Hinduism Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Sastra
knowledge
brahmin
priest
Vishnu
Krishna
Ashyameda
...
Shiva
-Destroyer
-re-creation
Rishi
a sage
Rama
Perfect king
2nd Stage
Marriage
Gods
Brahma- creator
Vishnu-preserver
Siva-destroyer
Brahmins
Hindu priests
Guru
One's teacher.
Kali
Destroyer of Demons
Dvija
The twice-born ceremony
karma yoga
unselfish service
Brahma
God of creation
Lila
play, drama, sport
Bhakti
type of devotion
atman
the individual soul
Aranyakas
means "forest books";transitional writings which begin a more philosophical interpretation of the Vedas and which eventually develop into the Upanishads
Virashaivas
intense devotion to Shiva
sruti
another name for "heard"
Raw Food
was considered pure
1869
year Gandhi was born
who founded hinduism?
no one
rig veda
oldest hindu scripture
Samsara
The cycle of rebirths
Kshatriya
a.k.a. Warriors, legislative caste.
Darsan
visual contact with the divine.
artha
means of life, one's aim
Karma:
Cause and Effect; Drive reincarnation
moksha/mukti
liberation from personal limitation, egotism, and rebirth. to be acquired full correction.
Hindu rahstra
Motherland for all Hindus
3rd stage of life
forest dweller
Fire ceremony
All four vedas chanted
Moksha
liberation is achieved through rigorous physical and mental discipline
4 Human Wants
PleasureSuccessDutyMoksha: liberation from this world
Brahma as a deity
The creator God
Sanskrit
the ancient language of the Vedas
shruti
body of primary revelation, consists of the 4 vedas.
avatar
an earthly embodiment of a deity
Brahman
the all-powerful, divine force that fills everything in the world, known as the "world soul"; the "Ultimate Reality"
UPANISHADS
philosophical speculations on Vedas in form of master-pupil dialogues
Janism
An indigenous Indian religion dating back to the sixth century BCE in which there is a heavy emphasis on asceticism
jati
subdivisions of varna; each is distinct
doab
huge watershed region between the Ganges and the Indus
What is dharma to each person?
Unique
Sikhism
the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam
Dravidians
Non-Aryanian high cultures on Indian subcontinent
Could have contributed to Hinduism after the Indus Vally Civilization's demise
Diwali
a New Years-type celebration in Hinduism, multi-day festival of lights, festival of lights, marks the coming of winter and the victory of good over evil
The Gunas
qualities of the body/nature1) lucidity2) passion3) dark inertiagods, humans, and animals have all 3 but not same amounts
Shakti
power of universe, creative and destructive.Countless names.Parvati(nature)Annapura(food &Harvest)Kali(world of appearances)
Ramakrishna
A Bengali temple priest/saint who taught Advaita Vedanta and worshipped the goddess Kali. He was known for his unconventional behaviour and many thought he was insane.
cow
mother of civilization
milk is central to sacrifice
Vaishnavism
the Hindu school that worships Vishnu or his Avataras
Hinduism (Meaning)
geographical name origin, by the peopole who live on the side of the river valley Indus River
mahabharata
epic poem, recounts the adventures of arjuna his charioteer, who is krishna
puja
means worship, occurs at home and temple
Aryans
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
ascetic
to completely give up the world mentally and physicallt; reflection, meditation
samnyasa
4th and final stage of life. Detachment from material life as it causes cycle of rebirth.
Ganges
Rivers are a focal area for pilgrimage. The ganges is a divine entity sent by gods to succor humanity in the midst of a drought. Its waters can ritually wash away bad karma.
Brahmanas
a collection of writings for priests containing directions for sacrifice
Smriti
"That which is to be remembered", stories passed down orally
the hittites fought with the ___________ over northern __________
egyptians, syria
Vedas
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
Monism
the doctrine that all reality is ultimately one
Gurus
Originally referred to as Brahmans who served as teachers for the princes of the imperial court of the Guptas
Mantra
sacred verbal formula that is repeated in prayer or meditation
Ravana
Demon with 10 heads
Cannot be killed by a god because of boon that was granted
Visnu takes over Rama's body to do the job
Narasimha
The fourth avatar of Vishnu; the man-lion
Linga
A conical or cylindrical stone column, sometimes considered phallic, symbolic of the god Siva.
OM
a mystic symbol of the fundamental reality of the universe; its letters (actually AUM) came to represent the three major Vedas and the unity of the tree major deities (Brahma, Shiva, Vishnu)
Atharva-Veda
Final Vedic book, which is a collection of rituals for Brahmin priests.
jnana marga
