Histology Test 2 Flashcards

cells
Terms Definitions
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"""JEJUNUM     Stained with haematoxylin and eosin1 - epithelium of the mucosa      (covers villi)2 - lamina propria of the mucosa3 - goblet cells in the epithelium4 - parts of the muscularis mucosae"""
deglutition
- swallowing
Mesoderm
muscle, bone, blood
Prometaphase
Beakdown of nuclear envelope
pepsin
- starts protein digestion
smooth muscle
nonstriated and involuntary
Osteoblasts
bone-forming cells; produces bone matrix; housed on concentric rings (lamella) around the central haversian canal
Prophase
Begining of mitotic spindle formationPolarization of cellNucleoli disperse
adipocytes
- unilocular- stores fat/lipids- incorporate into loose CT to form fat
HERS
- induces differentiation of odontoblasts from dental papilla to produce root dentin
after chondroblasts become surrounded by matrix they become?
chondrocytes
fine-fibered or lamellar bone
mature bone
Microvilli
absorption of molecules from lumen/surface. very uniform. create more surface area. often associated with thick glycocalyx
tendons
fibrous connective tissue- muscle to bone
Ground Substance
Usually a gelatinous rubbery consistency resulting from three classes of large molecules
1. glycosaminoglycans (GAG)
2. proteoglycan
3. adhesive glycoproteins
BFU-E
Burst forming unit- erythrocytes- more restricted set of cells
membranous organelle that makes libpids and detoxifies cell?
smooth ER
unlike the perimysium, the perineurium is _____
cellular
composition of CT
- cells- extracellular matrix
antibodies
plasma cells release ____ into circulation in the white pulp.
odontogenesis
- tooth development or tooth morphogenesis
EUCHROMATIN
- dispersed or extended- lightly stained because less phosphate groups - actively involved in mRNA & tRNA synthesis - Tanscriptionally active form of chromatin
consists of fibrous connective tissue, continuous with the capsule, subdivides the parenchyma into lobes (large) or lobules (small)
Septa
blood is a ____________?
specialized connective tissue
which intestinal cells contain cannaliculi with microvilli?
parietal cells
perichondrium
layer of fibrous connective tissue covering the surface of hyaline or elastic cartilage
polarity
have defined apical and basal layers
Apocrine Glands
 
•In apocrine secretion, part of the cell cytoplasm is released along with the secretory product.
–Milk production involves both apocrine and merocrine secretions.
Follicle
Special endocrine sac in which oocytes mature. Consist of oozyte surrounded by one or more layers of follicular cells (granulosa cells). Mature in four stages.
Meiosis
Two Cycles of Mitosis, but without doubling DNA before the second roundGives rise to four cells each with one set of chromosomes unlike mitosis which gives 2 cells with two copies of each chromosome
what muscle type has peripheral nuclei and is a true structural synctium?
skeletal
true or false: integrins are dimeric ECM receptors with alpha and beta subunits
true
histamine vs. heparin
- vasodilator- anticoagulant- both proteins
elastic art
which blood vessel's function is conduction:- muscular art- muscular venules- elastic art- art- capillaries- post cap venules- veins
spleen
name the lympatic organ that functions to destroy aged RBCs:
dental lamina
- interacts with ectomesenchyme to form tooth germs
bud stage
- stage where ectomesenchymal cells and dental lamina are proliferating
OXIDATIVE ENZYMES
- beta oxidation enzymes, D-amino acid oxidase, catalase, urate oxidase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and various peroxidases- beta oxidation of fatty acids- alcohol metabolism- breakdown of hydrogen peroxide generated in other enzymatic reactions
Tetrad formation occurs during which phase of meiosis?
Prophase 1
lining of large ducts
Example of stratified cuboidal
perichondrium is absent in adults in?
articular surfaces
Extracellular matrix
Composed of ground substance and interwoven fibers; cells are interspread (no layers); secreted and maintained by the fibroblasts
Cardio system function
propelling blood and various constituents throughout the body.
