Anatomy Physiology Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Carbominohemoglobin
HbCO2
hidden
crypt-
hard
scler-
toward
af-
thymus
thym-
frontal
forehead
aden/o
gland
large
macro-
Thoracic
Chest
Marfan Syndrome
left atrium
LA
surgical removal
-ectomy
presence of
-um
centimeter
c, cm
mental
the chin
Bone cells
Osteocytes
a-
without, lack of
without an opening
-astresia
central nervous system
CNS
charcoal, coal, carbon
carb/o-
twice per day
(q2)bid
PNS: Preganglion Neurons
Parasympathetic
Ach
serratus anterior
throws punch
diaphysis
shaft of long bone
Erythrocytes:
circulate for 120 days
cardiomegaly
enlargement of the heart
ventral
pertaining to the belly
Universal donor
O Blood type
PNS: Ganglion
Sympathetic
Paravertebral & Prevertebral
Also called milk teeth
Temporary
Sternocleidomastoid
Origin sternum, clavicle
Insertion mastoid process
Action flex and rotate head
Aditus
"aditus laryngis"
 
entry way into larynx  from above
-anterior border is epiglottis
-lateral border is aryepiglottic folds
-posterior border is membrane covering of the arytenoids 
 
Temporalis
Origin: Temporal, frontal, parietal bone to coronoid process of mandible
 
Action: Elevates and retracts mandible
adenoma
a tumor of a gland
Calmodulin
Calcium-binding protein that mediates intracellular effects of calcium ions.
Auricles
Increase blood-holding capacity of the atria
Proton
positively charged subatomic particles found in the nucleus
fibular
the side of the leg
Also called high mountain disease
Brisketts
Dense Elastic Connective Tissue
Location
intervertebral discs
vocal cords
wall of aorta
 
Function
stretch without deforming
Tibialis anterior
Origin tibia,
Insertion metatarsals,
Action dorsiflex
epiphyseal line
indicates bone growth has ended
Vascular spasm:
most immediate protection against blood loss; prompt constriction of broken vessel is triggered by nervous impluses (pain pathway), by injury to smooth muscle w/ the vessel wall, and by serotonin (vasoconstrictor) from platelets.
Transverse abdominis
Origen: posterior thoracolumbar fascia of abdominal aponeurosis Insertion: lateral to ribs 6-12, transverse abdominal aponeurosis, pubis Innervation: spinal intercostal, T7-T12 Function: compress abdomen
plane joints
nonaxial joints, flat articular surfaces, and short gliding movements
hemophilia
excessive bleeding caused by a congenital lack of one or more of the factors necessary for blood clotting; treatment of hemophilia is directed at replacing the missing clotting factors to control and prevent bleeding
hypertrophy
enlargement of an organ attributable to an increase in the size of the individual constituent cells
Countertransport
A secondary active transport process in which two or more substances move through the plasma membrane in opposite directions. Most commonly, one of the substances is the sodium ion.
histology
branch of microscopic anatomy that studies tissues
Sympathetic Adrenal
Release Neurotransmitters into the bloodstream where they act as hormones
Semilunar Valves
CONTROL FLOW INTO GREAT ARTERIES-pulmonary: right ventricle into pulmonary trunk-aortic: from left ventricle into aorta
Functions of epithelium
protection, absorption, secretion, excretion
Cyclin
- dependent protein kinases (Cdks)- proteins that stimulate replication of DNA, or prophase to begin.
prophase
stage of mitosis; chromatin threads coil & shorten to form densely staining, short, bar-like chromosomes;
Chemical bonds
sharing of electrons between atoms
Acell membrane which surrounds cell muscles
Sarcolemma
radium
a highly radioactive metallic element whose decay yields radon gas and alpha rays.
Long bones
These bones are longer than wide.
ION
PARTICLES THAT CARY EITHER A POSSITIVE (+) OR NEGATIVE (-) CHARGE
what do neurotransmitters/neurohormones communicate with?
-neuron, muscle, or gland-happens through axonal terminals "secretory zone"
Hyoid Bone
-linkage between tounge and laryngeal structures not in larynx
-horse shoe shape
-not connected to any other bone that sits in muscular sling
-unpaired
-corpus=main part in front
.greater cornu-longer project laterally toward back
.lesser cornu-travel superiorly
 
