Hinduism Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
sanskrit
language
Dalits
Untouchables
nepal
Kathmandu
samsara
reincarnation
Vishnu
preserver
castes
social divisions
Buddha
Enlightened one
ahisma
"non-harm" "non-violence"
dharma
ethical duties
rock edict
...
kama
instinctive pleasure
sadhu
monk, ascetic
Brahma
the creator god
vaisyas
merchants and farmers
Leadership
-Guru
-Holy man
-Brahmin priests
atman
the individual soul
Upanishad
explained Hindu Phyloshophy
Sadhu






–an ascetic
holy man (monk).





Upanishads
sitting near teacher
Vedas
Literally "knowledge", specifically one of the four "shruti" texts that form the basis of Hindu literatureBra
2 caste
Kshatriya- Warrior noble
Sita
the wife of Rama
What are Brahmins.
the priest
Agni
Hindu god of fire
3 Trimurtis
Brahma (creator)
Visnu (preserver)
Siva (destroyer)
Veda Vyasa
Author of the Vedas
Harappa
civilization Hinduism developed out of
Devi
Goddess "Great Mother" Divine feminine
nonviolence
The avoidance of violent actions
karma
law of cause and effect
Rig Veda
oldest text in Hinduism
The Hindu term for liberation?
Moksha
Brahman
ultimate reality or absolute reality
Bhagavad-Gita
Hinduism's most popular sacred text
Sati
the burning of a widow
untouchables
Another term for the Dalit.
Debendranath Tagore
Took over after Ram's death
Janmashtami
day of celebration of Krishna's birth
Dravidians
survivors of the Indus Valley civilization; the people that the Aryans conquered
yajna
sacrifice; verdic ritual practice in which offerings were made to the deities often in a fire
Krishna
god associated with playfulness; a form of Vishnu
Vaishyas
The caste of producers, artisans, farmers, skilled workers, etc.
About how many Hindus worldwide
One billion
Asoka
Grandson of Chandragupta; most honored emperor for his commitment to spreading peace and prosperity to all; was buddhist but accepted other religions; decline came after his death
Kali
Divine Mother: The goddess of destruction who was both mother of life and destroyer; also a consort of shiva
Hindu achievements
-descovered zero -established a counting method (decimals) -knew earth orbited sun -calculated length of a year -preformed surgery not matched by Europeans until 18th century
Avatar
a incarnation, or living embodiment, of a deity, commonly of Vishnu, who is sent to earth to accomplish a divine purpose
sikhism
the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam
Apsaras
Divine female temptress
Sent to reduce the tapas (spiritual energy)
Devas
the controlling forces (deities) in the cosmos
Dipavali (Divali)
October-Novermber festival when lamps are lit.
Samadhri
temporarily trance-like state in which a person experiences absorption into ultimate reality.
Upanisad
literally: sitting down near
the text usually is a dialogue, and not just anyone would know it (which is why it is passed like that), because not just anyone can know them (also means secret knowledge)
marinate
to steep (food) in a marinade.
Tantric rites
looking inward at oneself, pressing everything inward into oneself and one's center
Maya
Literally means "that which is not", refers to the soul wrongly identifying strongly with its temporary body (I am white, I am man)
Kannagi
she was the ulimate example of auspiciousness
Metaphysics
teachings relating to the nature of ultimate reality. Above beyond the physical. Ex Does God exist?
Bhakti
One of the yogas. worship and devotion. accomplish able by all castes
Ascetic
depriving oneself of basic needs for religion's sake (ie. fasting)
caste system
Divided Indian society into groups based on birth, wealth, or occupation
Indus Valley Civilization
A civilization that featured well-planned cities, and sophisticated sanitation systems. It contained Harrapa and Mehenjo- Daro
caste
one of the major social classes sanctioned by Hinduism
Maharashtra
a thousand miles south of Taxila. digging has been taking place for centuries. Sahyadri hills--basalt traprock with deep canyons and streams. Buddhist monks use for meditation and residence.
Marharishi Mahesh Yogi
(1917-2008), founder of the Transcendental Meditation movement
Varna
Literally "color"
A system of status ranking perceived by characteristics or qualities
Banyan Tree
Banyan" often refers specifically to the Indian Banyan or Ficus benghalensis, the National tree of India, though the term has been generalized to include all figs that share a unique life cycle, and systematically to refer to the subgenus Urostigma.
what type of personallity is jnana yoga suited for?
Reflective
Brahmin
Members of the highest caste, who specialize in ritual performance by memorizing and chanting the vedas. They are a hereditary group who believe they have an inborn purity as result of past lives good action.
7 Chakras
centers of spiritual power along spinal column,culmiates in sahasrara (lotus on top of head)
samadhi
a state of complete inner peace resulting from meditation
Sama-Veda
Third book of the Vedas, which contains mantras to be chanted by priests at sacrifices.
Mantra
Sacred sound originally a hymn of the vedas; powerful sound
varanasi
one of the most famous places for pilgrimage on the banks of the ganges river
linga(m)
portrayal of Siva, reminds us of the uniting of male and female in the universe
Puja
Daily rituals and worship. Cab be done either at home or in temple.
Yogi
a person who practices a form of yoga
Bhagavad Gita
a Sanskrit poetic text written about 200 BC to 200 AD exalting the Hindu god Krishna and proposing a synthetic religious path
Parvati
wife of Shiva, mother of Ganesh, known as Kali, honored by mothers and married women
Atharva Veda
collection of hymns related to matters of daily life
Caste Sysem
Social groups which people are born into and can not move out of during their life time
Holi
festival of spring, 2 myths about how it all started, this is where the throw colorful powder on one another
Samnyasin
One who renounces the world in order to seek liberation from the cyclic existence.
manusmiriti
sacred text that gurus are to base their teaching on
Ramayana
The long epic that tells the story of Rama and his love for Sita, her capture, the long series of battles and quests Rama carries out to free her, and the aftermath.
THE PATH OF RENUNCIATION
dharma (duty), what we really want
Kshatriya
The second of the four classes of the Caste System, made up of warriors and administrators.
Arya Samaj Movement
A reformed version of Hinduism that rejects the worship of images & the caste system.
Yajur Veda
third of the four canonical texts of Hinduism
Indigenous cultures of indus valley
2500-1500 B.C.E. Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro ( 2 cities)mother goddess, phalic gods,sacred bulls, baths
Brahman can be represented by which to gods
Vishnu and Shiva
What is "The Law of Karma?"
Humanity's primary problem according to Hinduism is that we are ignorant of our divine nature. We forgotten our lineage to Brahman and embraced emotion thereby suffering the consequences of our actions.
The law of karma is the equivalent of cause and effect. We reap what we sow, and it affects not only this lifetime but our future ones.
Kings and Warriors
protect the people in times of war and peace
The stages of life are for ____ in the ___-___ group only.
men, twice-born
what are the three stages of jnana yoga ?
Learning thinking and self identification
T or F every reincarnation doesn't help you reach Brahman
F every reincarnation is meant to bring you closer to Brahman
Are the Gods of Hinduism really married?
It is true that God is often depicted with a spouse in our traditional stories. However, on a deeper, philosophical level, the supreme Being and the Gods are neither male nor female and therefore not married.
Rig
praise
Akash
ether
Nastika
Heterodox
Avatara
Incarnation
Rajas
Passion
Pranayama
breath, control
 
