Anatomy Physiology 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
life
vita-
snail
coch-
redness
erythem-
cardiovascular
CV
vessel
vas-
drops
gtts
medi/o
middle
axillary
armpit
adipocyte
fat cell
cesarean section
C-section
clear, light
-lucid-
gluteal
buttock region
cytogenic
producing cells
hypervenilation
respiratory alkalosis
brachial
the arm
causes milk production
prolactin
to puncture surgically
cente-
leukocyte
white blood cell
oral rehydration therapy
ORT
nothing by mouth
NPO
developing cells
blast cells
Arterioles
A small artery
Stratified Squamous Epithelial Tissue
Locations
epidermis
mouth
esophagus
vagina
anal canal
Abducens
motor to eye muscles
T tubule proteins
voltage sensors
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PTCA
Erythrocyte
A red blood cell
White blood cell -blasts
Myeloblasts
Monoblasts
Lymphoblasts
Articulation Chp 6
A joint.
amphiarthrotic
Cartilaginous joints are generally _______. 
Class _____ protects mucous membranes.
A
ROUNDED OPENING IN THE IRIS
PUPIL
Pectoralis Major
*location on chest
*origin: cartilages of ribs 2-6, body of sternum, and inferior, medial portion of the clavicle. 
*insertion: crest of greater tubercle, and lateral lip of intertubercular groove of humerus
*actions: protraction of the scapula
shoulder: flexion, adduction, and internal rotation
measure, instrument used to measure
-meter
what is a pes?
a foot
Afterload
pressure in arteries abovesemilunar valves opposes opening or valves
acromial
the point of the shoulder
Epinephrine—Has many target organs and tissues, the Effect on blood vessels in skeletal muscle are __________________.
vasodilation
anabolism
constructive metabolism; the synthesis in living organisms of more complex substances from simpler ones (
frontal
plane, vertical, divides body into anterior and posterior halves
Half Life of I 131
8 Days
Anterior
toward the front of the body
INSTRUMENT USED TO ILLUMINATE THE INTERIOR OF THE EYEBALL
CAN DETECT DIABETES, ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, DEGENERATION OF THE OPTIC NERVE AND RETINA
OPHTHALMOSCOPE
atlas
the first cervical vertebra. It articulates with the occipital bone and the axis
neuron
a nerve cell; an electrically excitable cell specialized for producing and transmitting action potentials and secreting chemicals that stimulate adjacent cells
deciduous molars are replaced by;
 
bicuspids
molars
incisors
canines
wisdom teeth
 
1. bicuspids
Arteriole
Smallest type of artery. Larger arterioles exhibit all three tunics but tunica media is mainly smooth muscle. Smallest arterioles consist of smooth muscle cells spiraling around tunica intima.
What do tissues combine to form?
organs
In auscultation, the lubb represents closing of the SL valves and the dupp represents closing of the AV valves
False
major vein of the leg
femoral vein
nervous tissue
regulates & controls body function
cell: neurons-specialized nerve cells that generate & conduct nerve impulses
what is an axon
a nerve fiber
Trace elements
Those elements (minerals)needed in very small amounts for normal functioning.
skeletal muscle
-voluntary and striated
-cells are long, thin and multinucleate
- deals with movement, poture, and heat production
aponeurosis
a whitish, fibrous membrane that connects a muscle to a bone or fascia.
skeletal 
______ muscle tissue composes 40% of the total body mass.
Biceps femoris (Hamstrings)
Origin ischium
Insertion tibia
Action extend thigh, flex knee
which cells are responsible for bone resorption?
osteoclasts
Tropomyosin
A regulatory protein that is a component of the thin filament. When a skeletal muscle fiber is relaxed, tropomyosin covers the myosin-binding sites on actin molecules, thereby preventing myosin from binding to actin.
Objective of Coagulation:
convert solunle fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin, sticky protien adheres walls of vessel. blood cells and platelets get stuck in net of fibrin stopping blood loss.