Sanskirt: "The path of knowledge." One of the three Hindu paths to salvation, emphasizing knowing the true nature of reality through learning and meditation.
karma
what samsara is based from (cycle of birth...etc)
dharma
ethical duty based on the divine order of reality
jivas
the immortal essence of a living being (the soul)
Transcendental Meditation
a technique derived from Hinduism that promotes deep relaxation through recitation of a mantra
Gandhi
This was a leader of the Indian independence movement in mid-20th century known for his nonviolent protests.
hinduism 7
salvation for those who met requiments of caste, followers should focus on job, dharma artha kama moksha, if you followed dharma artha kama you got moksha, became prosperous
Banyan Tree
metaphor for origins of hinduism, a tree with branches that sink to the ground and become roots
Homa
A ritual that involves the burning of offerings in a fire that has been blessed by a priest.
Trimurti
Great gods of Hinduism, not in Vedic period
2 ways to practice
Jnanic: God is actually workingBhaktic: you are working for God
What are the four goals?
1. Pleasure
2. accomplishment
3. duty
4. liberation
Yellow Hat School
reform movement in Tibetan Buddhism in the 14th century; followers wore yellow hats to set them off from other Tibetan Buddhists who wore red ones; imposed celibacy; because leadership could not be hereditary, the concept of heads of monasteries being reincarnated was developed, so after the death of an abbot, a search that could take years would look for his reincarnation, with the goal to find a boy born 49 days after the abbot's death who - through magic and tests - could be identified as such; the Grand Lama of the monastery in Lhasa took the name Dalai Lama, considered to be a reincarnation of the bodhisattva Avalokita, "Ocean of Wisdom" is another title; the latest Dalai lama has traveled the world bring attention to the plight of Tibet after the Chinese conquest in 1959 and won the Noble Peace Prize in 1989.
Laws of Manu
rules and regulations of hindu social order authorized by the first human being
prasad
Food or some other offering given to a deity and then returned to a devotee as a blessing
vaishya
the third of the four classes of the caste system, made up of producers, such as farmers, merchants, and artisans
The 4 classes
1) priestly - brahmans2) ruling - kings, nobles, military, princes, soldiers3 )economy - merchants, peasants, business people4) servant - shudraif you are born into the brahman class you have to perform duties of that class.
shudra
a Hindu of the lowest caste, that of the workers.
Law of Manu
most important law book part of dharma sastras
Name three of the holy texts of Hinduism?
Vedas, Upanishads, and Ramayana
Differences between Vedic Religion and Hinduism
Vedic: Goddesses are unimportant, no images of deities, no temples, animal sacrifices, eat cow, afterlife with ancestors
Hinduism: Goddesses are worshiped, images of gods, temples, vegetarians and non-violence, cows are sacred, reincarnation and karma
Someone, a Hindu, follows the path of bhakti marga. What would his spirituality look like?
Worshiping in a household shrine
3 Concepts that Shifted from Vedic to Hinduism
Yajna - sacrifice becomes internalized in Upanisads
Rta (cosmic order) - focus shirts over to Dharma
Dharma (universal law, moral, sacred duty)
Explain the meaning of the term moksha.
It means "release". It is release from this ordinary, finite, limited realm of existence into the infinite ocean of the divine.
Kharma
actions
holi
spring festival
Dasharat
Rama's father
Asat
Non-being, Un-manifest
Medeival period
500-1500 CE
Brahmacarya
First Asrama: Student
Shudras
Servants and laborers
Buddha
incarnation of Vishnu
Ohm
Unit of resistance
Raja (Yoga)
Yoga: meditation; self-discipline
Benares
site on Ganges river
Japam
repetition of God, Hinduism
Sannyasins
deal with spiritual transcendence
Dalit
Literally "oppressed" aka "untouchable"
liberation from this world
Chit
Agni
god of fire/ sacrificial fire
Hinduism
people of the Indus river
yoga
A spiritual discipline, perfecting ones union with the divine.
Inrdra
god of war. india namee
ramanuja
an influential theologian (1025-1137) who argued that the ultimate reality humans could relate to was saguna Brahman
Loka-samgraha
"Upholding the World," the goal of the sacrifices enjoined by the Vedas.
samadhi
contemplative absorption
one of the eight limbs of yoga, also refers to the state of consciousness in referred meditation
Narayana
One Name of Vishnu as supreme
Om/Aum
Most important "mantra" to Hindus, often considered to represent supreme
maya
the perception that physical phenomena are real
Parvati
Shiva's wife, Ganesh's mother, honored by mothers/married women
Raja yoga
the "royal" discipline of meditation
Sankhya
