Hinduism Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Atman
"soul"
jati
caste
Bhutan
Thimpu
Karma
Sin
shiva
dissolver
Indra
Warrior king
brahmin
priestly class
pratiloma
"against" mudra
brahmanas
commentaries, myths
Satyagraha
Non-violent resistance
Durga
awe-inspiring
distant
a mother-goddess
a form of Devi
Saraswati
Goddess of wisdom
guru
a spiritual teacher
Vedanta
Vedānta (Devanagari: वेदान्त, Vedānta) was originally a word used in Hindu philosophy as a synonym for that part of the Veda texts known also as the Upanishads. The name is a sandhied form of Veda-anta = "Veda-end" = "the appendix to the Vedic hymns." It is also speculated that "Vedānta" means "the purpose or goal [end] of the Vedas."[1] By the 8th century CE, the word also came to be used to describe a group of philosophical traditions concerned with the self-realisation by which one understands the ultimate nature of reality (Brahman).
varna
classes; usually four
Tapas
"heat", spiritual energy
Aryans
Nomadic, caucasoid peoples,
probably from the Russian Steppes, who entered Indus Valley about 1500 BCE and
conquered the Dravidians. We have their writings. Worshipped gods of nature





Sama Veda
Chant Knowledge
Axial Age (Date)
800-200 BCE
moksa
liberation from being reborn
1 caste
Brahmin- the priest
Holy person (also, Aghori)
Sadu
asceticism
retreat from the world
maya
imperfect nature of world
Androgen
Male and Female Combined
Deva
The gods of Hinduism.
Second of the Four Duties
Artha
Avatar
an incarnation of a deity
the Vedas
oldest scripture in Hindu
ashram
community centered around a guru
Artharva Veda
Knowledge from the teacher
yoga
yoke together (atman and Brahmin)
Sanskrit
language Vedas are written in
prasad
redistribution of food to Hindus
Banyan tree
tree that symbolizes Hinduism
Atharva Veda
magical formulae and mantras
Rishi
"Seers" who revealed the Vedas.
smadhi
Highest stage of meditation, experience oneness with universe. "enlightenment"
Rig Veda
First Veda: verse or stanza
Dharma
The religious duties that sustain humans and all living beings
Ganesh
elephant headed god, removal of obstacles, deity in his own but usually associated w/ Shiva, son of Shiva and Parvati
Bhagavad Gita
Religious literary work about Krishna
monism
the doctrine that reality is ultimately made up of one essence
Ahimsa
in Sanskrit, "non-injury"; the ideal of harming no creature
Upanishadic Period
(800-300 BCE) the philosophical writings, more studious than oral tradition
Hanuman
king of the monkies/ monkey god
Bhakti
devotional way of achieving Moksha, emphasizing loving faith and devotion to gods
Brahman
the one supreme force in Hinduism
Avahana
"bidding" or calling of the deity
Holi
The festival of colors, celebrating equality
Vaisya
In the ancient fourfold class structure of society, a member of the third or mercantile class.
Dharma is…
…the pursuit of sensual pleasure
darsana
literally sight
refers to visions of the divine, when one is connected to the divine
Philosophical schools
Yoga (stabilizing and clearing clouded mind); Vedanta (seeking to know the Atman)
Kshatriya
"One who protects", member of the second Varna, warrior/administrator
Puranas
A group of writings about the adventures and activities of Hinduism's gods and goddesses. Most were composed during the classical period of Hinduism, with some being written later.
Harappa Civilization
Traditions of goddess worship, yogic traditions, sacred tree, bathing tanks
Upanishads
collection of over 200 texts composed betwn 900 and 200 BC that provide philosophical commentary on the Vedas
Puja
the daily worship of the five protecting gods
Gurus
from the sanskrit word for "teacher"; Hindu teachers and guides in philosophical and spiritual matters
Moksha
- End of the re-birth cycle (salvation)
Rituals
Practice of a religion that have significance
Who is the founder of hinduism
No Founder
devas
Gods who help maintain order and nature
people give food, drinks, and gifts in their homes to them
sutra
a rule or aphorism in Sanskrit literature or a group of aphoristic doctrinal summaries prepared for memorization
Khalsa
Sikh organization for the defense of the faith, marked by their uncut hair (covered with a turban), short trousers, steel wristlet, comb, and sword
Samaveda
collection of songs and melodies used in a sacrifice. Known as the threefold veda with Rig and Yajur. Composed after Rig, has lines from it chanted to melodies, passed down from a singing priest to his disciples.
Vishnu
Solar god connected to Surya (sun god); later a very important Hindu god
Lesser Vedic god; very important in later Hinduism
Diwali
popularly known as the "festival of lights", is an important five-day festival in Hinduism, Jainism, and Sikhism, occurring between mid-October and mid-November.
Ritualistic Religions
Believe that reaching the ultimate goal is accomplished THROUGH the ritual.
Smrti
'What is remembered', a body of ancient Hindu literature including the epics, puranas, and law codes formed after the sruti and passed down in written tradition.
caste
one of the major social classes sanctioned by Hinduism
grihastha
Second stage in Hindu life, or householder period, in which a male marries and raises a family.
Swami Dayananda
never spoke in English, Banned idol worship, eliminated caste system, mostly yajna, always wore ethnic clothes
Swastika
A popular Hindu symbol, also used by Nazis
Avatars
an incarnation of the God into the form of a sentient being in Samsara
Symbolism of the cow
This symbolizes life and goodness.
Samsara
the endless cycle of life, death & rebirth
Vendanta
monsism and maya (all reality is an illusion)
"thou art that"
explains the Atman and Brahman relationship/ Atman is Brahman/ a drop in the ocean is part of the ocean/ the closer you get to your soul the closer you get to the universe's soul
manta
a short sacred formula used in prayer or meditation
Ganges River
Symbol of life without end ritual bathing
what is the sanskrit term for the world as it is usually perceivedm
maya
Trimurti
The concept of viewing of the gods Brahma, Visnu, and Siva as one of the unity with three faces and three aspects.
Manu
a divine being who presides over a manvantra, an age of humanity, the first man from which we are all descended
reincarnation
the belief that the soul, upon death of the body, comes back to earth in another body or form.
law of karma
the concept that persons must bear responsibility for their actions.
Shudra
the lowest of the four classes made up of servants and laborers
Rama
A god and mythical king; a form of vishnu
Bhakti Yoga
adara God with every art of being chosen avator with desirable attributing repuating Gods name Kreaton clinging.
Path of Devotion
Is done in worship through gods, goddesses, or avatars
Hinduism
The main religion in India. It is one of the world's oldest religions
Buddha's rejection of speculative philosphy
Rejection of religious devotion (has nothing to do with god) (tapas revolt)
Sacred thread ceremony
marks the end of childhood and the beginning of adulthood
How important is worship?
Both darsham (viewing the image), and puja (ritual), are of paramount importance in the home and in the temple.
student stage of life
intensive study of the Vedas and other sacred literature
The Bhagavad Gita (100CE)epic poem,"song of the Lord"
Includes Lawns of Manu, Yogi and Bhakti, Story of prince(850-650BCE) Arjunaand charioterKrishna(incarnation of Vishnu) battle Mahabharata story.Teaches bad karma if cast disobbey,variety of means ot release from samsara, Vishnu loves humans, Bhakti to vishnu.
What is The Brahman/Atman Unity?
Most hindus believe that they are in their true selves (ataman) extended from and one with Brahman. Just as the air inside an open jar is identical to the air surrounding it, so our essence is identical to that of the essence of Brahman. This is expressed through the phrase Tat. tvam asi, "that though art"
Name and describe the ultimate goal in Hinduism.
Moksha: liberation from cycle of rebirth; complete sythesis of Atman and Brahman
what is atman? how does that differ from the universal soul?
when it reaches moksha it becomes the universal soul
Mandir
temple
dhyana
meditation
Vatsa
...
Jñana-yoga
knowledge
All-Bliss
Second Tantra
life stages
(ashrama)
student
householder
renunciation of worldly goods
Mantras
prayer wheels
Parvati
Mother Goddess
Reincarnation






