Hinduism Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Brahmin
Priests
Avidya
Ignorance
avatara
incarnates
Agnicayana
Ritual w/fire
Dhyana
Meditation deep
puja
Hindu temples
yajna
vedic sacrifice
Ahimsa
non violence
Montheism
one god
The Creator
Brahma's role
Prakirti
nature and matter
millions
how many gods
Hindu followers
900 million
dyaus pitr
sky god
Hindu Trinity
Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva
Prasad
Food offerings to dieties
forest-dweller
3rd stage of life
Arjuna
the greatest pandava warrior
Varna
Hindu word for caste
Hanuman
Monkey God Devotee of Rama
Atman
eternal self identified with brahman
Vishnu
protector, sustainer (Rama and Krishna)
Vedas
sacred text; to see clearly
shiva
the Destroyer, represents evolution, destroys so new life can be created
bhakti yoga
yoga of loving devotion
Chandogya Upanisad: Dates around 600 BCE
TBD
Monism
philosophical belief in one impersonal ultimate reality (in contrast to one personal god)
Smriti
Meaning remembered texts in contrast to the heard texts
Lakshmi
associated with Vishnu
goddess of prosperity, good fortune and beauty
Brahman
essence of divinity, divinity is everyone and everyone is connected, universal breath
samadhi
a trancelike state in which self-consciousness is lost and the mind is absorbed into ultimate reality
Brahma
feminine god- creative force of life
dalits/untouchables
the "oppressed"; in India, people assigned to the lowest social class
harappa
indus valley civilization that shows archeological evidence of hindu like practice
Sudra
Lowest group in the Caste system, which included craftworkers and laborers. This caste did not have to wear sacred threads, and they were allowed to enter temples.
Veda
Literally "truth" - in Hinduism, each new holy text added to the Hindu set of texts
Ascetic
A person who rejects society and material comforts to attain spiritual insight.
Yugas
Ages of man, or segments of time
avatar
incarnation of a god (takes on human/animal form)
yantras
linear image with cosmic symbolism - concentrate on yantras to elevate mind
Ganges River
final destination to journey of enlightenment
Guru
-In Hinduism, a spiritual teacher or guide who instructs his followers on the path to liberation
smrti
category of hindu sacred writings that includes all that is not shurti
Nirvana
The release of the soul from the seemingly endless cycle of rebirths; salvation though the union of Atman and Brahma.
Karma
Moral consequence - e.g. good ______ = follow Dharma, bad ______ = away from Dharma
Kali Yuga
The CURRENT age of man, final age
Common Beliefs
millions of gods and goddesses
cycle of rebirth
sacredness of life
the caste system
the four stages of life
Sankhya
a system of Hindu philosophy and one approach within Jnana Marga asserting that reality comprises two distinct categories: matter and eternal selves
sudras
the second lowest of the five castes in the Indian social system and were not twice born; consisted of peasants and artisans which was most of the Indian population
non dualism/monism
sankara vedanta of radical non dualism and a formal monastic system for sannyasins
Holy Men (Brahmin)
The highest level in the Caste System
Swami Vivekanada
Universalist - for the unity of all religions, established vedanta Society in NYC, 1894
jnana marga
one of three Hindu paths to salvation; emphasizing knowing the true nature of reality through learning and meditation
polytheism
belief in a divine world of many gods and spiritual forces
Creation of Hinduism
The mix between the religions of the Aryans and the people of the Indus Valley
student, house holder, aging, samadhi
4 stages of life for men
how do you get into the wheel of life
no one knows
samnyasin
renouncer
Moksha
Liberation Relese
sadhu
Hindu holyman
prithivi
earth goddess
Advaita
Non- Dualism
14th cycle
Current cycle
Trimuturi
THREE FORM DIVINITy
vaisya
commoners,merchants, and artisans
Mantra
Form of Hindu prayer
Kshatriya
Rulers, warriors, administrators organizers, REWARDED WITH POWER
student
1st stage of life
Agni
Hindu god of fire
jnana yoga
realizaton/liberation through transcendental knowledge
orthodoxy
correct belief and doctrines
kama
pleasure, sensual, aesthetic and physical enjoyment, SUTRA
house holder
2nd stage of life
samsara
wheel of birth and rebirth
Hindi
language spoken by the people
caste system
born into it
ex: Brahma
sankara
influentrial hindu philospher of radical non dualism
Chandogya Upanisad
One of the primary Upanisads
Pranayama
BREATHING breath control, CALMING THE MIND, increasing spiritual energy
jiva
container that the soul is in
pandavas
5 brothers called the pandava princes
yoga
disciplined meditation that lends to correct insight or wisdom
Puranas
A collection of Hindu legends and folklore.
