Histology Quiz Flashcards

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
Terms Definitions
"""ESOPHAGUS     Stained with haematoxylin and eosin1 - tunica mucosa2 - tunica submucosa3 - tunica muscularis propria5 - epithelium of the mucosa6 - lamina propria of the mucosa9 - glands in the submucosa"""
Study of tissues
Function: Protection
Location: Trachea
closer to the surface
monocytes differentiate into _______
cytoplasm of skeletal fibers
supports the external ear
What contractile cells contain actin--podocytes or mesangial cells?
the structureal glycoprotein that links collagen to cells
oral vestibule
- area outside teeth
Lack granules
Classified into two groups:
1. Lymphocytes which include B cells and T
2. Monocytes
continuous with epimysium; surrounds bundles of muscle fibers
marrow cavities are lined with?
intervertebral discs, pubic symphisis, discs of knee joint
Keratin Cells Keratin Fibrils- Stringy Hair Like (upper layer) Most Abundant in Epidermal Cells
Corpus luteum
temporary endocrine gland from follicle. lasts 14 days in absence of fertilization and then becomes corpus albincans or scar. During pregnancy it is 2-5 cm and creates feedback loop with embryo stimulated by HCG. necessary for first 4-5 months.
what cell produces myelin in CNS?
- formed from epithelial cells- organs- produce secretion necessary for normal body functions
store fat
adipocytes:- are involved in allergies- syntheseize antibodies- store fat- engulf bacteria
odontoblasts first secrete layer of matrix called ____.
Surrounds the complete collection of fascicles
Made up of dense irregular connective tissue
Associated with adipose tissue.
Communication can be both...
electrical and chemical
lining of urinary bladder
Example of transitional
_________ represent the convergence of capillaries into a system of largerchannels that conveys blood containing products of metabolism(carbon dioxide, etc) to the heart
Veins –
Spleen red pulp contains
splenic sinuses...endothelium reticular fiber matrixSplenic (bilroth's)...macrophages, lymphocytes, blood cells
light microscopy
energy: photons of lightlens: optical
small canals radiating in all directions from launae, allowing for communication between osteocytes
Specific type of epithelium
Glandular Epithelium- Produsec specific secretions: sweat, milk, horomones, waste products, and enzymes
Angiotensin 2
raise systemic blood sodium and pressure. Signals adrenals to release aldosterone, increasing sodium and fluid resorption by collecting tubules and ducts.Constricts Arterioles EVERYWHERE, but particularly efferent arterioles. Raises blood pressure by constriction and by increasing blood volume and body fluids in general.
Delayed Type Hypersensitivity
Mast and Basophils. Exaggerated reactions to immunilogical stimulus. Could be T cell produced.
which part of the neurons are specialized for conduction of electrical impulse?
site of antigen recognized by antibody or TCR
"typical" cell secretion with no loss of membrane
endocrine glands
- lack ducts- release secretory products (usually hormones) into blood
- cranial and spinal nerves- conduct impulses to and from CNS- neurons and connective tissue- schwann cells form myelin
follicular cells
- found in follicles- surround colloid- synthesize and secrete thryoid hormones
continued proliferation of IEE and OEE allow the ____ to grow.
calcospheres or globules
- round accumulations of HAP
Attached to bone, skin or fascia
Striated (light and dark bands visible)
Voluntary control of contraction and relaxation
- secretory units don't exist in sheet epithelium- secretory product is released onto the surface of sheet epithelium located away from from the secretory units- always multicellular- nonsecretory cells form ducts that connect the secretory units to the sheet epithelium
serve as attachment sites for bundles of tonofilaments (intermediate filament)
produced by fibroblasts in connective tissue
elastic fibers
Body hair
follicles shorter and less numerous; hairs are shorter and more fine than in scalp; active for short period with long resting period to prevent from getting too long; pubic follicles curve, causing hair to curl
Skeletal muscle is a ____________ _____________ tissue?
highly organized
type of cartillage found in the external ear (auricle)
Anterograde transport
-Uptake at neuron cell body
transport to axon terminal boutonns and visualized by LM
the fluid that circulates in the principal vascular system of human beings and other vertebrates, in humans consisting of plasma in which the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are suspended.