Shudra
4th VarnaSerfs/Servants
Dvapara-Yuga
Third Yuga.
Mahamaya
"great illusion"
Atimarga
Higher Path.
Tantra
extending norm
Brahma Danda
Weapon/Staff
dvija
twice-borndualismtop 3 varnas
Brahmacarin
1st asramacelibate student
Soma
God of drink
Saiva
Followers of Siva
Vaisnava/Vaisnavite
followers of Visnu
Sivaratri
Night of Siva
Svarga-loka
Realm of heaven
Nandi
Siva's sacred bull
Viraha
The feeling of separation
Moksa
salvation/liberationway out of continued reincarnation
avidya
ignorance; ignorance of atman=brahman
Pashupati
"God of the Animals"
moksha
highest point in life
Ghat
"steps" Indus Valley Civilization
Kula-Devata
The primary family deity
Bhoga
Bliss in higher worlds
Pasu
"Soul" category of existence.
Vaisnava
The followers of Visnu
Varuna
watches over cosmic order
Kasi
Also the vity of Varanasi
Karma marga
gain salvation through action
Smrti
"that which is remembered"Bhagavad Gitasecondary revelation
Rita/Rta
Principle of Cosmic Ordercontrols realitycontroled by Varuna
Niyama
Cleanliness, contentedness, desire to be liberated, self-control
Aryan
(Indo-Europeans) 2000 BCE. Migration from the North. Incorporated their intelligence and languages into the Indus Valley. "Nobility"
Raja-Yoga
"The best/royal yoga" 8-limbed yoga.
Vaisesika
The orthodox atomist school, associated with Nyaya, which assumes the reality of the many. Each phenomenon is distinct and different.
Lila
Divine play of a diety
Yoga
traditional physical, mental, and spiritual disciplines whose goal is the attainment of a state of perfect spiritual inside and tranquility. Major branches: Raja Yoga, Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, and Hatha Yoga.
Samadhi
 
