Hinduism Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Pranayana
Breath
atmon
soul
Smasara
reincarnation
Vaisya
Agricultural laborers/owners/merchants
samadhi
deep meditation
maya
an illusion
sanskrit
language "cultured/perfected"
Vishnu
the Sustainer
Hotr
Rig Veda recitation
eastern thought
abstract thinking
Varanasi
city of light
brahma
god of creation
Neti Neti
Not - Not
Guru
Spiritual Guide or leader
Samsara
another word for reincarnation.
atman
peace of Brahman within
indus valley civilization
harappan civilization
Dharma
The doctrine/moral guidance of Hinduism
Sama Veda
Mantras to accompany rituals
success
second thing you should seek
none
who is the set founder
Mahatma Gandhi
Countered western domination, encouraged nationalism, leader of spiritual truth and non-violent resistance, improved situation of untouchables - narijans
Upanishads
one of the main scriptures
Moksha
-from the Sanskrit meaning "liberation"
-In Hinduism, liberation from the round of birth, death, and rebirth
-various classical schools of Hinduism define it in different ways; what constitutes liberation and the methods of achieving it
Vaishya
Third highest Hindu Caste. Jobs included farmers and merchants. Believed to have evolved from Brahma's thigh. Provided the communities with trade, agriculture and cattle, but were not considered a high social status.
Tirthas
Religious pilgrimages to places such as temples and rivers.
Macrocosm
The entire world, the universe (brahman)
Niyama
OBSERVATIONS , Things to do, Cleanlines, contenment studiousness deovition
reincarnation
reborn, birth and death and rebirth
Sacred Times
life cycles
rites of passage/samskaras
Tantras
sacred texts that instruct on worshiping the feminine divine
Shiva
god that carries you to heaven
Divali
A holiday; festival of lights, celebrated to welcome Lakshmi
ganga
water goddess coming from shivas hair
ravana
demon who kidnaps sita in ramayana
Harijans/Untouchables
Considered to be outside the Caste system because they were so unclean. Not permitted to enter or touch homes of higher Castes, also banned from temples, schools and wells.
Darsan
The visiting of local temples or temple attendance
Significance of Purusasukta
RV 10.90 - see Doniger
Yama
Things to avoid, injury stealing lying sensuality
Caste system
A social grouping system in india
Puja
this word means "honor" or "worship" and it is the name of the simple ceremony during which Hindus light a candle, say a prayer, or burn incense.
devas
deities, the controlling forces of the cosmos
vedas
considered the most important of HIndu holy books
aryans
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
sarasvati
goddess of creativity (the arts and learning)
Smriti
epics poems, songs devotion to god commoners
Saraswati Puja
A holiday which celebrates the god Saraswati and the first day of spring.
Veda
One of the oldest and most sacred ancient texts or Hinduism. The name means knowledge or wisdom
Tamas
One of the three gunas, or attributes of human nature, "darkness" - sloth, inactivity The Vaishya and Shudra, the Karma yogin. They are most susceptible to laziness, the desire for inactivity and simple pleasures. Thus Karma yoga and the requirements of Caste duty help them to overcome, to counteract, sloth and wrong doing.
brahmin
a class of people, the priestly class, religious scholars
temples home shrines
sacred spaces many images of gods/goddesses
16 rites of passage
Birth(4): womb-placing, male rite, hair parting, rite of birth
Childhood(5): name-giving, feeding, ear-piercing, first haircut, formal education
Adulthood: fit season, beard-shaving, word-giving, marriage
Funeral rite(3): preparation of body, cremation, scattering of the ashes
Babri Mosque
focal point of Hindutva protests, was Islamic Mosque, destroyed in riot
Rig Veda
a collection of 1,017 Sanskrit hymns; Hinduism's oldest sacred text
Karma
The nature of one's actions; this is what is judged to see what the person will become in it's next life
Mantra
-A sacred sound of one syllable or more.
-In Hinduism, repeated during meditation in order to empty the mind in preparation for liberation. -The most famous is the syllable OM
the four purposes of life
dharma, artha, kama, moksha
Ganesh
the name of the Hindu god with the head of an elephant. this god is worshipped for overcoming obstacles and bringing success.
Darshan
To see and be seen by god, intimate, during puja
Swami
Title given as a sign of respect o the Gurus
Kali Yuga
final stage of the 4 stages of the world cycle, symbolized as cow standing on one leg, worst most unbalanced age with corruption/immorality
Dalits
Outcast/Untouchable
Moksa
Liberation "gnosis"
Bishnu
preserving god
cit
consciousness itself
Krishna
universal god
polytheism
man gods
The ritual arena
TBD
athman
soul, eternal self
Hanuman
monkey chief deity
Microcosm
A little world (atman)
hinduism
main religion of india
Trimurti
Shiva, Vishnu, Shakti (feminine)
Shruti
text cerimonies upper class
Kathenotheism
Belief that multiple deities exist
Sadhu
a Hindu Holy man, renunciant
reverence
countless lifetimes, for all life
Temples/Home Shrines
many images of gods/goddesses
Hindu
person who believes in Hinduism-misnomer
mahabharata
epic that provides important information not found in the vedas
Janmashtami
Day of celebration of Krishna's birth
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad
One of older primary Upanisad
Aranyakas
Commentary text that deals with hermit's and ascetics interpretation of the metaphysical
false
t/f hinduism has strict doctrinal beliefs
Ramayana
love, loyalty, marriage, Rama banished and wife Sita is kidnapped by Ravana
Atharvaveda
Fourth of the Vedas
Collection of spells and charms
kshatrias
second highest caste, warriors and nobility
visnu
all prevading, often blue, preserves righteousness through avatara cosmic king resting on servant
Concrete
What kinds of ideas are western thought based off of?
Monism
All is one, share some fundamental nature
Untouchables
One becomes this after breaking caste or general religious or society rules, children and later descendents are also outcasted, GHANDI SOUGHT TO FREE THIS CLASS
Shruti Scriptures
the most sacred
writings given directly by gods
divided into Vedas
mantras
sacred sounds that express an aspect of the divine
avatar
an incarnation or living embodiment of a deity sent to earth to accomplish a divine purpose
Ganges River
thought to be alive- Ganga Ma
mahatma ghandi
modern indian leader exemplified the use of moksha
Kama
the pursuit of one's legitimate erotic and aesthetic activities including sexuality, play, recreation, the arts, and literature
Laborers/peasants
The fourth highest level in the Caste System
Grhya ritual purpose
Benefit of sacrificer and maintenance of order
tilak
red dot on forehead ( married women, made from ash, clay or cow dung, helps the 3rd eye for meditation)
temple
the name of the buildings which Hindus worship.
Shrine
an area of worship in a Hindu home
bhagavad- gita
song of the lord- conversation between arjuna and krishna on the eve of battle
Paths to Moksha
1. Path of Knowledge
2. Path of Works
3. Path of Devotion
Householder
One of the 4 stages of life, FAMILY MAN, focus on the pleasure of MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, VOCATION and DUTIES
developments during the Brahmanical/Vedic Period
the Hindu caste system, polytheism, elaborate ritual system of sacrifice on open air altars, begin to master a wide range of utterances
Retirement (Hermit)
One of the 4 stages of life, after first grandchild is born, LOOKING TOWARDS DEATH
Center of power
Why is Europe in the center of the flat map?
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