based on dualism, focusing on principles of the soul and potential matter
Rudra
father of the storm gods Marut
2nd Yuga
world is not as good
Caste System
The levels of all Hindus
Bhakti (Yoga)
Yoga: devotion to a god, love/devotion
kalki
10th and last avatar of vishnu; messianic figure who will come to restore the dharma and destroy the wicked at the end of the 4th worl period, the current kalpa.
Path of Desire
1.) Pleasure
2.) Wealth, Power, Fame
upanishad
created during the epic age consist mainly of epic poems, where the concept of karma, reincarnation and how to overcome it, begin to appear.
Vaisyas
Third highest caste which consists of merchants and artisans. "Legs" of the caste system
Hatha
the yoga devoted only to bodily control (called simply "yoga" in the West)
what is the common worship?
no common worship
Pre-Aryan archaic Indus Valley Civilizations
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Marga
literally means \"path\" and refers to the different approaches that lead to liberation or moksha in Hinduism. These paths employ different disciplines or yogas, which include jnana, karma, and bhakti.
Davanagari
The alphabet used to write Sanskrit and the northern Indian vernacular languages such as Hindi and Bengali.
bhakti yoga
the spiritual discipline of devotion to a deity or guru
Yajur-Veda
Second book of the Vedas, which contains ritual instructions for priests about how to conduct services.
4 Stages of Life
learning, house holder, improvement, compete withdrawal from family/society
Ganesha
son of Shiva and Parvati-head of an elephant, remover of obstacles, brings good fortune
Krishna
is an avatar of Vishnu
teaches a path available to everyone to attain
In his human form is different from, and in his divine form is identical to Brahman
3 Religions that came from Hinduism
Jainism, Buddhism, Sihkism
What was their ultimate goal?
to go to heaven
Theistic Period
(300 BCE- present) shift = People needed deities to relate to Brahman
ashrama
one of four stages in the Hindu age-based social system. The layers consist of students, householders, retirees, and renouncers
rishis
"seers" who hear the sounds of the four Vedas and collected them into the Veda
Mohenjo-Daro
The site of one of the earliest civilizations in South Asia
Varnashrama Dharma
Based upon the caste system and ashrama (stages of life) Fulfilling social responsibilities.
Sakta
Hindu sect that holds Sakti or Devi pre-eminent
Reincarnation
The inner soul is reborn in another form
rama navami
a holy day ovserved in spring, a holiday centered on the god, rama
Mahabharta
Its a Hindu epic poem in the smirit category with more that 200,000 verses. It tells the story of the war between two families over inheritance.
Ramayana
the epic that tells the story of Rama and Sita
karma marga
one of the three Hindu paths to salvation, emphasizing performing right actions according to dharma
T or F? Karma is delivered by Hindu deities to reward good behavior and to punish bad behavior.
F
3 Components that Blend Hinduism
Aryan religion, Dravidian religion, and Tribal religions
created Upanishads: most sophisticated scriptures
decided on the \"Holy Trinity\"
Bhagavad Gita
"Song of the divine one"
Part of a long, epic poem called the Mahabharata
kama
One of the four aims of life. The path of sensual pleasure.
Name one of the most sacred features of the Indian landscape
the River Ganges
began to exchange ideas
Herapians and the aryans did what when they merged
What significant development occurred in relations between Hindus and Muslims in 1947?
In 1947, the Muslim community forced the partitioning of India to form the divided nation of Pakistan.
Are Hindus idol worshipers?
Hindus do not worship a stone or metal "idol" as God. We worship God through the image. We invoke the presence of God from the higher, unseen worlds, into the image so that we can commune with Him and receive His blessings.
What are the three most important schools of Hindu philosophy? What is the basic task that concerns all three?
Vedanta, Sankhya, and Yoga. The basic task that concerns all three is the attainment of knowledge over the ignorance that binds the self to samsara.
Vedic Gods and Myths (as discussed in class)
• Many Vedic devas (Gods) (not all are worshipped today)
• Agni (fire god). Varuna (sky and the celestial ocean). India (Lord of heaven. God of war).
• A Vedic creation myth. Purusa-sukta
• Creation through sacrificial dismemberm
prapatti
surrender
Preserver
Vishnu
Avatara
Manifestations/Incarnations
Vivaha
Marriage
Tamas
Inertia
Ghandi Dates
-born-
1869
Ashvamedha
Horse Sacrafice
Ithyphallic
Erect penis
Murti
Temple icon
2. Ksatriya
Kings
Rta
Cosmic Order
Saiva
tradition for Siva
Vaisnava
Followers of Visnu
3 Gunas
(Qualities/attributes) that compose Prakrti in a state of equilibrium 
 