Vertebral head
Origen: corpus of L1, transverse process of L1-L5Insertion: sup-medial to central tendonInnervation: Phrenic nerve from C3-C5 cervical plexus Function: depress central tendon, enlarge thorax
Sebacious Glands
most develop from hair follicles, become active at puberty (androgens), produce sebum
mediastinum
a broad, median partition between the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column; it contains all contents of the thoracic cavity except the lungs
kwashiorkor
condition in which protein intake is deficient despite normal or nearly normal calorie intake
sacromere
a functional contractile unit in a skeletal muscle fiber
neoplasm
any new or abnormal growth; a tumor
Hypernatremia
An excess of sodium in the extracellular fluid greater than 145 mEq/L.
Fever
An increase in body temperature caused by a resetting of the body’s thermostat in the hypothalamus.
Autoimmune disease
A disease characterized by the production of antibodies or effector T cells that attack a person’s own tissue; a failure of self-tolerance.
DNA duplicates during this phase of mitosis
Interphase
hypogastric region
located inferior to the umbilical region
the internal jugular vein joins the
brachiocephalic vein
______________ is the process by which WBC's engulf and destroy an invader.
Phagocytosis
In which phase does DNA duplication take place?
Interphase
Abnormal redness due to dilation of dermal blood vessels during strenuous exercise or heat or anger or embarrassment
Erythema
Organ Systems Interrelationships
-Integumentary system protects the body from the external environment -Digestive & Respiratory systems in contact with the external environment, take in nutrients & oxygen
20. Localized hormones that are synthesized from the phospholipids of cell membranes are called:
c) prostaglandins
Is the muscle antagonistic to the biceps brachii
Triceps
reflex
noting or pertaining to an involuntary response to a stimulus, the nerve impulse from a receptor being transmitted inward to a nerve center that in turn transmits it outward to an effector.
keratin
what hair and nails are made of
Low
Is the myoglobin content high or low in fast glycolytic fibers? 
ORGANISM
ARE ALL OF THE BODY SYSTEMS TOGETHER SUCH AS THE HUMAN BEING
what is adrenergic?
-refers to something that is associated with epinephrine and norephinephrine (in efferent division of peripheral nervous system)
Four Basic Types of Tissues
A. Epithelial
b. Connective
c. Muscular
D. Nervous
Tissues
A group of similar cells that function together to perform a specialized activity
synovial joints
all are diarthrotic, and they include all limb joints, most joints of the body
53 The ventral rami of spinal nerves T2-T12 are known as __________ nerves
intercostal
Apgar score
system of scoring an infant's physical condition 1 minute after birth; heart rate, respiration, color, muscle tone, and response to stimuli are rated as 0, 1, 2, with a maximum total score of 10; infants with low Apgar scores require prompt medical attention
These cells may eventually become spermatozoa

sertoli cells
sustentacular cells
spermatogenic cells
chief cells
3. spermatogenic cells
symptom
evidence of disease, such as pain or headache, that can only be observed or evaluated by the patient
accessory digestive organs
organs that contribute to the digestive processbut are not part of the alimentary canal, include the tongue, teeth. salivary glands, pancreas, liver.
Fixed acids
Metabolic acids generated in the body that are eliminated in the urine. Carbonic acid is not a fixed acid because it can be eliminated via the lungs.
There are _______ major systems in the human body.
11
Movement of materials with aid of transporters in plasma membrane
Facilitated diffusion
What is the CNS
Central Nervous SystemBrain and Spinal Cord
dopamine may be added to sustain blood pressure in
cardiogenic shock
serous membrane
moist membrane found in closed ventral body cavities
Exocytosis
- a vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to the outside.
Ribs
12 pair (last two sets are false because they do not connect directly to the sternum)
Nevus
A pigmented area of the skin; a mole.
Term for expulsion of urine from the bladder
Micturation
coronary
of or pertaining to the human heart, with respect to health.
what is blood made of?
plasma, RBCs, WBCs, and platelets
group A fibers: -speed?-type of motor neuron?-innervate where?-size?
