Anatomy Physiology Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
fixation
-pexy
control
-stasis
thick
pachy-
crushing
-tripsy
back
dors-
clavicle
collarbone
glue
glia-
Crural
Leg
ab-
away from
to hear
audi-
obsessive preoccupation
-mania
months old
mo
normal saline
NS
Catabolism
breaking bonds
Hallux
Great Toe
thoracic cavity
12 vertebra
acute renal failure
ARF
tear, lacrimal duct
dacry-
flow or discharge
-rrhea
proximal
pertaining to near
WBC's are called:
leukocytes
proneSupine
belly downbelly up
Osteotomy
Incision of the bones
Sternothyroid
Originate:on sternum
Travels:up and out
Inserts:into oblique line of thyroid
 
when contracts pull down on thyroid cartilege
important during a swallow bc pulls larynx back down elevated for a swallow 
Short bones:
wrist and ankle
vital signs
vs or VS
What does endo- mean?
Inside
tissue types
1) epithelial-covering
2) connective-support
3) muscle-movement
4) nervous-control
palmer/volarplantar
-undersurface of dorefoot-undersurface of hindfoot
visceral pleura
covers surface of lungs
Sarcomere
The basic functional unit/compartment of a myofibril.
Thyrohyoid
Origen: Thyroid oblique lineInsertion: superior to hyoid greater cornuInnervation: CNXII and Spinal C1Function: depress hyoid
enuresis
involuntary emission of urine; bedwetting
Gonadotropin
The gonadotropins consist of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), both released by the anterior pituitary.
What does ectomy mean?
Taking out
CPR steps
est. unresponsivnesscall EMSopen airway using chin liftlook, listen and feel for breathingbegin CPR
Kearatinized stratified squamous epithelium organized into several strata
The Epidermis
direction of fascicles
oblique, rectus, transversus
pacemaker
sets the heart beat rate
microvilli
function?
projections from the plasma membrane to help increase surface area in epithelial tissue
 
-located on apical surface
The olfactory receptors are examples of:
chemoreceptors
Intrinsic Muscles
internal muscles
-originate and insert somewhere within larynx
-help move VF in certain directions=fine motor movements 
-opening and closing VF
-tense and relax VF 
 WHAT DO
Presbycusis
Otosclerosis
HAVE IN COMMON?
THEY ARE BOTH EAR PROBLEMS
endomysium
connective tissue that surrounds each muscle cell
azoospermia
absence of sperm in the semen
antiarrhythmic
any agent administered to control irregularities of the heartbeat
Chemoreceptors
Sensory receptors that respond to changes in various dissolved chemicals.
IgA
Antibody active against bacteria and viruses; found in saliva.
Division of somatic (body) cells; cells divide into two daughter cells
Mitosis
main function of red cells
carry oxygen
Sign
a visible abnormality of the body
abdominal cavity
contains stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, and most of the small and large intestines (inside of the ventral cavity)
lumbar vertebrae
5 lower back vertebrae (L1-L5)
Carcinoma
A malignant tumor of epithelial tissue.
____ Cells surrounding the arteriole within the renal corpuscle that produces the enzyme ____ secreted into the blood when the blood pressure in the afferent arterioles falls
juxtaglomerular
renin
diaphysis
the shaft of a long bone.
Trabeculae
Spongy bone is composed of _______, instead of osteons
Tissue
A group of cells with similar appearance that work together to carry out specialized functions
Describe proprioception.
sensory information about parts of body
 
The symbol that indicates a reversible reaction.
DEPRESSES EYE AND TURNS IT LATERALLY
 
CN-lV (TROCHLEAR)
SUPERIOR OBLIQUE
 
Platysma
Origin: Fascia of chest to lower border of mandible
Action: Draws lower lip back & down, tenses skin of neck
Shoulder (Glenohumeral) Joint
ball-and-socket joint:head of humerus and glenoid fossa of the scapula, glenoid cavity slightly deepened by glenoid labrum=rim of fibrocartilage, and stability is sacrificed for greater freedom of movement
 
 
 
TRACTS(OR FASCICULI(LITTLE BUNDLE))
 
 
 
*Each column consists of these subdivisions that carry signals from one part of the CNS to another
artificial pacemaker
an electronic device that stimulates the initiation of an impulse within the heart
Which gland secretes the hormone melatonin?
 
