Hinduism Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ksatriya
Rules/Warriors
Brahmin
priest
Brahman
Divine Essence
Mahavakya
Great statement
ahimsa
non violence
sat
being/existenance itself
Moksha
Hindu enlightment
orthopraxy
correct practices
Jnana
Karma + Deed
western thinking
science thinking
Diwali
Festival of lights
Yoga
Dicipline of meditation
sudra
the servant class
Udgatr
Singer of Sama Veda
Jnana Yoga
KNOWLEDGE, intellectual personality
deity
a god or goddess.
Vishnu
god that preserves life
rishi
semi divine sages (seers)
Sanskirit
The oldest surviving Indo-European language brought to Indus Valley by the Aryans
Upanishads
Hindu philosophical texts composed between 800-400 BCE
pleasure
first thing you should seek
Rig Veda
hymns to various gods
Untouchables
lowest class; socially outcast; unpure
Shiva
the destroyer; god of death
Puja
Ritual devotion which usually include offerings of food or sweets to deity.
The four varna
Brahmin, Ksatriya, Vaisya, Sudra
Artharva Veda
Home magic spells and rituals
seek dharma
3rd thing you should seek
samadhi
goal of yogic meditation, super conscious state of union with the absolute
Manikarnika ghat
the holiest place in varanasi
Jatis
Social divisions (another name for caste)
hindu trinity
Brahma (creator), Vishnu (preserver), Shiva (destroyer)
mohenjo-daro
city center of indus valley civilization
Ganges
river in north and east India
Dharma
The fulfillment of one's purpose in life.
Himalayas
a mountain range extending 1500 miles on the border between India and Tibet. The abode of the gods.
Bhakti
The type of devotion (worship) that one performs which depends on both the relationship they have with a god or goddess, and the emotions or moods that the specific god or goddess evokes.
Tapas
Spiritual heat as you engage in aesthetic practice
Ashram
Spiritual commune or retreat where the Guru Lives and teaches
samsara
cycle of life and death and rebirth
Puranas
stories of the gods: Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva
asanas
postures used to cleanse body and develop minds ability to concentrate
Rigveda
First of the Vedas
Collection of Vedic hymns
vedas
sacred texts in the Hindu religion, they are a set of four collections of hymns and religious ceremonies transmitted by memory through the centuries by Aryan priests
Allahabad
Sacred meeting point of the 3 rivers- The Ganges. Yamuna, and the unseen Saraswati.
Beauty and wealth
What does the goddess Lakshmi represent?
Bhagavad-Gita
This is part of the Mahabharata and many people believe that it contains some of the basic beliefs of Hinduism.
Raja
One of the three gunas, or attributes of human nature "fire" - passion activity the primary force in the nature of The Kshatriya (the warrior) and the Raja Yogin. These are men of passion. Raja yoga is the attempt to control the physical passions and the senses so as to move beyond them.
Brahma
One of the three major gods, the creator of the cosmos
polytheism
Hindus believe in many gods. this word comes from the Greek and means "many gods".
Bhagavad Gita
Dialogue btw Arjuna and Krishna about duty and ethics of civil war
Mahabharata
The longest epic poem in the world. At 200,000 verses long, each verse consisting of couplets, this poem incorporates many different stories into it.
Tat tvam asi
That's how you are, Thou art thou
siva
one of the two great gods of hinduism, wears animal skins, has 3rd eye, linga, bull
Aryan Invasion Theory
1500 BC, Aryans with horses came from the Ural Mountains, brought their Vedic tradition, polytheism, fire sacrifice and the caste system and influenced the Dravidian people.
the upanisads
the last portion of each of the vedic sets of texts. philosphical speculation about the nature of reality, atman, and brahman and moksha
Kshatriyas
warriors
Sukta/Sutra
Hymn
Pleasure?
Kama
Maya
illusion
Veda
Oral literature
murti
Image- worship
Mahatma
great spirit
Meditation
SELF EXPLANATORY
Karma
means action
Daksa
Sati's father
Vasiyas
farmers and traders
Kali
Destroyer of demons
kshatriya
warrior/ ruler caste
Vaishnavites
followers of vishnu
Aranyakas
Transitional "forest" texts
Kalki






–the tenth and
last avatar of Vishnu, messianic.