Cuboidal Epithelium
Cube shaped cells; found in the tubules of the kidney, ovaries, and various ducts of the enxocrine glands
4 Membrane Types

Serous membranes line the sealed, internal cavities of the body. There are three such membranes with each consisting of a simple epithelium supported by loose connective tissue:
the pleura lines the pleural cavities and covers the lungs
the peritoneum lines the peritoneal cavity and covers the surfaces of enclosed organs such as the liver and stomach
the pericardium lines the pericardial cavity and covers the heart.

A serous membrane also has parietal and visceral portions. Parietal lines the outer wall of the internal chamber. The visceral portion covers organs within the body cavity. Serous fluid covers the surfaces to minimize friction between opposing surfaces.
What is plasma?
Proteins (liver), water, and ions (kidneys). Albumin is major serum protein.
what CT fiber is strong and flexible but does not stretch and is white in fresh tissue?
intralobular ducts include ______ and ______
intercalated and striated
salivary glands
- can be serous-, mucus- or mixed-secretion glands that utilizes merocrine (eccrine) gland secretion
which of the following is not a component of a cellular membrane?- collagen- phospholipids- proteins- cholesterol- all of the above are parts of the cellular membrane
- skin + eccrine sweat glands + apocrine sweat glands + sebaceous glands
tomes' granular layer
- histological feature of dentin- located beneath DCJ in root only
enamel rods
- enamel crystals arranged in rows- extend from DEJ to outer surface of enamel- varies in length depending on location- 8-12 million of these in enamel- parallel to each other- perpendicular to DEJ
- in contact with adjacent epithelial cells- characterized by cell junctions and infoldings- where the cells actually come together
e.g. allergic inflammation
formation of gaps b/w endothelial cells in capillary wall->increase plasma leakage
muscle contraction
width of A-band stays constant; H-zone and I-bands decrease in width
the ______ consists of loose C.T. plus a layer of mesothelium
Pericardium –
Each Muscle Fiber is ________ by the axon of a motor neuron.
types of hormones that readily penetrate plasma and nuclear membranes
(1) steroid
(2) thyroid
stratified Columnar Epithelium
rare, Only the superficial layer appears illongated, located in the urethra, salivary glands, pharynx, epiglottis
cardiac muscle
a specialized form of striated muscle occurring in the hearts of vertebrates.
Types of Fibrous Connective Tissue
1. Loose Connective Tissue
2. Dense Connective Tissue
3. Areolar Tissue
4. Reticular Tissue
5. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
6. Adipose Tissue
Where are platelets derived from?
Bone marrow megakaryocytes from cytoplasmic budding.
what muscle that occurs in the walls of hollow tubes and engages in rhythmic and tonic contraction?
visceral (unitary)
How is iron recycled?
-Transferrin transports iron out of the blood-In certain tissues free iron binds to apoferritin forming ferritin-Ferritin is a protein that stores and later releases iron
lamina propria
- loose connective tissue in GI tract and oral cavity
respiratory portion of respiratory system
- site of gas exchange
cervical loop
- will become cervix of tooth as adult
Transmisson of Nerve Impulse
Axon terminals form synapses on dendrites and cell bodies
Impulse generation: summation takes place at inital segement on axon hillock. 
Impulse conduction: at threshold Na open and impulse is conducted down the axon.
Myelinated axon: Na channels open at Nodes of Ranvier -->saltatory conduction
Unmyelinated axon: Na channels open at adjacent path of membrane and is slower.
