?
Massage, heat and cold, acupuncture, TENS
Hard protective device applied to protect a broken bone while the bone heals.
Cast
Ex. The nurse instructed the child that he could not go swimming while the cast was on his broken arm.
what are afferent nerves
cary impulses from one part of the body to the spinal cord and brain
What are the S/S of fluid volume deficit?
Decreased urine output
reduction in body weight
decreased skin turgor/dry mucous membranes
hypotension
tachycardia
What is the definition of Maslow's Esteem and Recognition?
Self-esteem and respect of others; success in work; prestige
To place, put on, or spread something.
Apply
Ex. The physical therapist will apply a medication to the wound before covering the wound with a bandage.
the posterior pituitary is responsible for maintaining
fluid levels in the body through antidiuretic hormones, and stimulates contractions during birth
What is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in the US?
Lung Cancer. Smoking is responsible for 80-90% of all lung cancers.
Sex of an individual, as in male or female.
Gender
Ex. Female gender places patients at higher risk for breast cancer.
what does the autonomic nervous system use neurotransmitters to accomplish
help conduct nerve signals and turn on/off various cell groups.
In order to be guilty of malpractice the following 4 things must be present:
Duty (obligation to maintain a nursing standard)
Breach of duty (failure to maintain standard)
Injury
Proximate cause (connection between the breach of duty and the injury)
what does the function of efferent nerves allow the body to do
direct movement of the whole body or parts of the body
What are the S/S of sepsis related to transfusion therapy?
Rapid onset of chills, high fever, vomiting, marked hypotension, and shock
On an ECG, what does the PR interval represent?
The time required for the impose to travel through the atria (SA node), through the A-V node, to the Purkinje fibers.
ONGOING
continuous
VITAL
essential
Sert
bind insert
2 loops
dram
as
left ear
mand
order commander, reprimand
crypt
hidden cryptic, cryptogram
tract
draw retract, traction
Loc
place local, location
fract
break fracture, fraction
accountable

Paramedics are accountable for maintaining up-to-date knowledge of resuscitation techniques.
responsible
1 centimeter
10 milimeters
untoward
adverse or negative
alleles
2 alternative traits
INTACT
In place, unharmed
Iso
equal, identical isometric, isolate
Adverse:
: undesired, possibly harmful.
Tissues
epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve
small intestines
digestion and absorption
1 grain/? mg
60 mg
POTENT
giving a strong effect
RETAIN
to hold or keep
amenorrhea
absence of menstrual flow
flux
a flowing or flow.
What is clubbing associated with?
hypoxia
Labile:
: changing rapidly and often.
Divulgence of privileged information or communication, e.g., from charts, conversations, or observations?
defamation
1 ml = _ cm3
1
CONTOUR
Shape or outline of shape
dyspnea
difficulty in the breathing cycle
judicious
having, exercising, or characterized by good or discriminating judgment; wise, sensible, or well-advised:
Irritability and restlessness are early signs of
cerebral hypoxia
Hygiene:
: measures contributing to cleanliness and good health.
if electrons are not shared evenly
polar
1 oz = __ drams
8 drams
ELEVATE
To place in a higher position
Type of shock.
Related to allergens (anaphylaxis), spinal cord injury, or priphral neuropathies, all resulting in venous pooling and decreased blod return to the heart, which decreases cardiac output over time.
Vasogenic
rickety
likely to fall or collapse; shaky:
bungling
to do clumsily and awkwardly; botch:
Performing an act that a reasonable and prudent person would not perform under similar conditions is defined as
Negligence
To help prevent phlebitis, a cannulation site should never be placed over
a joint
site

The nurse selected a site to sarte the patient's IV based on comfort for the patient.
location
Adhere
To hold fast or stick together.