Union with the Divine
Thus, samadhi refers to union or true Yoga. There is an ending to the separation that is created by the "I" and "mine" of our illusory perceptions of reality.
Mandala
- typically round with complexity within them, represent all of reality, microcosm of mandala/macrocosm of reality
saguna
with qualities, god with personal qualities
Alvars
poet saints, sing praise to Visnu
Bhakti marga
gain salvation through devotion- identification with a particular deity
stages of life
student life
household life
forest life
samy asin
Duhkha
All life is suffering. Characterizes Samsara
"Goddess of the tooth"
 
durga, kali, Camundi
 
ferocious
symbols of sexual energy
slayer of demons and vanquisher of evil
breaks dharmic norms and social conventions
independent deity-no man
Two main Epics

Ramayana: Adventures of Rama

Mahabharata: Great epic of the decendants of Bharta. The Mahabharata contains the Bhagavad-Gita (song of the lord)
Itihasa
"Thus it was said" (history)
 
Refers to the Indian epic genre of literature
The extent to which the epics possess historical content is highly debated
composed between 400 BCE and 400 CE
Vyasa
Sage that wrote the Yoga Sutras.
Durga
One representation of the goddess. Slayer of the buffalo-demon. Seated on a lion or tiger. "Difficult to access." Has ten arms and weapons that she received from other deities.
Vrndavana
The village of Vraj, especially celebrated as a center of Krsna worship. The place of Krsna's childhood and youth.
Sankara
Advaita thinker. Most famous Indian philosopher. Wrote many commentaries. Theology says that ignorance or illusion is caused by superimposition of what is not the self onto the self. Discrimination allows one to see oneself.
Why is there evil?
Astrological inauspiciousness
Astrological inauspiciousness
 
problems with horoscope
 
marrigal problems/family strife
Grihastha
Household stage- Get married, have kids , etc.
Vasistha
Sage{wise person} -at Brahmin level taught king of Cheny "strength becomes from inner being"
Ramanujan
-1017-1137 - most important person in sriv.
philosopher
racting against a pure qualified non-dualism, everything is the same
-knowledge wont get you to visnu, religious behavior is the only way to liberation/to get right with god
- devotional religion
Vedanta
"end of the vedic period"Class of texts at end of the VedasPrimary texts of Upanisads
Rundra and Marut
Gods of wind and storm
Niguna Brahman
God without qualities - beyond conception
sutra
"thread" Pithy aphorism which states a rule.
Characterisitcs of Divine
1. embodiment and personification especially, anthropomorphic
 
2. multiplicity of forms
 
3. narratives/stories
 
4. continuity of humans and divine
Bhakti Yoga
the path of loving devotion (Bhakti)

The Bhagavad-Gita is the first Hindu text to describe this path; krisna as the object of devotion, regarded as the easy method, open to all classes, genders, etc. and is the most popular form of worship today.
Sri Chaitanya: 16th century CE exemplar of Krsna Bhakti, lived in estativ devotion of Krsna, characterised by public chanting (Kirtana) of Krsnas name, Hare-Krsnas are an offshoot of Chaitanyas movement.
Bhakti can be done in Puja (ritual worship), pilgramages, and singing.
Pandu
Main king in the epic Mahabharata. Father to the Pandavas.
Laksmi
Consort/energy of the gods. Goddess of wealth.
Rudra
Earliest name referenced to Siva. "The Roarer." He is brown with a black belly and red back. Clothed in a skin. Ferocious and destructive but also benevolent and cures diseases.
Gopi
is a word of Sanskrit (गोपी) origin meaning 'cow-herd girl'. In Hinduism specifically the name gopi (sometimes gopika) is used more commonly to refer to the group of cow herding girls famous within Vaishnava Theology for their unconditional devotion (Bhakti) to Krishna as described in the stories of Bhagavata Purana and other Puranic literatures.
Vedanta society.
Founded by Vivekanda in New York.
Ghandi
(politics)
got rid of British Raj
face is placed on the rupee
considered the "father of india"
"I can say without the slightest hesitation, and yet in all humility, that those who say that religion had nothing do do with politics do now know what religion means"
the "Great Statement"
-called the Mahavakya
- "Tat Tvam Asi"
- "Thou art that"
-expressing the idea that the atman = brahman
"true self" = "reality"
SriVaisnavism
10 century
guru becomes to be seen in the sampradayas
- Nathaminu - sriv. first guru
 
Multiple Worlds
There are multiple worlds similar to ours and each one is temporary
Artharva Veda
Least of all vedas. Concerned with magic and domestic rights
Dharma(s)
'duty' in all aspect of our lives, especially religous lives (manifest form of Veda)
 
most Hindu tradition have repsect for Vedas that manifest in Dharma
6 Orthodox systems