–Rebirth,
species and circumstance determined by Karma from previous lives.





Vishnu (God)
God: preserver
Agni
god of fire
Samskaras
Sacred life-cycle rituals
kanga
comb in hair
God of creation?
Brahma
energy, activity, leadership
tamas
kalkin
a future savior
Indus Valley period
2500-1500 BCE
BCE
before the common era
Where did Hinduism originate?
India
Vedas
meaning "knowledge"; the most ancient collection of India's sacred writings (originals in Sanskrit), regarded as divinely revealed to ancient holy men (rishis);the four Vedas (Rig, Yajur, Sama, and Atharva) constitute the Samhita collection.
Krshatriyas
Second Varna: Political and Military
Enlightenment
Realization that desire causes suffering
chakras
energy centers throughout the spine
Prakruti
in Ayurveda, an individual's distinctive constitution. According to Ayurvedic principles, to live a lifestyle that is preventive and proper, it is vital to understand one's unique nature and the means of maintaining equilibrium despite stress and challenge.
SECTARIAN HINDUISM
belief in personal gods
mantra
A sacred formula or verse
they had very good ___________
chariots
Path for the active?
Karma Marga
Laksmi
Wife/consort of Visnu
Had independent side (unlike Sita)
Goddess of wealth and prosperity
Had the epitome of marriage bliss
2 arms with husband, 4 arms alone
Cools heat of Visnu and is easier to talk to
Avatars






–The incarnation of a Hindu deity, especially
Vishnu, in human or animal form. 
There have been nine (an unfixed number depending on the source) avatars
of Vishnu with one yet to come.

•Fish, Tortoise, Boar, Dwarf, Lion-man, etc.