Sattva (pure, luminous, illuminating)

Raja (active, passionate, stimulating, painful)

Tamas (passive, dark, heavy, obstructing)
**when Prakrti comes into contact with Purusa, the Gunas lose their equilibrium initiating the evolution of the material world. Prakrti manifests as 23 elements.**
Bhagavan
Supreme distinct god
Kirtana
Singing of hymns
Purusha
Spirit of Consciousness
8 limbs of yoga
Yama
Niyama
Asana
Pranayama
Pratyahara
Dharana
Dhyana
Samadhi
Goddess
-good, mother
"ma"
- horrible, destructive
Breast vs. Tooth
motherly, nuturing vs. terrrible, violent, destructive
tapas
ascetic practicesheat generated through ascetic practices for renunciation
Sacred books
Vedas
Upanishads
epic literature: Mahabhrata
Jnana
Knowledge/Wisdom. Produced by austerity
Visnu characterstics
Kingship
avataras or avatars
orthodoxy, order, dharma
promotion of goodness and harmony
seperation of deity and worshipper (contrary to general characteristic 4)
Vaisnava instruction/section division
Gopi
Cowgirl. Radha is one.
Ramanandis
Predominantly ascetic and renunciatory. Literature is expressed in a medium of Hindi. Theology of this sect is based on the writing of Tulsidas. Originally all castes could join, but now there are restrictions.
Tirtha
 
 
sacred place "crossing place'
 
place to cross over from, where human meets divine
 
go to for enhanced encounter with divine
 
Tirtha sacred, but can be replicated in other places
ex: Ganges, say all rivers in India are sacred then
 
pan-Indian becomes localized (make our own Ganges in our own region) similar to big deities, becoming smaller families of localized deities
 
all Tirtha related to one another
Deva
meaning “god” or “deity”
Siva
(retrospective description)
 
-special realtionship with asceticism
-saffron robes, 108 beads
-life of denial, rigor
- very paradoxial figure - family man and erotic ascetic
- siva was at first an outsider (sati) now an insider
 
varna
"color"casteCaste system of the Aryans
4 theologians of Vaisnava theology
RamanujaMadhvaVallabhaNimbarka
Aryavarta
"Aryan Homeland" The Ganges Region
Mantra-Yoga
Involves the repetition of mantras
Vratyas
Early renunciation group. Aggressive warriors. May have been connected with the Kesins
Pusti-Marga
non-renunciatory. Comprising only of householders. Main focus of this devotion is on Krsna as a child and the devotee as a parent.
Madhva
Vaisnava theologian. Wrote many commentaries. Dualistic. Renouncer. Established monastic center. Distinction between self and the lord. Liberation is obtained from devotion.
Prasada


