Hinduism Vocab 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Reincarnation
Rebirth
Shiva
Destroyer
Brahmin
priests
Prithivi
Earth
Shudras
Laborers
Anatta
No soul
Sanskrit
Written language
JIVAS
individual "souls"
brahmins
priestly caste
Golden Embryo
...
Vanaprasta
transitory, withdrawl/retirement
Yajna
Fire Sacrifice
Bhakti Yoga
Devotion yoga.
vedas
hindu holy scriptures
Samsara
cycle of reincarnation
followers are called
Hindus
Puranas
manefestations of Vishnu
Ganesha
Lord of obstacles
Vaisnavites
Worshipers of Visnu
Samsara






– the
endless series of births, deaths, and rebirths to which all beings are subject.
AKA Reincarnation or Wheel






Brahmanas
Explanations of sacrifice
Varuna
judge of human conduct
Atman
the self or soul
Karma
Actions that affect life
sannyasin
a wandering holy man
The second highest caste?
Kshatriya
Linga
Important symbol of Siva
Sadhus
holy men of India
Sannyasa
Fourth Asrama: Wandering Preacher, Renunciate
Kali
wife of shiva; blood thirsty
Kshtriyas
class of nobles and warriors
samadhi
trancelike state in which self-consciousness is lost, and the mind is absorbed into the ultimate reality
holi
spring festival; krishna; colored water
Avatar
The incarnation of a deity
Hinduism's oldest sacred text
Rig veda
Bhakti
personal devotion to the gods
Moksha
"Liberation" - freed from Samsara
Devas
help maintain order in nature
Temple
1: Offerings supervised by Brahman priests
2: Temple as home of God
3: Image of God is form taken due to God's grace
4: Images are used in worship
Brahman
1 true divine reality behind everything that exists
shruti
revealed those early scriptures held to be reavlead to rishis or sages
Upanishads
written meditations on the spiritual essence of the universe and the self
Caste system levels
brahmin, kshatriya, vaishya, shudra
pantheism
The theological and philosophical idea that godness (Brahman) permeates and is identical with the entire universe.
Monotheism
The belief in only one God
Dravidians
Prehistoric inhabitants of India who initially lived in the Indus Valley and were later conquered by Indo-Aryans
Bhagavad Gita
central "episode" of Mahabharata; narrates Lord Krishna with the Pandava archer, Arjuna, on the day of the battle
soma
a hallucinogentic beverage that was used as an offering to Hindu gods and used in Vedic ritual sacrifices
Tirthas
Pilgrimage places of all varieties, literally "crossings" as in crossing a river
Anything that is said to have sacred power
related to the word Avatara
Vedanta
Tradition of commentary on the Upanishads.
Aryan
literally means noble ones
refers to people on the indian subcontinent after 1500 bce, they give way to different ideas about the origins of modern day india (about the aryan migration)
dysentery
an infectious disease marked by inflammation and ulceration of the lower part of the bowels, with diarrhea that becomes mucous and hemorrhagic.
Yoga
Union with the supreme god-- any practice aimed at such realisation
dharma
virtuous living, one's moral duty (to family, society, etc.)
varnasramadharma
one of the 5 ways to moksha
Epistemology
Teachings relating to the nature of knowledge.
Basic question- How do you know? How can you know?
Aca
A fulfilling marriage of unity and intimacy. Lifelong social and spiritual responsibility
Mantra
a sacred verbal formula that is repeated in prayer or meditation
artha
material success and social power and prestige that accompanies it.
Atman is Brahman
Brahman= Absolute Reality, Atman= smallest most particular representation of Brahman. (pantheism)God is within everything, "that art thou"
Cow
animal that is sacred to the Hindus
Monsoons
Seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry season
women's lives
no gurus, community; once married, completely devoted to spouse; dowry
Bharatavarsha
southern tip of India, in Kanyakumari, Land of Bharata.
Om
A sacred syllable that invokes the essence of Brahman when chanted. It is believed to be the sound of all reality.
Theravada
School of Buddhism closest to original teachings of Buddha
Vardhamana (Mahavira) 540- 468 BCE
Founder of Jainism
karma yoga
the spiritual discipline of selfless action
Places of Worship
Anywhere including temples, shrines and at home.
Rebirth without transmigration
No soul (Anatta), no reincarnation without soul,
sakti
power awarded to women for being a good wife/mother
Hinduism
One of the world's oldest and most complex religions. Practiced by over 900 million people, mainly in India. Considered an "Umbrella" religion.
Caste System
Highly evolved system with four major classes
1. Brahmin: priests, intellectual and religious leaders
2. Kshatriya: rulers, warriors & nobles
3. Vaishya: farmers, merchants, and traders
4. Shudra: Laborers & servants
Chandalas: "outcasts/pariahs"
What is the second caste?
Kshatriyas- born administrators
-Have a genius for orchestrating people and projects.