Pituitary
hypothalamus
thyroid
adrenal
pineal
 
5. Pineal
 
process of recording a picture or record
-graphy
Diabetes mellitus
A medical condition characterized by high blood glucose levels resulting in the presence of glucose in the urine. This condition results from insulin deficiency or lack of cellular response to insulin.
Endothelium
Epithelial tissue that lines the walls of the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels; composed of simple squamous epithelial cells.
Contraction of these muscles causes hair to stand on end.
arestor pili
What are the three major fluid compartments, how are they separated and what is their percent body weights?What makes up the extracellular body fluid?
Plasma-5%Interstitial-15%Intracellular-50%separated by membranesextracellular-plama and interstital
spreads to another site in the body
metastasize
sends branches to the intercostal muscles
thoracic aorta
Two types of glandular epithelium
Exocrine and endocrine
hyperhydrosis
excessive or profuse sweating due to increase stimulation of sweat glands
hypothalamus signals dermal blood vessels to constrict to reduce blood flow and conserve heat
Extreme cold triggers
Anatomy
Anatomy is the study of body structure, which includes size, shape, composition, amd perhaps even coloration.
Single Covalent Bond
Sharing one pair of electrons
Carry nerve impulses toward the cell body
Dendrites
urethra
the membranous tube that extends from the urinary bladder to the exterior and that in the male conveys semen as well as urine.
adrenaline
the hormone that helps the body prepare for stress
Glycolysis
________ is the first stage of glucose metabolism. 
The branch of science dealing with the functions of the parts of the body is
physiology
Articular (joint) Capsule
Surrounds a synovial joint, encloses the synovial cavity, and unites the articulating bones. Composed of two layers, outer fibrous membrane and an inner synovial membrane.
String-like chordae tendineae:
attach valve cusps to papillary muscles
 
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Origin: Tibia lateral condyle and fibula; to phalanges II-V
 
Action: Dorsi flexes and everts foot, extends digits II-V
Cartilaginous joints
bones united by cartilage, no joint cavity.  two types:  synchondroses and symphyses
midsagittal/median plane
a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides
erythropoietin
a hormone released by the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production
Which of the following secrete hydrochloric acid?
 
mucous cells
parietal cells
chief cells
serosa cells
chyme cells
 
2. parietal cells
encapsulated
enclosed in a capsule, as with benign tumors
Diabetes insipidus
A medical condition in which excessive urine production results from inadequate secretion or action of antidiuretic hormone. A medical condition in which excessive urine production results from inadequate secretion or action of antidiuretic hormone.
Gastric glands
The tubular glands of the stomach whose cells produce acid, enzymes, intrinsic factor, and hormones.
Columnar cells
Epithelial cells that are tall and column shaped.
A group of tissues designed to perform a specific function.
Organ
What is anabolism?
Enzyme activity making proteins from amino acids or hemoglobin
causes of edema
heart failure, liver failure, kidney failure, inflammation
Transmembrane protein
proteins that extend all the way through the membrane
distal
a particular body part is farther from the point of attachment or father from the trunk than another part
- is the longest, heaviest, and strongest bone of the body.
Femur (thighbone)
Digestive System
Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells, indigestivle foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.
Osteoblast Chp 6
A bone-producing cell; produces bone matrix for the growth or repair of bones
3. Responsiveness
Ability to sense changes in the environment and then respond to them.
length-tension relationship
the amount of tension a muscle develops depends on the length of the muscle before stimulation
aldosterone
a hormone produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland, instrumental in the regulation of sodium and potassium reabsorption by the cells of the tubular portion of the kidney.
What bones do not usually have a diaphysis or epiphysis?
flat bones
The Two Types of Isotonic Contractions
Concentric (pulling towards), Eccentric (lowering something slowly or too much weight to handle).
Venous drainage:
route by which blood leaves an organ, blood leaving capillaries collects small veins merge form larger veins. lead great cardiac veins drain anterior aspect of heart, middle cardiac vein collects blood posterior aspect of heart.
three types of cells in bone
osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes
dense irregular connective tissue
a dense connective tissue with collagen fibers running in random directions; durable, hard to tear; withstands stresses applied in unpredictable directions
These are located inferior to the prostate on either side of the membranous urethra within the deep muscles of the perineum
 

bulbourethral glands
seminal vesicles
ejaculatory ducts
urethral ducts
1. bulbourethral glands
Extrinsic nerves
Nerves from outside the GI tract that innervate neurons of the enteric nervous system or other gut structures.
What is systemic physiology?
includes all aspects of the functioning of specific organ systems
Composition of Plasma
liquid portion of blood -serum remains after plasma clots
Cardiac Muscle:

Sympathetic Effect
Increase heart rate and force of contraction
when a dendrite is stimulated what is it called?
graded potential
Oxytocin—a) Its target organs are the __________ and ______________.
uterus and mammary glands
animal with testes remaining in the abdominal cavity
cryptorchidsm/elephant, whale, birds
what are the specific functions of epithelial cells?
-protection (skin)
-secretion (sweat glands)
-absorption (intestinal mucosa)
Which of the following bones make up the pectoral girdle:(A) clavicle & scapulaB) sternum & clavicle (C) scapula & humerus (D) humerus & clavicle.
clavicle and scapula
Cardiac muscle cells (myocytes):
differ from skeletal muscles they r short, thick, braching cells that have one nucleus.
What is (ER) Endoplasmic Reticulum?
an organelle that forms connecting sacs and canals and carries protein from one area to another through the cytoplasm. Rough ER and Smooth ER. Ribosome are attached to the Rough ER and receives and transports newly made proteins whereas the Smooth ER makes new membrane for the cell.
axial skeleton
consists of the head, neck & trunk (or torso, which includes the thorax, abdomen & pelvis)
What is repolarization?
When the H gates close (no more sodium coming in) and the potassium ions rush out.
Vesicular transport
- the movement of a material by small membrane-bound spheres (vesicles).
In the Thyroid gland c) The stimulus for secretion of thyroxine and T3 is ____________ from the ______________.
TSH, anterior pituitary
what organs does the abdominal cavity contain?
stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys
when can the membrane not respond to any further stimulation?
-absolute refractory period-(during depolarization) -when sodium channels are still open-no matter HOW strong, the membrane wont respond
Lateral to the base of the uvula in the mouth, this muscular fold runs posteriorly down the lateral sides of the soft palate to the pharynx
 
uvula
palatoglossal arch
palatopharyngeal arch
parotid glands
sublingual glands
 
3. palatopharyngeal arch
How many bacteria are in the rumen fluid?
10-50 billion per mL
enter diaphysis through perforating (Volkmann’s) canals and service the periosteum and outer compact bone.
Periosteal arteries and veins, as well as nerves,
pH and pH scale
A symbol of the measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. The pH scale extends from 0 to 14, with a value 7 being neutral. Values lower than 7 are acidic; values higher than 7 are alkaline(basic)
what is anaerobic respiration (glycolysis)?-what is the yield?-what occurs?-from where is glucose obtained?-where is pyruvic acid transferred?
-one of 3 pathways that produce ATP-2 ATP molecules-catabolism of glucose into ATP and pyruvic acid-blood stream OR from breakdown of glycogen stores in muscle (within glycosomes)-into Kreb's cycle during aerobic respiration
 
 
 
MENINGES OF THE SPINAL CORD
* The spinal cord and brain are enclosed by 3 fibrous connective tissue membranes called meninges(membrane)
*These membranes separate the soft tissue of the CNS from the bones of the vertebrae & skull
1.Dura mater (tough+mother)-forms a loose fitting sleeve called the dural sheath around the spinal cord. It is a tough collagenous membrane
 Epidural space(not sure if we learned this)-space between the sheath & vertebral bones and is occupied by blood vessels, adipose tissue, and loose connective tissue
2.Arachnoid mater(resemblance of a spider web)-adheres to the dural sheath and consists of the arachnoid membrane,adhering inside of the dura, and a loose mesh of collagenous & elastic fibers spanning the gap between the arachnoid membrane & the pia mater
This gap is called the subarachnoid space-which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-a clear liquid
3. Pia mater(soft,tender)- a delicate, translucent membrane that closely contours the spinal cord. It continues beyond the medullary cone as a fibrous strand
 
What is the relative refractory period?
An stimulus can generate a second action potential but only with a suprathreshhold stimulus. (more than -55 mV)
Vertebral column. Chp 6 pg 123
The vertebral column is made of individual bones called vertebrae. They are 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral fused into 1 sacrum, and 4 to 5 small coccygeal vertebrae fused into 1 coccyx.
Describe how the skin helps the body maintains homeostasis when body temperature drops below normal.
arrector pili muscles contract causing the body to shiver which produces heat and the blood vessels constrict
What are 3 things that protect the brain?
The skull, the meninges, the cerebrospinal fluid.
List three types of cartilage and where they might be found
1. Elastic: external ear, nose and aorta
2. Fibrous: mandibular synthesis, pelvic, meniscus and stifle
3. Hyaline: where bones meet at the joint
What is the correct pathway for conduction of an action potential through the heart?
SA node, AV node, AV bundle, bundle branches, purkinje fibers
Explain the role of Vitamin C in regulating bone growth
- needed for synthesis of collagen and for differentiation of osteoblasts into osteocytes.
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