Hinduism Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Agni
Fire
Brahma
...
Yoga
Disciplined meditation
Jnanakanda
Philosophical Wisdom
Samskaras
life-cycle rituals
linga
erect phallus
Aryans
Indo-European invaders
Vishnu
Preserving God
Rsis (rishis)
"oral" nature
Brahman
The divine essence
Holi
festival of reversal
moksha
end of life
soma
mysterious hallucinogenic plant
Sruti
That which is heard
Karma
consequence of following Dharma
atman
unchanging, eternal, individual soul
Puja
A ritual devotion, offerings
ananda
bliss, part of brahman
freedom
4th thing you should seek
Soma Veda
hymns chanted at sacrifices
orange
color that symbolizes final quest
Ganesha
Often used to symbolize Hinduism, represented by an elephant deity riding a mouse. The head symbolizes the soul, while his body symbolizes earthly existence.
Jatis
The thousands of social divisions, usually by profession, within each of the four major divisions of society described in #4.
Brahmanas
texts that further interpret rituals of the vedic tradition
Asana
POSTURES physical postures control of the body
Bhakti
path of devotion through personal relationships with deities
Ascetic
Someone who rejects society and material comforts to attain spiritual insights
caste
Social group defined by religous purity
Forever
How long has Hinduism been around, according to its followers?
Varnas
The four divisions of society as described in the Rig Veda.
Mohenjodaro and Harappa
Indus Valley Civilization geography sites
Shruti
Means heard texts, includes the 4 vedas.
Advita Vedanta
Most significant and influential Hindu Philosphy fully expressed by Shankara in the 9th Centry CE MEANS NON DUAL
dharma
teaching/path, path to live a better life, by finding path you can reach moksha
Atharava Veda
hymns, charms, spells and incantations for domestic use
chakras
subtle energy centers along spine that are pathways for prana
prasad
food sanctified, offered to gods, then eaten by devotees as sacred or spiritually charged food
samsara
the endless cycle of birth and suffering and death and rebirth
maya
a power of illusion (dependent on brahman) which keeps us deluded
divali
festival of lights- the victory of light over darkness
Shiva
The Destroyer. God of the yogis. Self controlled and celibate. the third most important god.
Indus River
What was the origination location of Hinduism?
Raja Yoga (The King)
MEDITATION, suited to REFLET internally and spiritual side
rouja yoga
path of physical and mental disipline (training body so it can be free, celibacy)
Caste system
divisions of social classes based on jobs
Vedanta
a system of Hindu philosophy and one approach within Jnana Marga holding that all reality is essentially Brahman
Darsan
people say this when they mean "going to the temple", means seeing God and also being seen by God
Mudra
-a symbolic gesture or position of the hands
-each ________ signifies a mood, virtue, or spiritual quality
hanuman
the monkey god often worshipped as a protector
Angkor Wat
a temple complex built in Cambodia and dedicated to the Hindu God, Vishnu.
Student
One of the 4 stages of life, 8-20, intiated with SACRED THREAT CEREMONY, second birth into Hindu Society
Lakshmi
this is the name of the Hindu goddess of wealth.
karma marga
one of three Hindu paths to salvation; emphasizing performing right actions according to dharma
darsana
going for an audience (to see and be seen by) with a deity
Code of Manu
what the caste system was based upon, written at least 2000 years ago
the laws of manu
describe dharmic principles for the 4 classes
Vedi
...
ashram
religious community
Hatha
american yoga
brahmins
highest class
Cosmic illusion?
Maya
Wheel






–Rounds of
rebirth. AKA reincarnation or samsara






Chandra
God of Moon
Puranas (Date)
600 CE
Krsna
avatar of Visnu
Varna
color, specifically skin
Shudras
servants and laborers
jnana yoga
intelluectual yoga
The lowest caste?
Shudra
Sarasvati
Benign goddess of music
mahaprafthana
the process of death
ahimsa
non harm, non violence
Harijans -
Children of God
kama
the goal of desire
Hinduism's most popular text?
Bhagavad-Gita
Sadhanas
Many Techniques of Meditation
Parvati
Shiva's wife, mother of Ganesh
sannyasa
renunciation: final stage of life
Gandi
social and political reformer
"great soulde"
religious reformer
stood up to oppression through nonviolence and civil disobedience, changing the nature of India and the rights of the "outcastes"
bhakti yoga
type of yoga; loving
Sanskrit
the Indo-European speaking people, Aryans' oldest surviving language
Darsan/Darsana
Philosophy, vision, perspective, way of seeing
When you have a vision of darsan it means that you are bringing something back
Flow in 2 different directions
Mahabharata
Story about Pandu's five sons.
Jati
social groups based on occupation formed within larger social classes
Darshan
experiencing a religious feeling by being exposed to a sacred object or place such as the Ganges River
Golden Age of Ancient India
Gupta Empire
Vedas
sacred scripture: fire sacrifice, only brahmines perform
Folk Hinduism
religious tradition passed down orally
Surya
god of sun, eye of Varuna
Mandir
also a Hindu temple
Hindi word (south)
Brahmams
Priestly caste; perform the religious rituals and taught the religious texts; highest caste
samskara
Rites of passage Hindus must follow
Guru
a teacher of religion and Hindusim
Saraswati
Goddess of learning, wisdom, and speech, seen with a star, violin, she is playing the music of love and life
Maitreyi
wife of yagnavalkya, asks for knowledge when Y leaves to become an ascetic
Yama
god of death
dark color
fire colored eyes, sharp tusks, 2 arms
Danda for a weapon
Parvatic
One of the consorts of Shiva
it provides commentary on the vedas
Upanishads
Harappa
a very large culture with different languages mixed with different aryan tribes
Taliban
A radical group of extremists who twist the interpartion of the Koran
Upanishads
book that focuses on inner spiritual knowledge
Bhagavad-Gita
the section of the Mahabharaya in which Krishna reveals to himself to Arjuna and in a long thlolgical discussion describes the main components of karma yoga
Hatha yoga
spiritual discipline of postures and bodily exercises
Gorakhnath
disciple of Matsyendranath who was a saint who was the original ancestor of the Nath or Kanphata sect which developed Hatha yoga in the 9th century.