Untouchables
The very lowest level of social grouping that's off the charts of the Caste System
Bhagavad Gita
Small part of Mahabharata where krishna appears as a wise sage giving advice to Arjuna
upanishads
most used today, speaks of samsara, relationship of brahman and Atman
Philisophical Hinduism
Upanishads, focused on vedas, used jnana yoga to reach moksha
ghats
Steps or a landing on a river
Castes
social groups into which people are born and cannot change
Artha
skill, know how, money: to develop ones professional abilities
dharma sastras
compendiums on social structure and moral duty
Non-violent protest
What type of protest did Gandhi use?
What two groups formed Hinduism
Indes Valley and Aryan
OM
symbol of sound of creation, made to commune with the cosmic sound vibration
hare krshna
mov't that allow members to publically dance, clash cymbols, and chant a mantra to krshna as bhakti
the four stages of life
pursuing sacred knowledge, householder, forest dweller, abandoning
Farmers/land owners/merchants
The third highest level in the Caste System
Holi
this HIndu holy day is also called the festival of color.
Rig-Veda
The oldest of the vedas - praises the devas
golden temple
honors the spot where it is believed that shaiva pierced the earth with a colossal shaft of light to prove his superiority
sacred thread ceremony
males of the twice born classes, particularily brahmins, traditionally between the ages 8-13 are given a mantra to repeat and loop of sacred thread to wear over their left shoulders
All of them
What type of religion is Hinduism out of monotheistic, polytheistic, and pantheistic?
Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads or Vedanta
These texts came after the Vedas and were a sort of commentary
chandala
untouchables
Bhakti
devotion
karma-yoga
work
Warrior
Sixth Avatara
Rajahs
Indian Chiefs
shruti
discovered knowledge
ashram
spiritual community
Harappa/aryan
means noble
Brahma (God)
God: creator
Madhva
13th century philosopher
Mahatma
means "great souled"
Ramlila
Festival celebrating Ramlila
your true self
Maya
Indra
Warrior and storm god
sannyasin
a wandering holy man
Varnas
four division of society
Kirpan
knife or dagger, symbolic
Dharma
Religious or moral duty.
riencarnation
the process of rebirth
maharishi manesh yogi
established transcental meditaion
samskaras
life-cycle rituals, performed at birth, marriage, and death
Upanisads
internal sacrifice, anyone whose devoted can perform
avatars
earthly manifestations of the deity
the aryans fought the ______________
dasas
Does Indian(of India) government support Hindu belief?
No.
Maya
illusion;the delusory appearance of the phenomenal world.
Zen
(meditation school) focused on and Indian monk called Bodhidharma said all Buddhist texts are worthless, developed meditation by using word puzzles and creating art under its influence, as well as the tea ceremony (requiring many disciplined steps that must be done in order), and the development of martial arts; Zen teaches everyone has the nature of the Buddha.
brahmanism
The Brahmins interpreted Vedas, and richuals
Animism
Souls exist in humans and animals.
Many Deities
Hinduism is run by what?
