Anatomy Physiology Terms 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
dioisotopes
unstable isotopes
patellar
kneecap area
inguinal
groin region
pubic
genital area
cervical
neck region
sulfur
symbol - S
adenohypophysis
anterior pituitary gland
cation
positively charged ion
anion
negatively charged ion
scapular
shoulder blade area
chemistry
the study of matter
anterior
or
ventral
toward the front
 
belly surface
popliteal
area behind the knee
peripheral
away from the center
oral
pertaining to the mouth
electrons
carry a negativr electrical charge
mechanical energy
energy that causes movement
 
ex: movement of legs running, walking; contraction of heart muscle, causing movement of blood
phosphate
symbol - PO34_
 
function - component of bones & teeth
 
component of ATP (energy)
iodine
symbol - I
 
a trace element
iron
symbol - Fe2+
 
function - component of hemoglobin (oxygen transport)
compound
substance that forms two or more chemical elements (differing atoms)
 
ex: wather (H2O)
bicarbonate
symbol - HCO3_
 
function - important in acid-base regulation
zinc
symbol - Zn
 
a trace element
selenium
symbol - Se
 
a trace element
digital
referring to fingers & toes
diaphragm
dome-shaped skeletal muscle that separates the thoracic & abdominal cavities
 
it is the cheif muscle of inspiration (inhalation)
acid
substance that denotes or releases hydrogen ions when it ionizes in water
alkalosis
imbalance associated with a decrease in H+ concentration & an increase in blood pH >7.45
 
There is a respiratory alkalosis & metabolic alkalosis
carbon
symbol - C
 
18.5% of body weight
chloride
symbol - Cl-
 
function - primary extracellular anion
enzyme
organic catalyst
 
it speeds of the rate of a chemical reaction
 
when proteins perform the role of catalysts
electrolyte
forms into ions when dissolved in water
 
capable of conducting electrical current
organic chemistry
the study of carbon-containing substances
antecubital
AC area
front part of the elbow
homeostatic mechanisms
mechanisms that help maintain homeostasis
 
such mechanisms include: teperature control, blood sugar control, water balance, BP regulation, & regulation of plasma sodium levels
solvent
substance in which the solute is dissolved or mixed
matter
anything that occupies space & has weight
 
may occur as solid, liquid, or gas
 
can undergo physical & chemical changes
mixture
combination of 2 two or more substances that can be separated by ordinary physical means
 
When separated, the substances retain their original properties.
pH
a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration
 
a measurement that indicates how many H+ are in a solution
suspension
mixture in which the large particles gradually settle to the bottom unless continuously shaken or agitated
potasium
symbol - K+
 
function - nerve & muscle function; chief intracellular cation
acidosis
imbalance caused be excess H+ which causes the blood pH to decrease below 7.35
 
there is respiratory acidosis & metabolic acidosis
lateral
away from the midline of the body
organ
group of tissues that performs a specialized function, such as the lungs
endocrine system
consists of numerous glands that secrete hormones & chemical substances which regulate body activities
 
such as: growth, reproduction, metabolism, & water balance
ionic bond
caused by a transfer of electrons between atoms
covalent bond
bond or attraction formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms
element
- substance composed of only one kind of atom
- a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler form by ordinary chemical reaction
- all matter, living or dead, are composed of "these"
- 4 ________ make up 96% of the body weight: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, & nitrogen
trace elements
elements that are presented in tiny amounts
 
despite the tiny amounts "these" are essential to life
skeletal system
forms the basic framework of the body
 
consists primarily of bones, joints, & cartilage
 
protects & supports body organs
reproductive system
consists of organs & structures that enable humans to reproduce
urinary system
consists of kidneys & other structures that help excrete waste products through the urine
 
helps control the amount & composition of water & other substances in the body
respiratory system
consists of lungs & other structures that conduct air to & from lungs
 
oxygen-rich air moves into lungs
 
CO2-rich air (waste) moves out of lungs
digestive system
consists of organs designed to eat food, break it down into substances that can be absorbed by the body, & eliminate the waste
flank
fleshy area along the side between the ribs & hip bone
chemical reaction
a process where the atoms of molecules or compounds interact to form new chemical combinations
aqueous solution
if water is the solvent, then the solution is referred to as "this"
adominopelvic cavity
part of the ventral cavity that lies inferior to the diaphragm
 
includes upper adominal cavity & lower pelvic cavity
dorsal cavity
body cavity that is located toward the back part of the body
 
divided into the cranial cavity & the spinal (vertabral) cavity
transverse plane
plane that divides the body into top (superior) & bottom (inferior) parts
thoracic cavity
upper part of the ventral cavity that superior to the diaphragm
 
it is filled largely by the lungs & heart
 
surrounded by the rib cage
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