Make most of available human talent and resources.
Presidents and CEOs exercise leadership naturally.
Mahabharata
story of an epic war between 2 families
Mutri
name for images of gods and goddesses (their version of an icon)
Rig Veda
an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns. It is counted among the four canonical sacred texts (śruti) of Hinduism known as the Vedas
Avatara
A 'descent' or incarnation of a deity in earthly form.
What is samsara?
reincarnation, soul must go through cycles to become pure
epic
noting or pertaining to a long poetic composition, usually centered upon a hero, in which a series of great achievements or events is narrated in elevated style:
4 proper goals of life
Kama, Artha, Dharma, and Moksha
Vaishya
The third of the four classes of the caste system, made up of farmers merchants and workers
The Caste System
Aryans started this system in 1500 B.C. Hindu religions/social structure/system. Only hinduism believes in the system. There is no founder
what is the ultimate goal of life
to achieve moksha
Agni
The god of fire; the link between gods & humans.
Indigenous cultures of indus valley
2500-1500 B.C.E. Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro ( 2 cities)mother goddess, phalic gods,sacred bulls, baths
maya *
The true nature of the cosmos we can see. In Sanskrit, the word means "illusion," but that does not just mean that it is imaginary. Instead, since it is what we can see, we must deal with it and live within it.
Shiva, Vishnu, and Ganesh
Lesser Gods recognized by Hindus that are often shown in Indian art, architecture and myth, and seen as aspects of Brahman
What is Saguna Brahman?
it is Nirguna Brahman, but with attributes
Saguna- "with attributes"
Also known as Ishvara.
Merchants and businessmen
special duty was to tend to the sacred cows
Karma is central to what four religions.
Hinduism, Sikkhism, Buddhism, and Jainism
Identify the three paths to liberation. Which type of person is best suited for each path?
Karma marga- those who are primarily concerned with day to day tasks such as earning a living or taking care of familyJnana Marga- people who have a talent for philosophical reflection. Bhakti Marga- people to whom emotional attachment comes easily.
What are the 3 gods of the Hindu Trimurti and what are there respective roles?
1. Brahman- creator
2. vishnu- preserver
3. shiva- dissolver
What is the purpose of following a Guru?
Gurus set an example of how to organize life with God in the center... The guru creates inspiration. He intensifies the spiritual practice and speeds up the spiritual process
Puja
worship
vrata
...
Ahimsa
non-violence
Kaccha
short pants
vishnu
the Sustainer
fav god
Bhaktic
Vanaprastha
Third Asrama: Retired
Once Born
The peasant
Mahavira
founder of Jainism
ashram
a spiritual community
murti
icon of a deity
Hindutva
Fundamentalist Hindu movement responding to modernity. A nativist outlook claiming India as a motherland for people only of Hindu descent: no muslims.
untouchables (harijan)
have worst jobs
Aryans
Earliest immagrants in India
Nirvana






–the oneness with Brahman-Atman which extinguishes
any sense of individuality and is attained after one is released from the cycle
of reincarnation. 





samskara
literally: accomplishment or consecration
A series of Vedic life cycle rites of passage that mark different stages of a human life. Also, karmic dispositions
Caste
fourfold varna; ideal model; heirchtical but also harmonical (priests, warriors, farmers/merchants, laborers)
nirvana
knowledge, experiences leading to union w/ the one supreme reality. individuality is extinguished.
Ksatriyas
warriors, protectors of society, military
maya
sanskirt for "illusion";only Brahman is real, everything else is just allusion
False
Because the indian Constitution outlaws the status Outcaste, discriminaton against the Outcaste does not exist in modern India.
Krsna
"Lord"
Avatara of Hindu god Visnu
Counsels Arjuna before battle
Bibliolatry
committing idolatry w/ the scripture
Kumbha-Mela
Mass Hindu pilgrimage gatherings, which occur every three years rotating between four locations
Secularism
the constitutional principle of not giving favored status to any religion
associated with shankara and shaivism.
jnana yoga
raja yoga
the "royal" discipline of meditation
vrats
devotional vows taken usually by women
indra
powerful vedic god with a thunderbolt
Buddha
An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming 'enlightened' (the meaning of Buddha) he enunciated the principles of Buddhism.
Sruti/Smiriti
heard or not of human originVS.remembered or of human origin
Vaisnava
Visnu-centered groups, they do not consider the lack of Visnu references in Vedic sturi literature to be an indivation of Visnu's minor status, notably including the Bhagavatas, the Panearatra, and the Vaikhanasas
Chakra
a subtle energy, center in the body
shaktipat
powerful glance or touch of the guru
krishna
popular deity depicted as a baby, cowherder, charioteer, avatara of Vishnu
Student
partake in schooling, study way of life, celibacy is required
Devali
Hindu festival of light, renewal- new year's celebration. Lasts four days.