31. THE APPROPRIATE FIXATIVE FOR BONE MARROW PREPS AND BLOOD SMEARS IS:
Alcohol
elastic fibers
connective tissue fiber, composed of protein elastin, that stretches under tension and returns to its original length when released; responsible for the resilience of organs such as the skin and lungs
cartilage: hyaline
forms most of embryonic skeleton, covers the ends of long bones and joint cavities, forms costal cartilige of ribs and nose
sagittal plane
runs parallel to the body and separates the body into right and left
Secondary follicles
Antrum (fluid filled space ) appears filled by liquor folliculi (granulosa cells). Has hillock or stalk called cumulus oophorus which projects into antral lumen. Oocyte not enlarging but theca cells become more abundant and distinct.
Anchoring Junctions
1. Adherence Junction - continuity of actin network, homophilic adhesion of cadherin between opposite cells2. Desmosomes - desmoglyeins and desmoplaques. IF bind to plaque
All endocrine cells have what kind of capillaries:
fenestrated
true or false: most collagen is formed from cells of mesenchymal origin
true
articular cartilage
- hyaline cartilage remaining on ends of bone
posterior pituitary gland
- contains pars nervosa- contains axons that produce and secrete two types of hormones
thyroglobulin
- form of thyroid hormone stored in colloid- extracellularly stored
eruption
- vertical movement of tooth from its nonfunctional position in bone to functional occlusion
 
 
Smooth Muscle
- Attached to hair follicles in skin
- In walls of hollow organs: blood vessels & GI
- Nonstriated in appearance (looks smooth)
- Involuntary
POSTNATAL ORGANIZMS
- hemopoietic tissues are included in the thymus and bone. - contains stem cells for all types of blood cells- short lived- stem cells are constantly proliferating to produce new cells that can undergo terminal cell differentiation- during the early phases of cell division the nuclei of future blood cells is euchromatic and there are organelles but eventually it will be more heterochromatic and the cells will disappear.
Components of exocrine glands
1. groups of specialized cells-secretory units; produce characteristic secretions
2. tubular ducts- convey secretions onto an epithelially-covered surface
seen on either side of opposed membranes
electron-dense plaques
Loose Connective Tissue (LCT)
low fiber/ground surface ration; contain 3 fiber types and ground substance; found beneath epithelial of respiratory tract, skin and intestines; surrounds spithelial of large blood vessels and ducts; support to mesenteries; protects against pathogens
Blood Plasma Contains?
Albumin: osmotic regulator and carrier protein, Globulins: Immune system Response, Antibody production, Fibrinogen: Wound Repair and Blood Clotting.
what is the embryological origin of the delicate membranes that suspend the membranous labyrinth within the bony labyrinth?
ectoderm-derived neuroepithelium
types of secretions
serous glands, mucous glands, mixed glands, cytogenic, merocrine, holocrine, apocrine,
Types of Epithelium tissue
simple squamous, stratified squamous, simple cuboidal, pseudostratified columnar, transitional
Dense Regular Tissue
(Dense Connective Tissue)
* Densely packed, parallel collagen fibers
- compressed fibroblast nuclei
 
* Tendons attaches muscles to bone & ligaments hold bone together
What are some basal modifications of the proximal convoluted tubule?
-elongated mitochondria-extensive basal infoldings of cell membrane
MHC II complex
On APC cells only - macrophages, dendritic cells, B lymphocytes
Presents proteins to helper T cells
the nuclear lamina is which type of cystoskeletal element
intermediate filaments
capillary function
- exchange of gases and proteins btwn blood and surrounding cells
Lymph
- formed by a seepage of fluid from blood
-primarily water
-contains lymphocytes
- transports antigens
- a means for lymphocytes to circulate
passive eruption
- does not involve tooth movement but occurs due to apical recession of gingival tissues exposing more tooth structure into oral cavity
CELLULAR COMPARTMENT
- composed of one or more terminally differentiated Specialized Cell
Zonula adherens (adhering junctions)
belt-like junction around perimeter of cell; located just below zonula occludens on lateral aspect of contiguous cells; intercellular gap-filled with filamentous material
What are the organoids?
living contents of the cytoplasm which are essential for life,
Heart forces blood at high pressure into what?
large elastic arteries
8. A TEST FOR DECALCIFICATION COULD BE:
K ion determinations
dense connective tissue: dense irregular
irregularly arranged collagen fibers; able to withstand tension exerted in many directions, provides structural strength
What are some distinguishing characteristics of Eosinophils?
