high middle ages terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Beginning of...
brotherhoods
Danes invade England
1016
commune
association, townspeople experience difficulty in obtaining priveleges
Romansque
Populiar Cathedral Architectural design
Places to know
(Clermont, Jerusalem, Constatinople, Italy, Antioch)
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Holy war
What does "Crusade" mean?
reconquista
weakening of muslim power and beginning of christian conquest, sacred mission to many christian rulers
Capetians
established by Hugh Capet., French Dynasty, strong feudal monoarchy
Frederick 1
Hohenstaufen Dynasty; Gained economic control of Northern Italy
vernacular
the everyday speech of the people
Battle of Agincourt
England wins and takes Normandy
commercial capitalism
economic system in which people invested trade and goods to make profits; started new trading companies/banking firms
Franciscans
founded by Francis of Assisi. Francis took on a life of simplicity and wandered the countryside speaking of God, reparing churches & serving the poor, lame, & blind. Francis drew men & women to follow him. they rejected wealth (it was a source of corruption) & served the poor.
1076
Gregory VII issues his Dictatus Papae against Lay Investiture
Holy Land
Where christians believe Jesus lived and preached.
Second Estate
Which estate were the great lords?
crusades
the group of battles to retrieve Jerusalem for the Christians.
master
master of a trade; taught apprentices and worked with journeymen; member of a guild
Which king was more interested in fighting in the Crusades than being a king?
King Richard
Papal Inquisition
put heretics on trial and punished them if they would not give up their heretical beliefs
Frederick Barbossa
emperor known as "Barbossa" because it meant "Red Beard" . He dreamed of an empire from the Baltic to the Adriatic, didn't achieve it. Trying to get it, he fought rich Northern Italy cities for many years. They won because they had the pope with his Lombard League. Fred also arranged a marriage for his son, Henry, and the heiress of Sicily, Constance.
Exocommunication
Censure by which person is deprived of receiving sacraments of church
Limited Monarchy
A government in which the monarch (king or queen) does not have complete power
Dante Alighieri
italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy- describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise
What was the name of the tax which nobles could pay to avoid military service?
scutage
Pope Urban II
Gave the Church highly centralized and efficient administrative system
Second Crusade
a Crusade from 1145 to 1147 that failed because of internal disagreements among the crusaders and led to the loss of Jerusalem in 1187
Concordat of Worms
This treaty declared that the church had the sole power to elect and invest bishops with spiritual authority.
Inquisition
What was the movement to get rid of heretics in Spain called?
Hundred Years war
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
three field system?
1 grain, 1 fallow, nitrogen producing crop (winter rie).
Pope Leo IX (9th)
Leader in the reformation of the church, insisted that popes could only be appointed boy church officals know as Cardinals
Benifice / Fief
grant of land given to followers of nobles for loyal service
How did King Henry II weaken his nobles?
by destroying their castles
results of the crusades
trade & spread of ideas, rise of industry, rise of banking, advancement of knowledge, rise of strong national governments
King Harald Hardrada of Norway invades England
Godwinson defeats Harald at the battle of Stamford Bridge on September 25, 1066
Excommunication
Harsh penalty
1st crusade
successful crusade
Gregory VII
Dies in exile
manorialism
economic system without urban trade
Common Law
(what, why, how)
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scholasticism
a medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason
romanesque
cathedrals built in this truly international style, found in germany, built in rectangular shape
secularism
secular opinion or belief, especially a system following a political or social philosophy that doesnt involve or acknowledge religious faith
indulgences
Attached to relics; brought remission of time spent in purgatory
market economy
an economy where individuals controlled events pertaining to land, labor, and capital.
alexander nevsky
prince of novgorod, defeated german army, cooperation with mongols earned him title of grand prince
Eleanor of Aquitaine
french ruler, encouraged chivalry, major influence
Quarantine
isolation to prevent the spread of infectious disease
Schollasticism.
A used reason to support christian believers.
copetians
count of paris who increased royal power, made throne hereditary
Clermont
the location of Pope Urban II's meeting with feudal nobles of France in 1095.
interdict
the pope's order for priests to withhold sacraments and services in an area
Jury
group of men swron to speak the truth
Knights Oath
to defend the church, widows, orphans, the weak, and to uphold the good and defeat evil. Chivalry is the main code followed Around the age of 21 Is when you became a full-fledged knight
Albrecht Direr
a woodcut artist
"The Four Horseman of the Apocalypse"
Black death
A deadly disease that was raging through Italy.
1192
When did King Richard and Saladin sign a truce over the battle at Jerusalem?
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king, burned at the stake
During the 14th century, what deadly pandemic hit Europe?
The Black Plague
Battle of Hastings
October 14, 1066. William and the Normans defeat the Anglo-Saxon army.
Jerusalem
A city in the Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christians, Muslims, and Jews.
king louis XI
made a more efficient government
with high taxes
(Model)Parliament
What was the name of the group that King Edward summoned to come to an agreement about taxing?
William of Normandy
landed on coast of England and defeated king Harold at the battle of Hastings. took a census known as Domesday book, became king of england
Guilds
Guilds were the cause of much of th eeconomical success within Europe during the middle ages. Guild members within the organization all had the same occupation. One of the primary functions of the guilds was to prevent competition between the workers, and to set a standard for their products quality, and their products price. Guilds were also used to teach children in their craft. There was a mass demand to become merchants, ever since the Crusades ended, when they no longer needed as many farmers. Guilds were the reason for the economical success in the Middle ages, and set the standards for most workers.
Anglo saxon rule is Restored
By King Edward the Confessor (1042-1066)
Philip Augustus
He became King of France in 1179. He granted charles to many new town and introduced a new national tax. He also quadrupled royal land holdings.
phillip IV
taxed clergy to pay for a war; after much conflict with the Pope, he called the Estates General to request support
The Albigensian Crusades
1209, lasting for 20 years. As many as a million perished.
Holy Roman Empire
In 962 the Saxon king Otto I was crowned emperor of the Romans. With this title he was able to lay claim to a new Roman Empire, which in reality was the land of the eastern Franks.
The Hundred Years' War
What was the name of the war in which King Edward III invaded France, claiming the throne was his own?
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