Path of Renunciation
1. Duty 2. Moksha
raga
sacred musical composition usually for the sitar and tabla
Sanskrit
ancient Indian language that is language of Hinduism; "perfected"
codification of gods
result of colonialism from British/European (hinduism came from British, British learned frm Brahman wht hinduism is n defines it tht how hindus define themselves <--> like Nicene creed)
Reincarnation
belief that life, death and rebirth are an endless cycle
Vedanta, Sankhya, and Yoga
three schools of philosophy
aranyakas
texts written in forest retreats that explain the meaning behind the sacrifices
dualism
a minority of hindus, esp. Hare Krishnas are dualists, they believe that atman and brahman are two distinct things
Atharva Veda
collection of hymns intended for domestic use
Satyagraha
literally means "truth force," it was Gandhi's name for his non-violent resistance
Rudras
Vedic gods; the terrible gods of storms. Sometimes Rudras are mentioned as a group; at other times they are thought of as a single god, Rudra.
Brahma: the creatorShiva: the destroyerVishnu: the preserver
Bhakti sects emerged
Sati
prohibited on 1829. Wife burned alive in husbands funeral
Gandhi
Was a major political and spiritual leader of India. Was interested in freedom and was opposed by the nationalists.
vaishya
The third Hindu caste, that of the merchants, traders, farmers and craftsmen.
Whose influence rose as the power of Brahmins decreased
gurus
Twice-born
The upper three castes whose males go through a "rebirth" ceremony when they become 12 years old.
Axis age
everything turned in a new direction 800-500 BCE. It was the time of confucius, Buddha, hewbrew prophets and greek philosophers.
daily hindu worship includes
numerous household and community rituals, pilgrimadges to holy places and veneration of cows
what is its ranking of largest religion
3rd largest
Rig Veda
India's oldest text - also contains the Strides of Vishnu myth.
What record does the atman carry with it?
Karma
Soma Veda
Collection of hynms chanted at soma sacrifices
Yogas Sutras of Patanjali 300BCE(yoga derived from yuj, yoke=join)
8step process:
yama(code conduct),niyama(religious observances),asana(posture),pranamaya(breath control),pratyahara(disengagement),dharana([ ]),dhyana(meditation),samadhi(freedom)
Soma and Yajna (Vedic)
Soma: divine presence on earth accessed through hallucinogenic plant infusion
yajna-fire sacrifice to Agni
Mahabharate 2
one of the brothers named Arjuna was the ultimate athlete. he refused to fight because he didnt want to kill any of his brothers or sisters. vishnu tells him there are 4 ways of escaping death. 1) not to fight at all. 2) you can renounce the world meaning go into exile, 3) practice bodily techniques- yoga, and 4) if you love the lord he will love you.
Shaktas (Devotional Group)
worship Shakti or Devi, the Divine Mother (as Lakshmi, Durga, Kali, or another Devi form)
True or False: The Shudras are part of the twice-borns.
FALSE
Monotheism of Exclusion
One and only one God
All other Gods are false
It is evil or a sin to worship other Gods
Ramayana
the story of the hero Ramone of the 2 Epicssmruti
the hittite empire fell in ________, because they were attacked by tribes from the _______ and their ___________ was burned
1190 b.c. north capital city
Mahabharata, Bhagavad Gita
It is is the longest epic poem in the world 100,000 verses. It is translated as "Great India" and is primarily about wars. The the sacred 'song of God' composed about 200 BC
God can appear in different forms through incarnation (human form)
Prince Rama - ideal human, Krishna- god in human form
What is the Way to God through Love?
Bhakti Yoga, the most popular. Atman does not equal Brahman
Embraces an adoration of God with every elemnt of one's being though:
1) Relationships- families, friends, community, country----propels you toward loving God
2) Ishta- worship of one's chosen idol that serves as a medium b/w you and Brahman
What are some of the reasons that Hinduism is misunderstood by many people?
it is a way of life and a religion, it is complex, it is a merging of many historical religions
Symbol
Aum
Mahavakya
...
All-Knowledge
Fourth Tantra
fundamental aims
(purushartha)
dharma
artha
kama
moksha
Devas
male gods
God destruction?