can be moved back or forward and down 
________ cells are the receptors for taste buds
GUSTATORY
goblet cell
the only unicellular exocrine gland. Goblet cells produce mucus in digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts
Golgi Apparatus
little bubbles/sacs break off the smooth ER and carry new proteins and other compounds to the sacs of the Golgi Apparatus and allow both to mingle."packaging center" Golgi Apparatus processes the molecules from the ER and packages them into little vesicles that break away and move outward the plasma membrane
skeletal muscle
striated voluntary muscle, almost all of which is attached to the bones
photoreceptor
a sensory receptor that detects light; located in the retina of the eye
angiography
a procedure in which a radiopaque substance in injected into the bloodstream and then radiographs are taken; used to determine the condition of blood vessels
Hypocalcemia
A concentration of calcium in the extracellular fluid less than 9 mg/dL.
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)
An adenine-containing nucleotide to which a phosphate group has been added.
Glucoamylase
Digestive enzyme in the brush border that breaks down maltose and maltotriose.
Fibrous tissues that have the ability to stretch and contract according to the demands of the body's movement.
Muscles
muscular system
produces body movement and generates heat
in immune reactions- often in viral infections
lymphocytes
femoral artery emerges behind the knee becoming the
popliteal artery
The breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones, releases energy
Catabolism
Linkers
- anchor proteins of neighboring cells to each other or they anchor filaments to the plasma membrane.
pubic symphysis
joint @ front of the pelvis
Iron
(Fe) Trace Element. Part of hemoglobin in red blood cells; transports oxygen. Part of myoglobin in muscles; stores oxygen. Part of mitochondria in cells; necessary for celll respiration.
Survival Needs
1. Nutrients2. Oxygen3. Water4. Normal Body Temp5. Atmospheric Pressure
Cellular organelle which functions in the collection of fluid
Pinocytic vesicles
mediastinum
a median septum or partition between two parts of an organ, or paired cavities of the body.
Gomphoses
These are joints that attach the teeth to the bony alveoli of the jaw bones. 
Vastus medialis (Quadraceps femoris)
Origin femur
Insertion patella ligament
Action extend knee
The structure of a lymphatic vessel is most similar to that of a(an):
vein
What are elements composed of?
Tiny particles called atoms.
LAYERS FORMING THE WALL OF THE EYEBALL (OUTSIDE---> IN)
FIBROUS
VASCULAR
SENSORY
adipose tissue
a specialized form of loose fibrous tissue taht provides inslation; it is commonly called fat
What is Compound?
substances whose molecules have more than one element in them
loose connective tissue
a fibrous connective tissue with loosely organized, widely spaced fibers and cells and an abundance of fluid-filled space; otherwise known as areolar tissue
elasticity
the capacity to recoil or return to the original shape and length after contraction or extension
bronchopulmonary segment
portion of a lung surrounding a tertiary, or segmental, bronchus; lobule of the lung
molecule
a particle composed of two or more atoms that are chemically bound together;smallest unit of a compound
Complete tetanus
The condition in which rapid multiple stimulations cause the contraction/relaxation cycles to fuse into a total contraction without evidence of any cyclical relaxation.
what region is the pes in?
the pedal region
Reverses a change in a controlled environment.
Negative Feedback
Functions of monocytes
increase in viral infections and inflammation-differentiate into macrophages
Diffusion of a substance through a cell membrane that requires the assistance of a "helper", or carrier protein is called:
Facilitated diffusion
Vagotomy
cutting of the vagus (X) nerve - frequently done to decrease the production of hydrochloric acid in persons with ulcers
Muscle consisting of smooth muscle cells is associated with each hair
Arrector pili muscle
Origin. Chp 7
The more stationary attachment point of a muscle to a bone.
Transverse plane
divides body into cranial and caudal parts.
percussion
the striking or tapping of the surface of a part of the body for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Aerobic or anerobic
What type of metabolism does skeletal muscle have? 
List the components of filtrate.
water, amino acids, electrolytes, glucose, waste
Epiphyses
The proximal and distal ends of a long bone.
HAIRS OF THE MACULEA ARE IMBEDDED IN THE _______ _______
OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE
Nonaxial range of motion
found in synovial joints, slipping movements only
Squamos Epithelial Tissue:
Thin plate like or scale like cells.
lymphangiogram
a procedure in which a dye is injected into lymph vessels in the foot and radiographs are taken to show the path of lymph flow as it moves into the chest region
Citric acid cycle
The Krebs cycle, a major metabolic pathway within the mitochondrion that yields carbon dioxide, small amounts of ATP, and reduced coenzymes that enter the oxidative phosphorylation pathway.
What is gross anatomy?
Anatomy on a macroscopic level, involves the examination of relatively large srtuctures
if the aorta is damaged the breathing muscles can still recieve blood by way of the
thoracic arteries
Metaphase:
- chromosomes line up in a single row along the middle (equator)of the cell.
Physiology
Study of the function of the parts of the body's structural machinery
The stimulus for secretion of estrogen is __________ from the ___________.
FSH, anterior pituitary
condyle
the smooth surface area at the end of a bone, forming part of a joint.
Stratum Granulosum
how many layers?
contains what?
-"granular" made of 3-5 layers of cells that are alive but organelles are degenerating
 