•prasāda means “grace” in Sanskrit
•refers to the food and other offerings (ash, paste, oils, etc.) returned to the worshipper after being presented to the deity
•the distribution of prasāda and the waving of the āratī , or camphor flame are the final acts of pūjā
•consuming prasāda physically connects the bodies of the worshipper and the deity
Tantra
deals primarily with spiritual practices and ritual forms of worship that aim at liberation from ignorance and rebirth.
Sutras
Thread (new line of thought)
Yajna
Vedic Sacrafice; most important aspect of Aryan culture
Sat, Asat, cit, Ananda
Existence, non-existence, consciousness of this existence, and bliss. Reaching Moksa.
Sindu
Branch of the Indus Valley Civilization. Hindu comes from this word.
Medieval Period
500-1500 CE
Bhakti Hinduism developes (Visnu, Siva and Devi)
Poetry/literature in Sanskrit
Tantric Literature written
Islam enters ion 7th century, footholds in 8th
Islam controls N. India by 1200 (persecution)
Liberation consists of reversing the evolutionary process (the unfolding of the 23 elements), once the elements are folded back into their more subtle manifestation, one is able to refine the capacities of the buddhi tattva.
Usas
"the dawn." Vedic goddess. Brings light to the world every morning. Bestower of prosperity and long life.
Pitr-loka
Realm of the ancestors or fathers
Hare Krsna Mantra
Repetition of Krsna's name.
Vivekanda
Disciple of Ramakrsna. The absolute exists in all beings. Articulated Hinduism as a world religion.
Bali


•Animal sacrifice, usually to a fierce goddess or a Tantric deity
•Often a propitiation or appeasement of angry deities
•Sacrificial animals (chickens and goats are most common) serves as a substitute for oneself

Durga
Warrior Godess. kills demons. multiple arms. rides lion. worshipped by warriors
Trisanku
untouchable trying to go to heaven-gets turned upside down-so vishamistra turns world upside down for him
Shraddha
Funeral Rights-in which deceased are creamated
Ghandi Dates
-British massacre of peaseful Insiand in Amritsar convinces G of need for British to quit india)
13 April 1919
How exactly does tantra work?
 
ritual action/behavior
mantras 
mandalas
Rsi
ancient Aryan Seer that received the Vedas
Stages of Consciousness
Sensory delights, Social Achievements, Duty, Liberation
Krsna
Tribal god of late vedic period. "Black" Associated with dark clouds. Three jointed pose: hands, feet, and head going different directions. Avatar of Visnu
Sanatana Dharma
Another name for Hinduism. Eternal religion or law
Indus Valley Civilisation
2500-1500 BCE
Also Called HArappan civilisation
India derived from Indus
Aspects of religious life suggest continuities with Hinduism EX. Ithyphallic proto-siva (T/F, is it really siva: not for sure), smooth linga, yoni stones, bathing tanks
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro: Major sites
Skanda/Karttikeya
Handsome son of Siva
God of war
born from Sivas seed
carried by Ganga and delivered to a reed bed
nursed by the 6 pleiades (krittika) the source of his six heads
Village goddesses
Hot deities. Almost always female. Associated with a village and represented by a simple signifier such as rock, stones, stick, etc.
Visnu
Major deity. In the heaven (svar) realm. Usually depicted as having 4 arms. Holds a lotus flower which is a representation of the creation of the world. Shows feminism (beyond gender). Surrounded by a snake with 5 heads. One the ocean, holding a conch shell, spinning discuss, and club. Married to Laksmi and Rsi.
Upanayana
Rite of initiation and investiture of the sacred thread. ages 8-24.
Putana
is a Rakshasi (demoness), who is killed by the infant-god Krishna.Putana is interpreted as an infantile disease or bird, symbolizing danger to an infant or desire respectively, and even as a symbolic bad mother.
Arya Samaj
Aryan society founded by Sarasvati. Founded schools which promoted Hindu unity and vedic or aryan culture. Intolerant of other faiths.
Mareecha
Ravana's uncle who becomes golden deer to avert Rama
Vaishnava sampradayas
Within Vaishnavism there are four main disciplic lineages
(sampradayas)
Lakshmi - Sri Vaisnavism
Brahma - Gaudiya Vaisnavism
Rudra
Kumara
The Four Yogas: Bhakti Yoga
The way of love
Purusa Sukta
Famous hymn of the cosmic man. Describes the creation of the world by the gods.
Dharma Sastras
Later group of texts that elaborate upon the Dharma.
Attributes of Siva
1. trident
2. drum
3. tiger skin
4. snake
5. ganges
6. rosary
 
Types of Samadhi (2)