•Rama

•Krishna

•Buddha

•Kalki – to come






Unpanishads
The interpretation of the Vedas
sati
traditional practice of burning a widow on her husband's funeral pyre
Samsura
(all Hindus believe) death, birth, rebirth. the transmigration and constant life cycle
Path of Desire
1. Pleasure 2. Success
Om
This caused a vibration which eventually became sound, and this sound was Om. Creation itself was set in motion by the vibration of Om. The closest approach to Brahman is that first sound, Om. Thus, this sacred symbol has become emblematic of Brahman just as images are emblematic of material objects
kama
Pleasure, especially of sensual love; one of the four goals of life.
krishna is the incarnation of _______
vishnu
vaishnavite
devotee of Vishnu or his incarnations
ascetic
one who renounces physical pleasures and worldly attachments for the sake of spiritual development; common in Hinduism and many other religious traditions, most notably Jainism.
Shudras
Fourth caste of laborers, craftworkers and servants in the Indian caste system
Samadhi
The experience of oneness with Brahman-Atman attainable in this life; the experience of enlightenment which guarantees release from the round of rebirths at death.
Lakshmi
Chief wife of Vishnu
Goddess of wealth, fertility, and victory
Anicca
(impermanence) one of the three marks of Existence; the Buddhist doctrine that all existent things are constantly changing
Brahma
Creator; Four sets of body parts- symbolic of 4 Vedas; Lotus
jnana yoga
the spiritual discipline of knowledge and insight
Ravidas
He taught that one is distinguished not by one's caste (jati) but by one's actions (karma) and that every person has the right to worship God and read holy texts.
born from the lowest caste and worked as a leatherworker
the guru of the Ravidasi sect and one of the fifteen Bhagats of the Sikhs.
His devotional songs and verses made a lasting impact upon the bhakti movement.
a poet
shruti
texts that are "heard" and constitute the most sacred stratum of Aryan texts called the Veda.
In the 8th climatic stage of psychophysical yoga exercises- also know as this, both the knower and object drop from veiw.
Samadhi
upanayana
the young hindu recieves a sacred thread (jenoi) and becomes twice born, his teacher becomes his new father and the vedas his new mother
sannyasin
a wandering ascetic who has advancedc to the fourth and highest state of life
Soma Veda
hallucinogenic beverage used as an offering to the Hindu gods
brahamins
Part of the caste system. Highest- priest
Smriti
All HIndu scripture not comprised in the shruti, such as the Puranas, the Mahabharata, the Ramayana, the law codes such as that of Manu.
4th Yuga (Kaliyuga)
things are really really bad
what is moksha?
release and liberation from samsara
sudra
the servant class, it's the lowest class within the varna system
Which of Betrand Russell's problems is addressed by the religionsof South Asia?
self
Rites of passage
helps societies to cope wiht predictable disruptions caused by status change.
Nammalvar
the most famous Alvar, or poet saint.
from a low caste farming family
well known for his hymns of devotion to Vishnu
name means "our own Alvar"
child prodigy discovered by Madhurakavi
Became the guru to Madhurakavi
when he was a baby, he did not cry, punch, scream, kick or do anything. He laid in medidation for 16 years until he was discovered by Madhurakavi
Aryan (Indo-Europeans)
Came into Persia and affected the Hindu religion (introduced using incents)
polytheism
belief in more than one god. The hindu's were polytheistic.
Ashoka
King of India (c.264-238 BC), the last ruler of the Mauryan dynasty. After his invasion of the Kalinga country, he renounced armed conquest and became a convert to Buddhism, which subsequently spread throughout India and beyond. He adopted a policy called dharma (principles of right life), advocating toleration, honesty, and kindness, and had his teachings engraved on rocks and pillars at certain sites. With his death the Mauryan empire declined and his work was discontinued.
Adviata Vedanta
Samkhya is dualistic; adviata is non dualist, vedanta is monistic, only one reality
moshka
in Hinduism, it is seen as the liberation of the soul from the body
Kali
a goddess who drinks blood, also a destroyer, represents the dissolution of all limitations
people sing songs of love to her event though she has dead babies as earrings and human heads as a necklace
Aryan Dravidian
it is believed that the Dravidian were the original peoples in Indus valley
Krishna
An avatar of Vishnu; one of the most popular gods in India.
Jainism
A religion based on the teachings of a man named Mahavira
Brahma, Vishnu,Shiva
3 most important God's in the Hindu religion
Proto-Shiva and Shakti
Fertility gods. Shakti is the consort to Shiva. Shiva most popular god in Hinduism.
Bhakti Marga (yoga)
"Path of Devotion" the most popular of the three paths to salvation, emphasizing loving devotion to one's chosen god or goddess
stages of life of man
the student; the householder; the forest dweller; the wandering renouncers
Advaita Vedanta- Shankara(700-732BCE)
radical oness, only one deity only one Brahman,promoted Monasticisim, 4 centers of monastic thought in India. Monk,no possesions, obedience, Garb worn
Reincarnation has been compared to...
Putting on a new set of cloths
Gangetic Plain, The Deccan Plateau, Costal Plains
What are the three zones of India
Name three of the five "k's" that are physical indicators of Sikhs?
Unshorn hair, short pants, comb
what three gods make up the hindu trinity? how do they relate to eachother and ultimate beings?
Brahma Vishnu shiva. They represent as the same god Brahman
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