- infiltrate with solvent Freon after dehydration- Critical point dried- Coat with heavy metal like gold
found in the walls of the blood vessels and various hollow organs
smooth muscle
Three functional groups of lymphocytes?
b-cells, t-cells, natural killer cells
what enzyme is found in cells of the zone fasciculata and zone reticularis but NOT in cells of the zone glomerulosa?
compact (dense) bone
denser calcified tissue with no spaces visible to the naked eye; forms the externam surfaces of all bones, so spongy bone, when present, is always covered by compact bone
Parenchyma / Stroma
The parenchyma of an organ consists of that tissue which conducts the specific function of the organ and which usually comprises the bulk of the organ.  Stroma is everything else -- connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves, ducts.  The parenchyma / stroma distinction provides a convenient way to circumvent the listing of tissue types when discussing an organ.  
Pharma apporoaches to stop cell death
1. Calcium chealators2. Caspase inhibitors3. Protease Inhibitors4. Memantine (Glu rec. antagonist)5. GFs6. Cytokines7. antioxidants
To which places is hemopoiesis confined after the 10th birthday?
Red Bone marrow9ribs, sternum,pelvis proximal epiphysis of femur and humerus.
Four Cells Associated with Bone Tissue
- Osteoprogenitor Cells- Osteoblasts- Osteocytes- Osteoclasts
true pulp stones
- made of dentin and have dentinal tubules and odontoblasts
Emigration & Phagocytosis in WBCs
Near the site of injury: adhesion molecules (selectins) help WBCs stick to endothelium.
Integrins, which are found on neutrophils, assist in movement through wall.
Neutrophils and macrophages phagocytize bacteria & debris:
- Chemotaxis of both
- Kinins from injurt site and toxins.
zonula occludens (tight junction)
forms a belt around cell perimeter near apical luminal) surface
Osteocytes do what? Reside in______embedded in_________?
Maintain Healthy Bone Tissue; Lacunae; bone matrix
2 Classifications of Epithelial Tissue
1. Number of Cell layers (simple,stratified epithelium) 2. Shape of Cells (squamous, cuboidal,columnar)
What proteins comprise the cytoskeleton inside the RBC and what are their functions.
band 4.1 links short actin filaments to spectrin tetramers. Spectrin-actin complex links to two integral membrane proteins.: the anion transporter, band 3 is connected by ankyrin, and to glycophorin by band 4.1. These linkages stabilize the lipid membrane.
In what blood vessel wall layer do we find internal elastic lamina?
In tunica intima
name the 6 resident cells of areolar CT (3 are derived from immigrant cells)
fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, adipose cells (only one not mobile); plasma cells, mast cells, macrophages
changes in dentin with aging
- reduction in number of odontoblast- secretory activity of odontoblasts is reduced but may be reactivated after injury- increased amount of sclerotic dentin- dentin might undergo hypomineralization in some areas
nutrient artery
(derived from the periosteal bud)
enters medullary cavity thru wall of diaphysis; principal blood supply to a long bone
four unique features of parakeratinized epithelium (vs. keratinized)
(1) superficial cells do not lose their nuclei
(2) cytoplasm of the superficial cells does not stain intensely eosinophilic
(3) no stratum granulosum
(4) it is thicker
(5) pyknotic nuclei that remain until cells exfoliate
tubule flow rate controlled by controlling initial filtration rate.
total initial filtration rate of both kidneys is GFR- important clinical variable.
Characterize of the two patterns of arrangement of smooth muscle.
fibers and extracellular matrix in PDL
- collagen type I- oxytalan fibers- glycoproteins, proteins, 70% water
what are the lymphoid organs? they are?
Tonsils, Spleen, Thymus gland; central to the body's defense
Harden tissue for further processing
conduction fibers include all of these?
SA node, AV node, bundle of Hiss, purkinje fibers
How do chondrocytes within the matrix receive nutrients?
diffusion that is possible b/c of large volume of water trapped within matrix
The knife passes over this part last
1. outer enamel epithelium2. stellate reticulum3. statum intermedium4. inner enamel epithelium
Which 4 cell layers are present in the enamel organ at the bell stage?
Axons each neuron has how many? The point of origin of the axon from the perikaryon is called the? The axon may what? The what is the _____ process of the neuron.
one, axon hillock, branch, axon is the transmitting process of the neuron
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