Sabija samadhi: (with seed) contemplation has a focus

Nirbija Samadhi: *higher* pure awareness
Nirbija is true liberation
Karna
This is actually the eldest son of Kulti in the epic, Mahabharata. She abandoned him because she was afraid Pandu wouldn't accept him. Aligns with the Kauravas and fights against the Pandavas.
Draupadi
Wife of the Pandavas in the epic, Mahabharata. Arjuna wins her.
Sitala
Local goddess in the North. Goddess of small pox
Lakshmi
Wife of Vishnu and goddess who cares for devotees through worldly benefits. Goddess of light and good luck.
Why is there evil?
Karma
Karma: importance exaggerated in everday life not used often for explanation of evil
 
"action" (origonally meant action of sacrifice in Vedas--now encompasses all human action)
 
if you do an action it wil lhave consequence
 
forward looking aspect more often thought of (not backwards)
warning, if you don't shape up-- you will suffer
Damayanthi
Refuses to marry any of the Gods (loyal to Satyavan)
Soma
god of plants, sacred plant used which was a fundamental offering of the Vedic sacrifices.
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
2 major cities of Indus Valley
400 miles apart
Along banks of Indus River
Purpose of Life
Depends on the stage - ultimate purpose is to be liberated from the imperfect
Sama Veda
Essential parts of the Vedas put to verse. Used at sacrifices. "Book of songs"
The Epic and Puranic Period
500 BCE-500 CE
Composition of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, and many Puranas
Great kingdoms: Mauryas:Buddhism under Asoka

Gupta Dynasty (320-500CE) marked classical period of Hinduism: art, literature, architecture
Sectarian traditions: vaisnavism, saivism, saktism
Siva

Siva: one of the two great gods in Hinduism, often depicted clad in animal skins (or naked) with matted hair in a topknot, the river goddess Ganga flows through his hair, crecent moon forehead. Holds a drum, a trident, mount is the bull (nandi), adorned with snakes (belt, necklace, etc)
Drona and Bhisma
teacher to the Pandavas before they went to war.
Sita
the wife of Rama. She is esteemed as the standard setter for wifely and womanly virtues for all Hindu women
Ram Mohan Roy
Father of modern India. Dislike image worship. Belief that god is transcendent, who is the creator but cannot be known. All religions are one. Rejects karma and incarnation.
Vanaprastha
Retire to forest and break all ties to social world phase
The Four Yogas: Karma Yoga
The way of work and service
The Eight Limbs of Yoga (Astanga)

Yama: Moral Principles (ahimsa/non violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, celibacy, no greed) Participation in cociety morally

Niyama: Observances (Bodily purification, contentment, ascetic practices, study of sacred lore, dedication to the Lord of Yoga) Moral individual behaviour

Asana: Posture (that which is firm and pleasant)                                                       -designed to make body supple, strong and stable                                                          -develops muscle control and relaxation                                                   -identify/dissolve mental/emotional patterns blocking energy flow                                                                  -acquire alert, relaxed basis for exploration of consciousness

Pranayama: control of the vital energy (breath)                                                      -steadies the mind, provides vitality to reach the highest yogic states, connected to breath, control of breath is control of Prana (vital energy)                                                      -Life-span is believed to be connected to a limited amount of breaths, prana circulates through the nadis (energy channels)

Pratyahara: Detachment of the senses, from objects

Dharna: concentration (attaining one-pointedness)                                               -mantras are often used, japa (constant uttering of the mantra), mala (prayer beads/108 in number)

Dhyana: meditation (attaining steady unbroken flow of awareness)

Samadhi: Contemplative union (insight into nature of awareness itself)
Village Festivals
 
Holi: North India
no images of langs
N more egalitarian in festivals
 
have different political history than South, so festivals are different (reflect institution of politics)
 
N India, subordinates (top not replicated) more bureaucratic/systametized structure
 
Most of the North couldn't sponsor festivals because only one king
ritual ation, behavior
- helps to supercharge the use of m&m. 2 broad categories: left and right hand
4 steps through deity worship to samsara
1. Being/Becoming -hero worship
2. Being with
3. Bargaining
4. Becoming (no deity) == Sams(k)ara/yognia (through own efforts)
homology
microcosm vs macrocosm
what you see at the micro level is the same on the macro level
- if you manipulate something within yourself, you maniputlate it withing the universe
- the fundamental essence of reality if the funadmental essence within you
Siva in the vedas:
siva was rudra : pray to him so he would not bother you
/ 261
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online