*The tape must adhere to the patient's skin to hold the bandage in place.
phospholipids
2 fatty acids bound to phosphate group
APPLY
To place, put on, or spread somthing
Contraindiction
A reason why something is not advisable or why it shouldnt be done
Resulting in death.
Fatal
Ex. The emergency medical technicians arrived too late to save any lives at the scene of a fatal car accident.
access
the ability, right, or permission to approach, enter, speak with, or use; admittance:
disputatious
fond of or given to disputation; argumentative; contentious:
What is the Tx for hypocalcemia?
Administer calcium suppliments
overt

The overt symptoms of the disease included vomiting and diarrhea.
obvious, easily observed
Negligence is a form of ______ tort whereby performing an act that a reasonable and prudent person would not do. Measure of negligence is "_____" (i.e. would a reasonable and prudent nurse act in the same manner under the same circumstance?)
unintentional
reasonableness
liver
produces bile that is stored in the gallbladder and emulsifies fat in the small intestine
What is the most common risk factor associated with lung cancer?
Smoking
A word that joins words, phrases, or clauses
Conjunction
what is progesterone responsible for
changes in the uterus
hood
a soft or flexible covering for the head and neck, either separate or attached to a cloak, coat, or the like.
If a mother has HIV and is taking Zidovudine (retrovier) what is the % that the child has of being infected with HIV as well?
4-8%
hydration

The nurse explains that adequate hydration helps keep skin soft and supple.
maintenance of body fluid balance
Name Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs in order. (6)
Physiologic
Safety
Love and Belonging
Esteem and Recognition
Self-Actualization
Aesthetic
is the white matter external to the gray matter in the brain or spinal cord
spinal cord.
the basic functional unit of a kidney is
the nephron
What are the S/S of Botulism?
Diplopia, slurred speech, descending muscle weakness, dysphasia.
What is the treatment for hypercalcemia?
Loop diuretics, calcitonin, avoid calcium based antacids
compensatory

When the patient's blood pressure decreased, which the paramedic recognized as a compensatory action.
offsetting or making up for something
Exposure or discussion of the client's case. After death, the client has a right to be unobserved, excluded from unwarranted operations, and protected from unauthorized touching of the body?
exposure of a person
Which route of administration for pain meications has the quickest onset and shortest duration?
Intravenous push, or bolus
where does anaerobic respiration occur
in the cytoplasm of a cell
At what age are men most at risk for benign prostatic hyperplasia?
over 40
cast

The nurse instructed the child that he could not go swimming while the cast was on his broken arm.
hard protective device applied to protect a broken bone while the bone heals
Non-tropic hormones are hormones that directly
stimulate target cells to induce effects
An undesired problem that is the result of some other even.
Complication
Ex. The physician told the patient that loss of eyesight is a possible complication of eye surgery.
what are the 3 layers of skin
epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue
dove tail
a tenon broader at its end than at its base; pin.
It is important to differentiate between hypovolemic and cardiogenic shock. How might the nurse determine the existence of cardiogenic shock?
History of MI with left ventricular failure or possible cardiomyopathy, with symptoms of pulmonary edema
more than 7 on the ph scale
base and is a hydrogen acceptor
what is a neuron composed of
a cell body and organelles usually found in cells
gender

Female gender places patients at higher risk for breast cancer.
sex of an individual, as in male or female
A form of personal pronoun that shows possession or ownership.
Possessive pronoun
eg. That is MY book. That book is MINE. That is HIS book. That book is HIS.
the krebs cycle is also called what other 2 things
citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle
1 oz = __ml; __dr; __T; __t
30 ml; 8 dr; 2 T; 6 t
what is the function of the skin
protects thwe inner parts of the body and provides shape. helps body maintain temp, contain fluids and sheild from infection
What immediate action should the nurse take when a chest tube becomes disconnected from a bottle or suction apparatus? What should the nurse do if the chest tube accidently removed from the client?
Place the end of the tube in asterile water container at a 2 cm level. Apply an occlusive dressig and notify health care provider.
If a person is choking, when should the rescurer intervene?
When the person points to his or her throat and can no longer cough, talk, or make sounds.
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