Shiva
Maya&#10;&#10;&#10;&#10;
&#10;&#10;&#8211;Illusion of&#10;reality apart from Brahman.&#10;&#10;&#10;&#10;&#10;&#10;
Brahmacarya
First Asrama: Student
Shivaratri
celebration of Shiva
3rd Stage
Mature self-understanding
lingham
male sex organ
Parvati (Kali)
Shiva's consort
God of preservation?
Vishnu
joy
Vedic (1200-900 BCE)
Kshatriyas
Warriors and rulers
Saivism
Devotion to god siva
Brahmins
priest/ priestess--> intellectuals, spiritual leaders, doctors, lawyers, teachers, etc
Yajar Veda
Second Veda: ritual formula
Parvati
divine mother, wife of Shiva
Sakta
sect the worship "the goddess"
What rock group popularized Transcendental Meditation in the west?
Beatles
________ conquers all of India
magadha
Matrikas
"the mothers"
accompany Durga to battleground
Law of Karma
&#10;&#10;&#8211;law of&#10;harvest, one will reap precisely as one sows, like a cosmic computer&#10;&#10;&#10;&#10;&#10;
Samhitas
&quot;collecions&quot; of the four Vedas.
Eightfold Path
Right belief, aspiration, speech, conduct, means of livelihood, endeavor, mindfulness, meditation
darsana
to see or behold with faith
Kali
the personified anger of Durga
name comes from kala which means black, time, death, lord of death, Shiva
"the black one"
Shiva's consort
goddess of time and change
violent and dark
often seen standing or dancing on Shiva's body
ascetics appease her with meat, alcohol, and sexual substances
emaciated, blood-drinking, and violent form who haunts cremation grounds.
black or blue, garlanded with severed heads, girdled with severed arms, with rolling, intoxicated eyes and a lolling tongue
enjoys much devotion, particularly in Bengal
demands blood sacrifices
considered a "hot" deity in contrast to the "cool"
Paramahamsa Ramakrishna became a priest in her temple and was completely devoted to her
Both Kali and Brahman are different aspects of the same reality
Margas
Hindu 'paths' that lead to salvation
Kesh, Kangha, Kaccha, Kara, Kirpan
5 K's
____________ and ______________ arise at the same time as hinduism
janism buddhism
VHP
an organization of religious leaders founded in 1964 to promote the interests of Hindus
Ambedkar
Indian Dalit; Converted to Buddhism; Leader and Activist
tantra
doctrine of enlightenment as the realization of the oneness of one's self and the visible world
Sarasvati
Chief wife of Brahma
Goddess of speech, art, music, etc
sri chimnoy
organized meditation in UN meeting, ascetic guru
Tibetan Buddhism
(Tantric school), originated in India but took root in Tibet, taught union of male and female deities to overcome the duality of life in samsara and that there were certain magic formula that could be used to channel physical and psychic energy to experience sudden enlightenment; combined with the Bon tribe, mixing beliefs, gods, demons and practices; teaches there are five celestial Buddhas, each points on the compass and one in the center; one can merge with Buddha by fasting and meditation and chanting; at the center are lamas ("superior ones") who possess special magic powers.
Trimurti
The three most important gods: Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva
# of Goals
Four: Kama, Artha, Dharma, Moksha
Yogi
Person who practices some form of yoga.
Allama Prabhu
mystic-saint and Vachana poet (called Vachanakara) of the Kannada language in the 12th century.
patron saint, the undisputed spiritual authority, and an integral part of the Lingayata (lit, "Devotees of the god Para-Shiva or Lingadeva") movement that decisively shaped society in medieval Karnataka and forever changed the contour of popular Kannada poetry.
included among the "Trinity of Lingayatism" along with Basavanna and Akka Mahadevi.
The socio-religious movement they pioneered used poetry (called Vachana Sahitya, lit, "Vachana literature") to criticise mere ritual worship and the caste-based society, and gave importance to moral values and love of mankind. , Allama was the real guru who presided over Virashaiva movement.
worships Shiva
He was a temple drummer and fell in love with a temple dancer, but she died and left him grief stricken until he found a saint in a cave who gave him a linga and this gave him enlightenment.
