Anatomy previously Flashcards

Terms Definitions
union, join
pecho (m.)
adenosine diphosphate
front of elbow
Major Organ Systems
lateral rotation
bringing out
intracellular fluid
fluid within cells
Optic Canal
Optic Nerve
Ophthalmic Artery
Glucagon promotes ____ breakdown


Structure of the body
motor endings function
innervate effectors
Stratum granulosum
3-5 layers of keratinocytes
♥Keratinization♥ begins in this layer
intertubercular bursa comm with shoulder?
free nerve endings
responds to pain
di & tri peptides
tiny proteins
O: Med epicondyle
I: PisiformHamate5th Metacarpal
Stratified Squamous
-young, healthy, nutrient cells as basal layer
-flat, old, dead on top layer
-KAROTENIZED (hard protein) on skin, but NOT in esopagus, mouth, vagina
enlarged region, contains crista, cupula, hair bundles,
high energy radiation that can penetrate living tissues
Nearer to the midline (midsagittal plane).
first cervicle vertebra, is atypical in both structure and function
olfactory pathway

olfactory receptor axons extend through foramina in the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone
form olfactory nerves that terminate in olfactory bulbs in brain

axons of olfactory bulb neurons form olfactory tract, some extend to primary olfactory area of cerebral cortex
from primary olfactory area, impulses are routed to other regions of brain

orbitofrontal- identify and discrimiate among odors and smell and taste are combined to give overall flavor

hippocampus and amygdala- memory and emotion

hypothalamus- major endocrine control center


 What type of depolarizations occurs at the postsynaptic membrane?
Graded depolarizations 
blood cells that engulf bacteria during short term infections are called
Longer than duodenum in small intestine
microscopic, thin walled vessels that connect arterioles to venules
the body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continously changing
Autonomic Nervous System
provides automatic, involuntary regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular activity/secretions.
all cellular content between plasma membrane and nucleus
Pertaining to the palm of the hand
The Aqueduct of Sulvius passes through the ______
seminal vesicle
secretes major fluid volume of semen
a neuronal circuit in which a postsynaptic neuron receives input from several different soruces is called a ________ circuit.
Other Muscle Cell Components

Mitochondria--> ATP production (energy maker)
Myoglobin--> stores O2 in muscle cells
Glycogen Granules--> stored glucose
breaks down calcium to use for nutritional purposes
Muscle Atrophy
not stimulated, becomes smaller, tone decreased
Pubis Synthesis (where the two meet), a body, superior and inferior ramus, and an obturator foramen (formed by ischium and pubis, covered by a membrane)
Ethmoidal bulla
-Rounded elevation below and behind middle nasal concha-Contains middle ethmoidal air cells
vasa recta
slender capillaries that absorb water from that flows out of the nephron from the loop of henle, returns it to general circulation
foun only in peripheral nervous system; support neuron cell bodies in ganglia
sateillite cell
Suture (Fibrous joint)
Between bones of the skull
study of developmental changes of the body before birth
of or pertaining to the ear; auricular.
the part of the large intestine extending from the cecum, where the large intestine begins, to the rectum
The carotid canal is found in what bone?
Turns food into a form cells can use
Typical Vertebra
vertebrae that have a body, vertebral arch, and various processes
sclera, cornea
fibrous tunic of the eyeball consists of the ________ and the ________
12 of them
the superior 7 are true ribs (attached to sternum)
the inferior 5 are false ribs
ribs 11 and 12 are floating ribs
Arterial supply of the duodenum
Celiac artery (foregut)
Superior mesenteric artery (midgut)
Gastroduodenal (supplies blood to pylorus and proximal part of duodenum)
Ant/post superior pancreaticoduodenal arteries (branches from the gastroduodenal)
Ant/post inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries (branches from the SMA)
arise from S. basale and deeper than epidermis
a genetic disease characterized by the development of multiple fluid filled sacs in the kidneys
fibrous joint
occurs where bones are held together by dense regular connective tissue
If a person were having difficulty in speaking, swallowing, and protruding the tongue, which cranial nerve could be damaged?
active transport
the cell provides the metabolic energy that drives the transport process
primary motor cortex
-large neurons called pyramidal cells signal motor movements-contralateral
-motor homunculus=map of body
a soft, fatty, vascular tissue in the interior cavities of bones that is a major site of blood cell production
simple epithelium
single layer of cells hat function in diffusion osmosis flitration secretion or absorption
Connective Tissue Proper: loose adipose
Location: Lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen)
How were many cadavers obtained that were used in medical schools about 1800?
Grave Robbers
Burke and Hare --> killed people and donated them
Executed criminals - also sentenced to being donated to science
coracoid bone
extends from the shoulder joint to a firm articulation with the cranial end of the sternum; it acts as a brace against the vigorous up-and-down strokes of the wing
Layers of scalp (from skin to skull)
Subcutaneous tissue
Epicranial aponeurosis
Loose connective tissue
What are some exs of biolgical colloids? (2)
(1)cerebrospinal fluid (2)blood
what is a mixture
two or more components physically intermixed, key physically
A: Flex and adducts hand at wrist
Inn: **Ulnar n.
Father from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
gray matter
nerve tissue of the brain and spinal cord that contains fibers and nerve cell bodies and is a dark reddish-gray color
bending of the foot at the ankel in an upward direction

what does pH 7 mean?

neutral (the number of hydrogen ions equals the number of hydroxyl ions)
memory cells attack antigens how
they "remember" the initial encounter with the antigen, if the antigen is presented at some future time, the memory cells quickly reproduce and thus allow a faster immune respone to occur
which method of atp production produces the most atp per molecule of glucose
aerobic cellular respiration, requires O2, slow
All intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue are supplied by _ EXCEPT
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) EXCEPT-Palatoglossus - vagus nerve (CN X)
Composition and purpose of Mucin
water and glycoprotein, to trap particles (sticky)
lateral meniscus an intra-articular disc within the knee joint located between the lateral femoral condyle and the lateral tibial condyle
fibrocartilage; it is attached to the coronary ligament and the intercondylar eminence of the tibia
developmental anatomy of the skeletal system
Bone forms from mesodoerm by intramembranous or endochondral ossification. From weeks 5-8 limb buds develop into upper and lower limbs.
What nerves form the lesser occipital nerve? Is it motor or sensory? What ramus forms this nerve?
C2, sensory. Ventral ramus- hypaxial.
How many alveoli? How many square feet?
300 million, 1500 sq. ft.
Muscles of the Leg
The muscles that move the ankle, foot and toes are called the crural muscles
There are three compartments in the leg:
What are the characteristics of the subarachnoid space?
-Contains the CSF
-Extends to the brain
The duodenum is mainly on what side of the body?
mainly on right superior side
subdural space :(spinal cord meninges )
separated the dura mater from the arachnoid. This space is a potential space.
proximal intertarsal jt sac inj, loc, comm with
bw tallus and calcaneus proximally and central and t4 distally, comm with tibiotarsal sac
Posterior nasal Aperatures or Internal Nares
Is the opening btw nasal cavity and nasopharynx
What is the importance of the subcutaneous layer? (Ch. 4 pg. 98)
This layer has a fat reserve (adipose cells), stabilizes underlying tissues, while still permitting independent movement
Gas exhange in nose may be dry.  ppO2 =_____
pp C02 = _____ 
1. 159 mm Hg
2.  0.3 mm Hg 
/ 90

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