Robert Oppenheimer
manhattan project, atomic bomb summer of 45, saw Krisha, i am becoming death
Brahma
the Hindu god who is the Creator
monism
idea that there is one ultimate reality, divinity in everything
Kumbh Mela
Ganges River-- ritual bathing, life giving river, 4, 8, and 12 year celebration--- Gods were fighting over elixir of life with demons, Krishna took it back for gods and they dropped it in the Ganges river-- it has been touched by the gods
in 1500 A.D. the ____________ called these groups castes
portugese
Gurus
Originally referred to as Brahmans who served as teachers for the princes of the imperial court of the Guptas
Householder
Second stage of life. Career and family.
Siva
One of trimurti
The great ascetic, removed from real world
Destroyer, has dance of destruction
Dance comes when creation is to be destructed
Meditates in Himalayas
Married Sati but when she died married Parvati (reincarnation of Sati)
Yajur Veda
a collection of mostly prose sacrificial formulas (yajus) used by the presiding priest in a sacrifice
Vamana
The fifth avatar of Vishnu; the dwarf.
Dravidian
Term coined by Western scholars for the indigenous inhabitants of India, who were displaced and conquered by the Aryans.
Rig-Veda
earliest and most significant of the Vedas, and the oldest record of the Aryan religion.
the Aryans
Indo European group of invaders from north of the Black and Caspian Seas - conqured the people of the Indus Valley and moved to the Ganges plains -were nomadic herders - cattle was the basis of their economy - later they considered them to be sacred and a ban was placed on eating cows - they ate cucumbers bananas and barley cakes -
Jnana Yoga
Yoga that brings insight into one's divine nature.
right hand tantra
benevolent, beautiful aspect of nature (feminine) power = caring n loving power
Ramayana
popula epic telling the story of Rama, Sita, and lakshmana of which there are many versions
Upanishads (Vedantas)
700-300 BC- set of writings expressing the importance of Brahman/Atman. Peak of Hinduism Spirituality. Escape from samsara is first mentioned in these texts
yajur
one of the four samhitas; vedic texts of hymns to the gods.
Sarasvati, MT
goddess of learning, the book burning thing, Brahma
gods
not ideals but masks to the ultimate reality.
transcendental meditatioin
a technique derived from hinduism that promotes deep relazation through recitation of a mantra
Boon
grant of a wish, fulfillment of a desire
Canon
set of books that make up a scripture
One of the six char. of mystical experience.
-Can't describe/share in words
ineffable
The Indus Valley Civilization
Flourished about 3000 to 1750BCE
Large cities of brick
Written language that no one now can read
neti neti
what can be perceived (not this, not this) everything else is brahman
Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva
What three deities comprise the trinity in Hindiusm?
Kalps
an age or aeon: a period in cosmic times equaling one day of Brahma or 4,320 million years.
Banyan tree
East Indian tree that puts out aerial shoots that grow down into the soil forming additional trunks
Four Vedas
1. Rig Veda
2. Sama Veda
3. Ya Jur Veda
4. Atharua Veda
Kali Yuga
the dark age of the world in which spirituality and connection with brahman has declined
One of the things that determines a person's dharma is determined by his or her...
Stage of life
Is Hinduism Polytheistic or monotheistic
Polytheistic, but 1 single spirit. God is 1, but by many different names.
What are two popular Epics in Hinduism?
Ramayana
Mahabharata (which includes the popular Bhagavad-Gita)
These tell stories of Ishvara (Saguna) incarnating into the ten mythical Vishnu (called avatars) (a fish, tortoise, boar, and people- Rama, Krishna, Buddha and others).
6 categories of reality in Vaisheshika
1. Substance (5 elements: Air, water, fire, earth, and mind)
2. Quality (guna-color, taste,etc)
3. Motion (karma-action)
4. Universality (horseness)
5. Particularity (vishesha- that which makes something different from all other beings)
6. Inherence(-an indissoluble relationship between two entities: horseness is inherent in the horse, you cannot take the horseness out and still have a horse)
-all of these look at the relationship between atman and samsaric existence
What is the temple for?
The temple is built to house the image of God and to bring his presence into it through ritual. The temple is built in accordance with the structure of the universe, leading up to the highest point above the image, the pivot of the world. This "entering" into the sacred power of the universe is also achieved through different kinds of cosmic diagrams called yantras and mandalas, and is summed up in mantras, sacred chants that turn random sound into power and order.
According to hindu what are the four aims of humman life? what are the four things people want?
Pleasure sucess duty to ccommunity and liberation
Guru
Spiritual teacher
Sutra
saying,"chapter" in Vedas
Jnana
The spiritual discipline of knowledge and insight.
Vaistrya
Caste of farmers, merchants, teachers, artisans
Lakshmi
goddess of good fortune, consort of Vishnu
Trimurti
"Three forms" of the divine; the three gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva.
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