Trimurti "Triple form"
-Creation
-Preservation
-Destruction
Brahmanic Hinduism (Date)
1500-500 BCE
5 caste
Dalit- The untouchable
Ganesha
Remover of obstacles
Good Fortune
Vedanta
monism, role of maya(illusion)
Om-Kara
Sikh terms for god
Yajna
(sacrifice)
Sacrifices are necessary to uphold social and cosmic order
Exegesis
academic analysis of scripture
Vaishnavite
Worshiper of Vishnu or Krishna.
Sanskrit
ancient language of the Vedas
Karma Yoga
discipline of selfless action
Indra
god of war and thunder
Hanuman
king o' monkeys. kills ravenna.
satyagraha
Gandhi's central principle of "grasping the truth"
atharva veda
magical formulae and mantras
Four Varnas
priests; nobles and warriors; merchants, laborers
Cow
Animal that is sacred to Hindus
Atman
like soul but not the same
Symbol
communicates meaning and is usually related to a story.
Mahatma -
Great soul / Great one
Jainism
an Indian religion that stresses nonviolence, or ahimsa
Avatar
A living embodiment of a deity
Purusa
(Human spirit or essence, pure consciousness)
Similar to atman
Only when one understands that purusa and prakrti are totally separate can one be liberated
World got out of balance because of purusa
Shudra
Lowest caste of servants and workers
magic, illusion
Unique Combination of personality traits
samhita
literally joined and collected, refers to hymn collections such as the Rg Veda Samhita and just the basic text of the vedas
Devotion to Goddess
Shaktas (worship Durga and Kali)
Fortune
Good karma brought good fortune; bad karma brought bad fortune
Sati
Burning of the widow. She willingly sacrifices herself for this.
beginning of all things
What is the Om
Varna
(Hinduism) the name for the original social division of Vedic people into four groups (which are subdivided into thousands of jatis)
The four traditonal castes
Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Shudras
Monism
oneness with nature; divinity is in all things
Bhakti yoga
the spiritual discipline of devotion to a deity or guru
Reincarnation(samsara)
after death, the atman will be released from the body and later reborn into another being
Ellora
One of India's most important holy sites in the Deccan Plateau. It is a series of caves carved into a huge cliff
funeral rite
preparation of the body, cremation, scattering of the ashes
Devi
Also refers to the Ultimine Divine Feminine.
Upanisads
Philosophical texts, in the form of reported conversations composed around the sixth century BCE and reflecting on the theory of Vedic ritual and the nature of knowledge.
Sanatana Dharma
the eternal way of religious duty; "eternal religion"
Sananta Dharma
"eternal law or order". The original name of Hinduism
NETI...NETI
not this... not this, whatever left is Brahman
reincarnation
the process of your soul being reborn into a new body
Chandragupta Maurya
Founder of the Mauryan Empire (First Indian Empire)
proselytize
the make converts from one religion to another
darshana
means both a philosophy and being in presence of deity, god(s) take many forms, plurality and unity; "seeing"
Transcendental Meditation
a movement founded by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi that brought mystical HIndu teachings to the West through manta-centered meditation
Sanskirt
An ancient language of India that is the language of Hinduism and the Vedas.
Non-ritualistic Religions
believe that rituals are good or advantageous, but do not get you to the ultimate goal.
Upanayana
The initiation of a young brahmin boy with ritual responsibility, in which he is given the cord to wear over his left shoulder and a mantra to recite and is sent to beg for food for the day.
shiva ratri
a holy day, observed in late winter, an all-night celebration of the divine as manifested in the god, shiva
Devotional Yoga
might be thought as the most important path, because it is the basis of the other two, and even the weak and ignorant can appeal to Krishna for help
Shruti
A canon of Hindu scripture, is a word that means "what is heard"
Holy Scripture
A collection of written ideas for the religion by people who were inspired by God
Parashurama (warrior-priest)
Rama with the axe that cleanses the world of evil
Ramayana & Mahabharata
two great epics, all Hindus know; in story form
Deities of Classical Hinduism
• "There is one God perceived differently"
Yajur Veda
list of things to throw in the fire pit for sacrifice
do hindus subscribe to polytheism?
yes. the divine is thought to ultimately be one essence though also.