Sankhya Enumeration of the elements that make up reality.                                                             -Founded by the famous sage Kapila.               -Evidence of ancient roots: 4th century CE

Yoga Psycho-physical system of attaining union with the absolute reality.                     -many systems; ancient origin (Indus Valley?)                                                      -Earliest systematic treatment: Patanjali's Yoga-Sutras (c.2nd CE)

Nyaya Logic

Vaisesika Realism and atomism (rhetoric)

mimamsa Interpretation of the Vedas and rituals (Samhitas, Brahmanas, etc)

Vedanta Interpretation of the Upanisadic literature.                                                   -Highly influential systems (resurgence in 20th CE)
Ravana
10 headed demon in the epic Ramayana. Takes Sita away from Rama and is then killed by him.
Sri Vaisnava
The visnu bhakti movement of South India, which emerged from the line of the Alvar poet-saints and the philosopher Ramanuja.
Pandavas
5 sons of Pandu in the epic, Mahabharata. Yudhisthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula, Sahadeva.
Ramakrsna
Hindu mystic who declared unity of all religions. Saw visions of the goddess. All religions are paths to one god.
Materials for Puja
 
Materials for pūjā are available outside most temples in India.  These same items are returned to worshippers after the deity has blessed them.
 
 
Mohenjadaro
one of the largest cities in Indus River Valley
Left Hand
(the 5 m's)
meat, fish, liquor, parched grains, sex
-supercharge spiritual energy
- total "no no's" to brahmins or upper class
-meat: impure, bad/polluting
-fish: typically bad, known as living
parched grains - understood to be an aphrodesiac
liquor: promotes bad bahavior, messes up the mind, important for people to stay in control
sex : something manu notes necessity in householder stage, no cross-caste
 
- forn of ennoculating yourself by taking in bad to one day overcome it all
Bhagavata Purana
Vaisnavism- Krsna as a boy and young man
The Four Yogas: Raja Yoga
The way of psychological experimentation
Artha
One of the four aims of life. World success and profit.
Visnu's incarnations
Krsna : local hero warrior of the mathura region of N India
 
considered supreme duty by devotees
Krsna worship focuses on a devotees particiaption in fhte love between Krsna and his consort Radha
 
Rama -another hero whose story is in Ramayana epic, rama is the king and the embodiment of dharma, his triumphs over eviolfoce in the world are a model of spiritual warfare to his devotees. (Hanuman and Sita)
Kali Yuga
An age lasting 1200 god (deva) years; characterised by the rapid degeneration of the dharma.
Guadiya Vaisnavism
Main focus of devotion is the love between Radha and Krsna, a love which is strongly erotic, though with an eroticism which is regarded as transcendent and not worldy.
Ravana (means "scream")
Born w/10 heads called scream beacause mountain was on toe
Mahabharata
one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana. Contains much philosophical and devotional material, such as discussions of four “goals of life”. The latter are enumerated as dharma (right action), artha(purpose), kama (pleasure), and moksha (liberation). Stories that are part of Mahabharata are the Bhagavad Gia, the story of Damayanti, an abbreviated version of Ramayana, and the Rishyasringa, often considered as works in their own right.
Eight Steps of Raja Yoga
Yama, Niyama, control the body, control the breathing, control the senses, concentration, meditation, Samadhi
Upanisad (600 BCE) suggestion of Yoga
Mentions asana (posture), pranayama (breath control), and tapas (inner heat)
Great vs. Little traditions
Great: form of traditoins that spans the religion ex: Sanskrit, the Vedas
 
Little: beneath that, smaller traditions (language used, regional gods/goddesses)
 
Really only little traditions, no one lives in only great tradition (imagined world)
Those associated with Siva
worship on the basis of the puranas (text - where siva comes into his own, individual)
those who worship him through the ascetic lifestyle - modeling their worship on him
those who use siva tradition for power, worldly wisdom, moska (tantra)
Diwali (maybe apart of Navarati?)
have lights (lamps) light path to entrance
 
return of Rama and Sita to Idoya after he vanquishes Ravana
connected to New Year; new pujas bounties, (christmas like)
The four genres of Vedic texts
- Samhita - collections of metric texts ("mantras")- Brāmana - prose texts that discuss, in technical fashion, the solemn sacrificial rituals as well as comment on their meaning and many connected themes- Āranuaka - "wilderness texts" or "forest treaties", were composed by people who meditated in the woods as recluses and are the third part of the Vedas- Upanisad – philosophical texts of the hindu religion
Rg Veda (1200 BCE) suggestion of Yoga
Hymn to a Long haired sage (like a Yogi)
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