Hinduism VS. Buddhism Flashcards

Terms Definitions
raja/hatha yoga
the Creator
destroyer god
vaishya caste
The Three Jewels
everything is one
Founder of Jainism
means the enlightened/awakened one
blending of 2 religions
the Buddha's followers (Buddhism)
mentally or emotionally exhilarated
Golden Age
Advanced technologies
Literature, drama, and other books
Art, sculters, stupas, mural paintings, square building&heavy walls
Astronomy- 7 planets, daily rotation of Earth, predicted Eclipses
4 Goals of Hinuism
the language the Aryans spoke
a kind of blissful nothingness
What are the 3 gems?
physical and mental discipline harmonizing body with soul
shudra caste
peasants - manual labor
What is Yajur Veda?
Ceremonial instructions
Buddha lived ___ years of indulgence
attachments that cause dependency and addictions to physical/materialistic or emotional things, causes pleasure, keeps from achieving nirvana, common to both Hinduism as well as Buddhism,
A collection of Buddha's later teachings together with the Four Noble Truths
Hinayana Buddhism
another word for Theravada Buddhism
Oldest type of Buddhism, strictest type. Goal: become enlightened. Must become a monk or nun
a lifelong social group/class into which into which a Hindu is born
Women could be...
...gurus in Tantric tradition
Two aspects of hinduism...
1. Nirguna
2. Saguna
fulfillment of ones morals duty in this life + responsibilities to ones caste that helps the soul make progress towards deliverance from punishment and suffering
a seasonal wind that brings moisture from Indian ocean to the southeast ocean
3000 bce
development of Indus River Valley Civilization, de-centralized (existed as small independent city-states)
Release from the endless cycle of reincarnation
monk or nun who renounces worldliness for the sake of following the path of liberation. (Buddhism)
The grandson of Chandra Gupta Maurya who changed the Mauryan empire with Buddhist beliefs
Vedic book, Rama and Sita, symbolize ideals of Indians man and womanhood
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
Who is the founder of Buddhism?
Siddhartha Guatama
hatha yoga
concerned with physical movement and controlling the body
in Buddhism, one who is on the threshold of nirvana but postpones his or her own entry to help others reach nirvana
What part of india did the buddha preach?
Right Concentration
(8/8) Direct the mind in daily meditation.
An absence of all selfish thoughts and desires; a state of absolute calm and tranquility
Gupta Empire
The empire founded by Chandra Gupta I
the belief that every deed mental or physical in this life affects a persons fate in a future life
Chandragupta Maurya
the founder of the Maurya Empire, brought together most of the Indian subcontinent. Considered the first unifier of India and the first genuine emperor of India.
Buddhism to America
Chinese laborers in CA
established in San Diego
1st pure land temple in Hawaii
Zen is the most popular in US
Suzuki was major representative of Buddhism in US
define samsara
the wheel of birth / death/ rebirth
The Noble Truth of the path leading to the Extinction of Suffering
Right Mindfulness
(7/8) Be aware of yourself and your actions.
a land mass that juts out from a continent
Buddha (gem 1)
The enlightened or awakened one. You are able to be a Buddha, get to enlightenment state. Can either mean the historical Buddha, or the Buddha nature or ideal within all beings.
Indus Valley city laid out in a grid pattern. Had a complex irrigation and sewer system.
What is the central message?
know your true calling
follow the vishnu gods that you want
What is Atman?
The subjective aspect of brahmin, the "soul" that reincarnates, identical with brahman (As infinite, eternal, unchanging). The "transecential witness"
The Triple Jewels
1. Refuge in the Buddha
2. Refuge in the Dharma
3. Refuge in the Sangha
The Empire of the Guptas
(370ce- 550ce) Candra Gupta, expanded empire, waged many battles, became greatest state in India since Maruryan Empire
trade/cultural diffusion & rejecting caste system
Buddhism spreads out of India because...
Social Class System
get rid of impurities and purify body, mind and soul
Buddhism's day of worship
no specific day it varies with the phases of the moon
What were the Vedas
They are scripts or written pieces of truth
What is the fundamental human problem for hinduism?
Ignorance of our true nature.
What was the major contribution of the Aryans
written language: Sanskrit, helped Hindus: priest had way to record writings/ Vedas (previously oral tradition existed)
What are the Ten Unanswered questions
Ten questions that Buddha died before finding out the answer
Three ways buddhism changed as it developed/spread
buddha became a god, became more lenient, can gain browning points for doing good deeds
To end desire, follow the eightfold path
The fourth of the four noble truths
What are the 4 stages of life in hinduism?
1) student 2) householder 3)withdrawal/retiree 4) sannyasin / renunciate
What is the role of evil and suffering in Hinduism?
Demons. Everything in Hindu world relates to either God, Human, or Demon: manifestation of evil, wrongdoing, do not really touch human world 90% of time, but rather influence people to do bad things (yezer hara veh tezer tovdemon on one shoulder, angel on other)
Siddhartha Gautama was of noble caste in India.