Best Action
the one in which a person acts in a selfless mannerthere is the right action, the wrong action, and inaction
How many Indian people are Hindus?
80% of India's 1 billion people consider themselves Hindus.
YET we are all the same on the deepest level
4 layers of self
Death and the afterlife in the late Vedas
This text later develops a notion of the fear of death and associate it with evil.
Tirtha
Crossing-place
bandhu
...
Brahmins
priests
Devis
female gods
Bhakdi
emotional yoga
rama
ideal man
Darshan






–Seeing the
deity.

–Experienced
while worshiping images or idols






Agni
god of fire
Raja Yoga
Psycho-spiritual exercises
Rudra
god of mountains
Sadhu
pursuing a goal
S(h)ruti
sacrifice, ritual, magic
Kama
1st goal. Pleasure.
lethargy, dependency, follower
Moksha
Chit
Pure consciesness and knowledge
Trivial Metaphysics
ie Santa Clause
Monotheism
Belief in one God
Hindu
a follower of Hinduism
Ahisma
Hindu belief in non-violence
Vaisyas
Third Varna: Technicians and Producers
Juana Yoga
The path of knowledge
Aryan
nomadic Eurasian tribes; especially those who invaded Persia and India 2,000 - 1,500 B.C.E.
Smriti
human-man literature, or knowledge that is "remembered,"eg. the content of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.
Mudras
Hand gestures
Beckon people by reassuring them
sharecropping
to farm as a sharecropper.
Caste
comes from Portugeese meaning breed, race, or kind, also social class
Hatha Yoga
The path of physical control
karma marga
emphasizes performing right actions according to dharma
Minakshi/Minatci
avatar of Parvati
consort of Shiva
one of only Gods to have a temple solely devoted to her: Minakshi Amman Temple in Maduria, Tamil Nadu
Indra killed a demon and as punishment, he was forced to wander around. He was freed due to the power of Shivalingam and he built a small temple at the sight he was free. At this time, South India was ruled by a Pandyan king and he ruled near this Shivalingam. He decided to build a huge temple near this Shivalinga. This king was childless and so Shica granted him a child who had three breasts a fish-shaped eyes. It was said that the third breast would disappear when he met her future husband. One days, she saw Shiva and her breast disappeared. They got married and Shiva performed the cosmic dance at their wedding. At this, all life force and beauty was merged into one Minakshi merged with the shivalingam.
She became the representation of life and of beauty.
an ancient post Sangam Tamil literature describes her as having a crescent moon on her matted hair, two arms with the left holding a lotus and the right holding a sword, right side in crimson color and left side in dark color
Parvati
Shiva's consort
Also called Devi ("The Goddess") or Kali. Also a destroyer deity
jati
sub-classes (much more numerous) of the varna caste system
Dravidians
the original inhabitants of India compared by the Aryans
Vedic Period
(1800-800 BCE) literary period, stories written down, where the caste system developed
the __________ are the only archaeological records left
vedas
Pilgrimage
A journey to a sacred place
Vajra
The lightning bolt controlled by Indra, the atmospheric god
Sri Ramakrishna
married to Sri Savaitri Devi-spiritual marriage never consumated
Pure Land
(devotional school) based on a Sanskrit story about a celestial land known as the Western Paradise or Pure Land, place where one can be reborn and prepare for nirvana and buddhahood by belief in Amitabha (infinite light), who resides in the Pure Land.
Rig Vedas
Texts: hymns & rituals (originally oral)
Wu Wei
the supreme action, the precious suppleness, simplicity, and freedom that flows from us, or rather through us, when our private egos and conscious efforts yield to a power not their own. Let behavior flow spontaneously. "Do nothing as the problem arises, and the solution will also arise."