11th to 12th century[1] Nath yogi, connected to Shaivism as one of the two most important disciples of Matsyendranath
Shiva was Matsyendranath's teacher, who was in turn Gorakhnath's teacher
produced a number of writings and even today is considered the greatest of the Naths.
It has been purported that it was Gorakshanath who wrote the first books on Laya yoga. In India there are many caves, many with temples built over them, where it is said that Gorakshanath spent time in meditation.
According to Bhagawan Nityananda, the samadhi shrine (tomb) of Gorakshanath resides at Nath Mandir near the Vajreshwari temple about a kilometer from Ganeshpuri, Maharashtra, India.[3]
reincarnation
The belief that the human soul survives death and is re-born in another body. One's reincarnation into a particular caste and a new body is a strict function of karma.
5 abstentions, 5 observances, Asanas, breathing properly, "closing doors of perception", meditating, Samadhi
7 steps
samnyasa
4th and final stage of life. Detachment from material life as it causes cycle of rebirth.
mantra
a sacred verbal formula that is repeated in prayer or meditation
Sannyasin
Last stage of life. (Fourth). Engaged in the world but not attatched to the world.
True
Generally speaking, a rite of passage has three phases or aspects.
Narasinha
Avatara of Visnu as Man-Lion
A demon could not be killed by man or beast, Visnu becomes man lion and defeats the demon
Bhagavad Gita
\"Song celestial\"; a scriptural text from the Mahabharata concerning Krishna, who, as an avatar of the god Vishnu, teaches the ways of salvation particularly through devtion. This is perhaps the most influential of all Hindu scriptures.
The ___ is the most sacred scripture.
Shruti
Avatar
Descent of the divine, incarnation of Vishnu in different forms (animal/humans)
Whose influence rose as the power of the Brahmins decreased?
guru
Swami Vivekananda
chief disciple of the 19th century mystic Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and the founder of Ramakrishna Mission.
He is considered a key figure in the introduction of Hindu philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga in Europe and America
founded the Vedanta society
credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a world religion during the end of the 19th century
inspiring speech beginning with "Brothers and Sisters of America" through which he introduced Hinduism at the Parliament of the World's Religions at Chicago in 1893.
its literal meaning is work but in hinduism this means the moral law of cause and effect
karma
Kali
"Dark" a form of Devi; a goddess associated with destruction and rebirth
raja-yoga
type of yoga; training to control the mind, to stop its images and associations so that a deeper level of reality may be experienced
janaka
King of Mithila, Father of Sita, who found her in a furrow
Vaishya
3rd group of castes made up of farmers, producers, merchants.
Transcendental Meditation
person focuses awareness on a single object or on a word or short phrase, called a mantra
Ashramas
four stages in the life of an upper-class Hindu male that include student, householder, forest dweller, ascetic
The ___ is secondary in authority to the Shruti.
Smriti
Sadhu
Hindu holy men who give up their homes and possessions to live a life of meditation and prayer
Brahmaputra River
river in asia that is sacred to Hindus; "son of Brahma"
Durga Puja
ritual worhips of diety in the home. Offerings of clothing, food, water and decorations.last for three days
2 basic ways to view god
1. Personal/God-With-Attributes 2. Impersonal
Bhagvad-Gita
the "Song of God", most beloved of the savred writings of Hinduism
what is atman?
atman is like brahman, but with people
What are pancamakra?
The five pollutants: wine, meat, fish, parched grain, and sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman.
The caste system(order best to least and definitions)
1. brahmins(priests)2. Kshatriyas(rulers+warriors)3. Vaisyas(farmers,crafts,+ traders)4. Sudras(servants+workers)5. Harijans(untouchables)
rig veda
hymns in praise of the ancient gods of the aryans
Banyan Tree
a very large East Indian fig tree that can grow multiple trunks
Sikhism is the belding of __ and __.
Hinduism and Islam
What about caste and untouchability?
Caste is the hereditary division of Indian society based on occupation. The lowest class, deemed untouchables, suffer from discrimination and mistreatment. It is illegal in India to discriminate against, abuse, or insult anyone on the basis of caste.
How do people in the west think of god?
all powerful, all present
What is the Way to God through Psychophsicality?
Raja Yoga, designed for those interested in science. Testing is on one's interior states. Belief that the human self is a layered entity:
1) Body- it is a vehicle to transport the soul through life to Moksha
2) Conscious- the values we accept have bearing on our destiny. The mind, unlike body is more difficult to control.
3) Subconcious- reservoir of all experiences we've had, gets our attention by our dreams
4) Being- need to integrate all 4 before you reach being.
Method of doing so is Introversion- the mind's miercest antagonist is itself, when alone w/ itself the mind won't settle down.
Ally: Concentration- purpose is to teach the restless mind to hold unswervingly to the object it's directed to.
Samadhi- when you and object you're focusing on ebcome one, once this happens you're one w/ God.
What was one of Mahatma Gandhi's main teachings
in reality, there are as many religions as there are individuals
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