"lord of the caves"
poetic style has been described as mystic and cryptic, rich in paradoxes and inversions
staunchly against any form of symbolism, occult powers and their acquisition, temple worship, conventional systems and ritualistic practices, and even critical of fellow Veerashaiva devotees and poets.
poems are non-sectarian and some of them even use straight forward language
caste
A traditional way of separating Hindu society along the lines of hereditary status.
Devi
The mother goddess of Hinduism. The worship of this deity encouraged new emotionalism in the religion.
the god who inhabits a mysterious beverage, is said in the vedas to be the drink of the gods
soma
Sarawati
River goddess, confluence is where it meets with Ganga
Goddess of wisdom, learning and music
Seen seated on lotus
Connected with sounds
Associated with school
Yajur Veda
sacraficial formulas, the second veda where brahma took body movements -"abhinaya" for the 5th veda
Aryans
A nomadic group that migrated into India in 1800-1500 BCE, conquered the Dravidians, and began the caste system
named after Brahmins: priestsHinduism became a priestly religion
lots of Gods
ksatriya
the warrior class, the second highest class in the varna system
hindu/indus/india
A family of related beliefs and practices from the indus river valley
Phala
fruits, results of one's action in the world
Kali (Devi)
Goddess of time and change and death
Yamuna
one of the tributaries of the ganges river
Sama Veda
"seeing the unseen", Anals, or stories of Medicine
4 stages of consciousness
1. Waking
2. Dreaming
3. Dreamless Sleep
4. Pure Awareness - consciousness of consciousness
Rama
The seventh avatar of Vishnu; one of the most popular Hindu gods, the model of righteousness. As son of Dasaratha and husband of Sita, he is the great her of Ramayana
Mandala
a diagram that is gazed upon for meditation, composed of concentric shapes and is always symmetrical
Laws of Manu
rules and regulations of hindu social order authorized by the first human being
purusha
One of the two states of reality in Samkhya, purusha is the Self, which is pure, wise, and free beyond change
Strongest Characteristic
It is the most tolerant of all religions
yuga
The term refers to one of the four great ages of Hindu cosmology.
the upanishads are written as a discussion between ________________________________
teacher and student
True
The Yamas and Niyamas seem a kind of ethical system. However, they are motivated by realization of yogic disciplines, viz, disciplining the mind and body to achieve perfect mindfulness.
what is yoga?
method of training to lead to union
What yoga is ascribed to the Path of Knowledge?
Jnana Yoga
seling the bride
familys of the son and daughter arange the marriage; they agree on a dowry
Mandukya Upanishad have 3 aspects and beyond and 4th
1-ordinary waking,2-mental nature turned upon itself ( dreams) 3- deep sleep w/o dream4-oneness unification 1,2,3,4
8 fold yoga (internal)
6. Concentration- most of us very weak in concentration, learn to truly focus on things, must use mediation to help achieve this
7, Mediation, contemplation- sustain concentration and turn it internal, contemplation itself becomes object of concentration
8. Samadhi- pure contemplation trance (understand the connection between purusa and prakrti, purusa is free from false sense of attachement to prakrti, shines by the light of the true self) (when someone understands this they have reached Kaivalya (aloneness, complete seperation, freedom)
Why is Atman not apparent to us?
Eternal self buried beneath surface self.
-Mass distractions
False assumptions- that we can attain hapiness
3 limitations:
1) Physical pain- the fear associated w/ it
2) Thwarting of desires- not having expectations met, we get angry and want to fix it which is a hard habit to break
3) Boredom- if you life out of the 1st two desires you will see it is repetitive.
What are the four stages of life in Hinduism?
Student, Householder, Retirement, and Renunciation
pain and sorrow are caused by ________
the pursuit of false goals such as material riches and personal pleasures
/ 239
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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