Stain red-orange. Bi or tri-lobed nucleus. They only contain specific, secondary granules. Larger than PMN's granules. May have crystalline band as seen in TMN. They contain Major Basic Protein for killing larvae.
what are the 3 components of CT?
ECM, cells and fibers
What distinguishes granulocytes from agranulocytes? Which leukocytes are granulocytes?
Granulocytes have two types of granules--specific and azurophilic. Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are granular leukocytes.
collagen type III
all of the following are true about dense irregular CT except:- very few cells- used for tensile strength- large collage fibers running in all directions- made of collagen type III
pulp chamber
the shape of the ___ is different for every tooth.
SPECIFIC GRANULES/NEUTROPHILIC GRANULES
- smaller in size and more numerous- TEM barely visible at LM- Secondary granules contain complement activators, bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal agents including type IV collagenase and phospholipase
The Cardiac skeleton consists of 3 partsa) _______ (dense C.T.)b) _______ (dense C.T.)c) _______
annuli fibrositrigona fibrosaseptum membranaceum
What are the contents of chromaffin granules?
(1) catecholamines
(2) chromogramins (catecholamine binding proteins)
(3) dopamine beta-hydroxylase
(4) ATP + Ca2+
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
non ciliated type in ducts of large glands, male urethra. Ciliated line trachea and upper respiratory tract
What are the general morphological changes as cells mature?
1. cell size decreases. 2. nucleus-cytoplasm ratio decreases. 3. nucleoli dissapear. 4. euchromatin decreases. 5. nuclear shape may alter, may become pyknotic. 6. Chromatin changes from fine to coarse and clumpy. Loss of RNA, decrease in basophilic staining.
What lines define the limits of the sarcomere?
BETWEEN 2 Z LINES
found in major/minor glands
which of the following is true about intercalated ducts:- it is found in both major and minor salivary glands- it functions to modify saliva- resorbs ions from saliva- secretes ions into saliva
False. Root development starts after crown is completely shaped
T/F: Root development starts before crown is completely shaped and as tooth is erupting.
What do we use in clearing?
L/M: Xylene or Benzene.E/M: Propylene oxide.
What is Conn's Syndrome?
occurs when a tumor of the zone glomerulosa hypersecretes aldosterone
Secretion of what substance would inhibit renin secretion? Why?
ANF inhibits renin secretion b/c they act oppositely. Renin is released in response to a decrease in NaCl concentration (lower BP). ANP is released by the atria in response to high bp.
the only stem cells that can become ALL cell types
totipotent (pluripotent cannot become extraembryonic structures)
What accounts for the membranes trilaminar appearance on EM?
hydophilic outer layers are seen as separate entities, as well as the inner hyrophobic layer
three examples of modified apocrine sweat glands
(1) ceruminous glands of the ear (secrete cerum)
(2) mammary glands
(3) apocrine glands of Moll in the eyelid
What part do platelets play in hemostasis?
keep small blood vessels from leaking- endothelial maintenance. thrombocytopenia results in blood loss. They work in clotting. Bind to collagen and EC components with receptors, which activates platelets. Platelet plug is formed, interacts with clot formation as fibrinogen is converted to fibrin by thrombin. Then they contract using platelet actin and myosin.
What is the process by which heme is broken down?
-heme is catabolized into biliverdin-biliverdin is converted to bilirubin-bilirubin is secreted from the live as bilirubin glucuronide
What can we use to stain lipids?
1- Sudan III. (Orange)2- Sudan black. (Black)3- Osmium tetroxide. (Blue)
What cells secrete renin? What is the function of this?
Juxtaglomerular cells secrete renin to maintain blood pressure.
Cerebrum composed of what layers and functions?
Molecular layer - adjacent to the pia mater.Outer granular layer - pyramidal and stellate cellsPyramidal layer - pyramidal cellsInner granular layer - stellate cellsGanglionic layer - pyramidal cells, stellate cells, and cells of martinottiMultiform layer - diverse grouping of neurons.
False. You MUST have both types of tissues
T/F: You can have one or the other of the different types of embyronic tissue for tooth formation.
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