Basavanna
twelfth century devotee of Shiva and early organizer of the Virasaiva Lingayata sect in the Kannada-speaking regions of southern India.
For him, Shiva=lord of the meeting of rivers
The Virasaivas were a Shiva bhakti movement that rejected the elaborate ritualism and strict caste system of othrodox Hinduism which favored the wealthy, and instead emphasized direct mystical experience available to all through deep devotion to God.
mystical protestant movement that also asserted social equality and justice for the poor. As Lingayatas they worship Shiva in the form of a linga
orphaned at a young age but adopted by a wealthy family with political connections. He received a good education but rejected a life of comfort and prestige to become a wandering ascetic dedicated to Shiva.
He achieved enlightenment at a sacred meeting of rivers. This is why all of Basavanna's poems include a reference to Shiva as "the lord of the meeting rivers."
Lingayats literally means "wearers of the Linga" and were founded by Basavanna (12th century CE)
believes that upon death he will go straight to death with Shiva and there is no return to this world
Shiva brahman at the court of King Bijjala
social and religious reformer
sannyasin
An individual who has transcended all attachments to the world and is often a wandering ascetic.
Mahabarata
India's greatest epic, such as the Bhagavad Gita (discusses welfare and religion)
What decides the nature of each reincarnation?
Karma
Caste made up of servants and laborers?
Shudra
ramayana
one of two classical Hindu epics telling of the banishment of Rama from his kingdom and the abduction of his wife by a demon and Rama's restoration to the throne
mahabharata; krishna
epics incarnations about the god krishna
Triloka
is the name given to the Hindu cosmos.
Caste System
the pattern of social classes in Hinduism. It was outlawed in 1948, but is still practiced. Overall, India is a very peaceful society.
Dravidian
Lived in India before the Aryans took over. Then mixed, mingled, interacted, and intermarried with Aryans.
Four goals of life
samsara: Spiritual perfection moksha+= ultimate goal of life
sensual pleasure(kama) Material Success(artha)
Harmony with Dharma (dharma)
The bliss of Moksha (Moksha)
rajah yoga
the path to god through psychological exercises
Varanasi
One of the most famous places for pilgrimmage; located on the banks of the Ganges River
Path of Works
Performing actions in accordance with dharma. Doing the right thing simply because it is right
What is dharma?
Dharma means many things, but "appropriateness" is perhaps the best translation. Hinduism is really a map of dharma, of appropriate behavior, and thus of a path to a good rebirth and to moksha.
4 stages of Asrama
1. student stage
2. householder stage
3. forest dweller stage
4. renouncer stage - most hindus never get to this stage
Varuna
The vedic god of natural and moral law; probably the sky god in earlier times
Karma is not about vengeance and retribution, but deals with ___.
what is
Temple
also known as a mandir, Hindu place of worship
Five basic beliefs...
Brahman , multiple gods, darma, karma , samsara
lila
The idea that the universe is a kind of game or "play."
What is the third caste?
Vaishyas: Producers, artisans and farmers
Work requires specialized training
Often go into business for themselves.
Skilfull in creating the material life depends on
anatolia was rich in _______________
wood, agriculture, and mineral deposits
False
When one refers to the gender of a deity, it is usually correct to take this reference literally, i.e. it necessarily emans biological identity.
stages of life
see life unfolding in two paths (desire, renunciation)-householder, student, retired, sannyasin
What yoga is ascribed to the Path of Love?
Bhakti Yoga
a person dharama is determind by his
cast gender of age
what is monism?
all reality is ultimately make up of one substance and all things share a common essence
Which is the most fulfilling of the goals in life?
The Bliss of Moksha
what are four main beliefs of hinduism ?
dharma, smsara, moksha and karma
sannyasin stage of life (or wandering ascetic) is marked by...
forest dwellers who are ready to return to society, but remain detached from the normal attractions and distractions of social life. "one who neither hates not desires". husband and wife live detached from each other
Two main differences between Samkhya and Yoga
1. Yoga assumes the existence of a god (Ishvara)
2. Yoga assumes that one has to practice to obtain liberation
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