He was raised in great luxury to be a king.
perfect understanding
buddhists' gods
10 reincarnations
worldwide soul
Siddhartha Guatama
the Buddha
"forest books" (Hinduism)
Sama Veda?
Chanting instructions
impermanence; everything will change
a social outcast--an untouchable
Siddharta Guatama
Founder of Buddhism
Tibet, Japan, Vietnam
comsic buddhas - many buddhas and more to come
enlightenment: Bodhisattva (collective enlightenment) helps all to be aware of the buddha nature
Tripitaka and Sutras (written in sanskrit)
meditation: chanting (anyone can do this)
samsora = nirvana
for the enlightened
2000 bce
invasion of Aryans (Indo-Europeans)
not able to see reality as it is...we need to remove this to recognize the divine
a New Years-type celebration in Hinduism, multi-day festival of lights, festival of lights, marks the coming of winter and the victory of good over evil
-over five days at the end of october or the beginning of november
the middle way/balance
lesson learned from musician
The Buddha
The Enlightened One (Siddhartha's title)
A person who denies him/herself earthly pleasures
morality social responsibility and a humanistic spirit
Geographic Features
Northern Mountains ( Himalayans, Karakorums, Hindu Kush), Indo-Gangetic Plane, The Deccan Plateau (Central India), The Coastal Plain ( Southern India)
4 varnas
1. brahmins (head)
2. kshatriyas (arms)
3. vaishyas (ghandi) ((thighs))
4. Shundras (feet)
cycle of birth, life, death, and rebirth, not samsara
the four noble truths
Dukkha, Samudaya, Nirodha, Magga
4 duties of life
pleasure, success, social responsibility, religions responsibility (Moshka)
practice of quiet reflection to clear the mind and find inner peace
Bodhi tree
sacred tree because buddha was enlightened under it
sacred texts that describe how a person becomes part of Brahman
Karma yoga
path of selfless service or action
Eightfold Path
Buddha said to follow these eight rules
5 precepts
1. Abstain from killing & harming living beings
2. Abstain from stealing
3. Abstain from proper sexual conduct
4. Abstain from false speech
5. Abstain from taking alcohol & harmful drugs
right livelihood
eightfold path: job you pick will become who you are
Ganges River
One of the holiest sites in Hinduism
key beliefs of buddhism
Four Noble Truths; Eightfold Path
Right understanding
one must understand the 4 noble truths
helps you break through the logic of your mind and see reality how it is
they are asked these questions in order to try and be a buddha
Hinduism's place of worship
temple, mandir, personal shrine at home
Vedic tradition developed into Hinduism.
Vedic tradition developed into Hinduism.
Siddhartha Gautama
A prince from India--he went on to become "The Buddha"
Pastoral Nomads
Groups of people who are not settled, who live by herding animals of various types.
one of the most sacred animals for the Hindus
4 unlimited virtues
1 friendliness - smiling is huge (transformation). important because you are mindful everyday of meeting new ppl in life. this includes flowers, bugs, etc
2 compassion - AKA karuna. key to spirituality. kill something you kill part of yourself
3 joyful - even in stress be cheerful and share with others
4 equinimaty/mindfulness - being able to react well in circumstances with more compassion and be serene
the 3 marks of reality
1) anichcha: impernance constant change. 2) anatta: no permanet self identity (denial of atman) 3) dukkha: suffering, unsatisfactoriness
What is one method by which india has accommodated the many outsiders who have entered the country over thousands of years?hinduism
Caste system
What is the Bhagavad Gita?
The song of God; holy scripture
The Middle Way
To not be an extreme ascetic or hedonist. To be in the middle of the extreme vs. not extreme at all spectrum of Buddhism
rulers and economy of Harappan Civ
religious and political power was close,
economy based on farming, rich soil when Indus River flooded, trade with Mesopotamia (land/ships over Persian Gulf)
How was Indian society structured?
The caste system. Membership in a caste determined what jobs one could hold and whom one could marry.
to have Buddha nature means to
come to terms with reality; everyone has the seed of enlightenment
What are the five elements of right action?
-Refrain from destroying living beings
-Refrain from stealing
-Refrain from sexual misconduct (adultery, rape)
-Refrain from false speech—lying
-Refrain from intoxicants, which lead to light headedness (make you irresponsible)
Religious text of Hinduism besides the Vedas?
Upanishads (5th century BCE); mystical and philosophical speculation
Hindu belief - Human life as supreme
Hindu belief - Human life as supreme
what does it mean to "act without seeking the Fruits of action?
Doing things without seeking rewards. Just doing it to be 'good'
Why can hinduism be described as a tolerant religion?hinduism
Many paths-not just one way to achieve
Hindu belief - Ultimate goal of life (Moshka) - to release Atman and reunite with the divine - becoming one with Brahman
Hindu belief - Ultimate goal of life (Moshka) - to release Atman and reunite with the divine - becoming one with Brahman
How were the Aryans able to take over so easily, and what happened after?
Indus R. Valley Civ was very weak by now, but the Aryans, being nomads, had no knowledge or controlling cities and were able to learn skills (farming=increased food production) from the Harappans, therefore they just merged with them, didn't take over or rebuild the city
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