-contains 2 types of granule producing cells: keratinocytes and lamellar bodies
what is excitatory postsynaptic potential? (EPSP)
-a neurotransmitter binding to its receptor causes ion channels that allow depolarization to open-membrane becomes more positive on the inside and is brought closer to threshold -mostly associated with chemically-gated sodium channels
WHAT PART OF THE EAR IS INVOLVED IN HEARING ONLY?
EXTERNAL EAR
Types of bones:
1. long 2. short 3. flat 4. irregular
What are the 3 major organs of the cardiovascular system?
HeartBloodBlood Vessels
bladder infection usually shows these in the UA
white cells and often blood
- process that articulates with the clavicle.
Scapula (shoulder blade): Acromion
Tetanus. Chp 7
1. A sustained contraction of a muscle fiber in responce to rapid nerve impulses,' the basis for all useful movements. 2. a disease characterized by several muscle spasms
what are dermal papillae?
-found on palms and soles and form "fingerprints"
-part of papillary layer of dermis
Colles' Bone Fracture
A fracture of the distal end of the radius in which the distal fragment is displaced posteriorly.
acid base balance
situation in which the pH of the blood is maintaned between 7.35 and 7.45
Name all 5 deep facial bones:
- Palatine (2)- Inferior Nasal Conchae (2)- Vomer (1)
Bone Surface Markings
Processes at joints:

head
rounded articular projection at the end of a bone
At birth, ossification of these bones is not complete. In long bones, growth occurs at the sites of the ____________, which are made of cartilage.
epiphyseal discs. Chapter 6 WB
what is a true statement about the esophagus
it is a collapsible tube
Name 3 types of muscular tissue.
1. Striated - Voluntary2. Non Striated - Involuntary3. Cardiac
Active transport (requires energy)
- the cell uses energy to move a chemical from a lower concentration to a higher concentration (against its concentration gradient) through a transporter protein.
2. Cortisol—Has many target organs and tissues, the functions of which 1 Increases the use of ___________ and ____________ for energy production. 2 Decreases the use of ___________ for energy, so that this energy source is available for use by brain cel
2. a) 1) amino acids, fats
2) glucose
what is the terminal ganglion?
-origin of the ganglia is close to or in the effector organ in the parasympathetic division
Discuss the following function of the skeletal system

Mineral homeostasis
- stores some minerals and releases them into the blood when needed.
The systemic effects of a burn include all of the following except:
the direct damage to an epithelial layer
where are most nerve cell bodies located?
in the CNS and protected by the cranium and the vertebrae
What are the 3 main roles of the Na+/k+ ATPase pump?
1) actively kicks some Na+ out of cell
2) actively pulls some in K+ to inside the cell
3) maintains differential concentration gradients for Na+ and K+ (they STORE ENERGY for nerve and muscle cell formation)
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