-fastest-somatic fibers-innervate skin, skeletal muscle, & joints-largest in diameter-heavily myelinated
Vocal Register
refer to patterns or models of VF movement within a cycle
 
5 different types of registers
 1.Model Register
2.Glottal Fry
3.Falsetto
4.Whistle
5.Whispering 
stratum lucidum
a translucent band that is seen best in thick, glabrous skin
positive feedback system
if a response enhances the original stimulus, the system is a ________ ________ ______
insertion
the end of a muscle that is attached to a relatively movable part; the end opposite the origin
Congestive heart failure (CHF)
Condition in which the pumping efficiency of the heart is depressed so that circulation is inadequate to meet tissue needs.
Name the bones of the Arm and Hand
Humerus UlnaRadiusCarpusMetacarpusPhalanges
What are 3 functions of the nervous system?
SensoryIntegrationMotor Response
Lipids making up cell membrane
Fat, phospholipid and cholesterol primarily
- starts at the mandibular foramen and runs obliquely through each ramus to carry inferior alveolar nerves and blood vessels to mandibular teeth.
Mandibular canal
a) Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances made by cells from the ___________ of their cell membranes. b) In contrast to hormones, whose site of action is often distant from the site of production, prostaglandins usual exert their effects ____________.
2. a) phospholipids b) locally
Part of tooth which is found at the gum line
Neck
epimysium, perimysium and endomysium 
What kind of coverings do skeletal muscles have? 
explain fast oxidative fibers-speed of contraction? why?-which pathway is used?-what stores do they include?
-intermediate between slow oxidative fibers & fast glycolytic fibers-fast speed of contraction-oxidative phosphorylation & glycolysis -have glycogen stores within glycosomes & oxygen stores within myoglobin-pink-moderately fatigue-resistant
Reversible reaction
A reaction can change back to how it was before
Describe the anatomical position
the body is in erect/standing position with the arms at the side and palms facing forward. The feet and head pointing forward too.
axial skeleton
consists of the head, neck & trunk (or torso, which includes the thorax, abdomen & pelvis)
What is osmosis?
the movement of a solvent from a lower solute concentration to a higher solute concentration
- carries blood and lymph vessels, and nerves into bone transversely.
Perforating (Volkman’s) canal
Intracellular fluid (ICF)
The water within cells; about 65% of the total body water.
average length of estrous cycle in cow
18 to 24 days
As cells are pushed from the deeper portion of the epidermis toward the surface
they tend to die
What is Feedback Loop?
the basic type of control system in the body for homeostasis
What does developmental anatomy describe?
The changes in form that occur between conception and physical maturity
blocking sodium readsorption at teh proximal tubule results in
increased sodium at the distal tubule
7. Two hormones that cause the liver to change glycogen to glucose are:
b) glucagon and epinephrine
what is the role of an antagonist?
-binds to and blocks the receptor,either preventing a normal response of yielding the opposite of the normal response
What is an ionic bond?
Bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
What is Autoregualtion (intrinsic regulation)?
Occurs when the activities of a cell, tissue, organ, or organ system adjust automatically in responce to some environmental change
Name the tissue of which the embryonic skull is first made. chapter 6
Fibrous connective tissue and cartilage.
What are the 5 types of connective tissue?
1) loose (areolar & adipose)
2) dense/connective tissue proper (regular & irregular)
3) cartilage (hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage)
4) bone (cancellous/spongy & compact)
5) blood 
What are the 3 functions of the endocrine system?
Directs long-term changes in teh activities of other organ systemsAdjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the bodyControls many structural and functional changes during development
Synovial Joints. Chp 6 pg 138
Are all freely movable joints. On the joint sufface of each bone is the articular cartilage. The joint capsule, made of fibrous connective tissue, encloses the joint in a strong sheath, like a sleeve.
What is meant by an electrolyte dissociating in water?
water is the solvent in which most other compounds/solutes are dissolved. So when molecules are dissolved in water, they are called electrolytes.
Which of the following is not a true statement?(A) when the diaphragm relaxes, it returns to a domelike shape(B) when the diaphragm contracts, if pulls the floor of the thoracic cavity downward(C) changes in thorax size bring about inspiration and expirat
raising the ribs decreases the depth and width of the thorax
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