Histology, Final Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
liquid matrix
"taste bud"
Box like
Bone location
skeletal bones
Very rare
Histamine secretion
Not phagocytic -inflammatory response
Blue granules
bilobed nucleus
____ produce root/radicular dentin
electron microscopy
energy: electronslens: electromagnets
Cortex- follicles and intersitial connective tissue. Medulla- area of loose connective tissue and many large blood vessels.Germinal epithelium- squamous or cuboidal mesothelial cellsTunica albugunea of the ovary- dense collagenous connective tissue capsule
Desmosome and hemidesmosome
desmosome - cadherins
hemidesmosome - intergrins
- functions in RBC production
Sensory Function
Senses stimuli with sensory receptiors in the internal and external environments.
connective tissue that encloses exocrine gland
Connective Fibrous
most abundant *connective tissue*-fibrous: tendons, ligamentscontains lots of collagen and elastin. Collagen; durability. Elastin; stretch and recall
extracellular material of a tissue
a physiological junction between two neurons or a neuron and an effector organ
urinary pole
beginning proximal convoluted tubule opposite vascular pole.
1. Loss of surface contact2. Shrinkage3. organelles intact4. nuclear change (fragmented, but envelope maintained and DNA cleaved by nucleosomes)5. Phagocytosis6. No inflammation
Parts of adenohypophysis
pars distalis
pars tuberalis
pars intermedia
these cells can become viral reservoirs yet are also antigen-presenting cells
osteod is secreted by:- osteocytes- osteoclasts- osteoblasts- osteoprogenitor cells
masticatory mucosa
- parakeratinized and orthokeratinized stratified squamous epithelium- functions to protect against forces of chewing- found in gingiva and hard palate
collagen type I
- organic fibrillar/fibrous matrix
- spherical cells- large spherical nucleus with indentation on one side- predominately heterochromatic (peripheral) and euchromatic central- basophilic cytoplasm- thin rim of basophilic cytoplasm - 3 types of lymphocytes: T cells, B cells, Natural killer cells- T and B lymphocytes can be distinguished using SEM but not in LM
represent pluripotent cells that can produce new fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells
external to endothelium of capillaries and venules; insinuated in basement membrane
Oligodendrocytes are?
schwann cells of the CNS
Pseudostratified epithelium
simple, respiratory and male reproductive systems
structural unit of compact bone consisting of a central canal surrounded by concentric cylindrical lamellae of matrix
collagenous fibers
"non" elastic, contains #1 most abundant protein in animals
(Connective Tissue)
White fibrocartilage is an extremely tough tissue. The orientation of the bundles depends upon the stresses acting on the cartilage. The collagenous bundles take up a direction parallel to the cartilage. Fibrocartilage is found as discs between the vertebrae between the pubic bones in front of the pelvic girdle and around the edges of the articular cavities such as the glenoid cavity in the shoulder joint.
sertoli cells 2
phagocytize, nourish germ cells, secrete fluids into lume, stimulated by FSH and testosterone. Produce inhibin and activin, activate and depress FSH feedback process.
what cell type is responsible for making glycoproteins, GAGs?
Made by C cells in thyroid gland
Reduces blood calcium by inhibiting osteoclast bone resorption
Secretion controlled by blood Ca levels
Hyaline Cartilage
Contains chondrocytes that produce the cartilage ECMAvascular, lacks nerves and lymphaticsSurrounded by perichondrium, a layer of DCTLocated temporarily in the skeleton of the embryo, serves as a model for endochondral ossification during bone growth, in articular cartilage, cartilage of the respiratory tract (nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi), and costal cartilages.
apical membrane specializations such as ______ and _______ serve and absorptive role, which ______ are motile
microvilli; stereocilia; cilia
- increase in number of muscle fibers
clara/bronchiolar cell
- secrete some components of surfactant to reduce surface tension
hard palate
- masticatory mucosa- lamina propria attached to bone- lots of rete pegs
dentinal tubules
- channels of dentin- contain odontoblastic processes- extend through dentin from pulp to DEJ or DCJ
acid hydrolases
function only at low pHinside lysosomes
- amorphous ECM component- large polysaccharides consisting of repeating disaccharide units- has sulfated or carboxylic acid side chains- made groups are hyaluronan/hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate and heparin, keratan sulfate- negative charged groups show basophilic staining
pale region in middle of A-band (dark)
secrets a viscous glycoprotein called mucus
mucous gland
The nucleus is basal in the
columnar epithelium
lymph nodules are?
non-capsulated, concentrated areas of lymphocytes
the bending of stereocilia away from the kinocilium on a Type I or Type II hair cells has what type of effect on polarity of the receptor cell?
Golgi apparatus
chemical modification of proteins from RER. sorts and packages into secretory vesicles, transport vesicles, or lysosomes
endocrine glands
ductless gland that secretes hormones into the bloodstream; for ex. the thyroid and adrenal glands
on dermis of skin(2nd layer) goes every way,
Intercellular Junctions
* Connection between one cell & another.
* All cells  (except blood & metastatic cancer cells)
* Resist stress & communication w/ each other
: Inter- means between
: Cells- mean cells
seminiferous tubules
site of sperm production 1-4 per lobule
what type of bone is arranged in spicules and trabeculae?
What volume of the cardiac muscle cell is occupied by mitochondria?
- viscous fluid composed of mucins in water containing ions
- sensor that responds to pain- tooth pulp
cells must have ____ for hormones in order to respond to them
Bone Marrow and Thymus
-Name the Primary Lymphatic Organs
- most numerous cell of pulp- produce collage fibers- form and maintain pulp
odontoblastic process
- portion of odontoblast left in dentin
- larger and more complex then cilia- 1 flagellum occurs per cell in vertebrates- move the cell through the environment like sperm
What does amphoteric mean?
both hydrophilic and hydrophobic qualities
Intralobular ducts
lie within the parenchyma of the lobules; empty into interlobular ducts
What's the diameter of the central channel of the complex of the nuclear pores?
10 nm
cellular defense definition?
defense provided directly by immune cells.
in what part of the male reproductive tract do sperm gain motility?
simple epithelium
epithelium in which all cells rest directly on the basement membrane; includes simple squamous, cubiodal; and columnar types, and pseudostratified
basement membrane
base of epithelial layer is a dense mat of extracellular matrix (collagen fibers)
distal convoluted tubule
cells are shorter, wider lumen no brush border more nuclei. some ca dn nacl resorption. thiazide drugs inhibit NaCL in this region and increase uring output, diuresis.
Other types of blistering diseases?
antibodies specific to desmosome proteins cause a disruption of desmosomes. also there are diseases from mutations in epidermal cytokeratin genes.
Name in order the cells that appear in granulocytopoiesis.
3 major classes of cytoskeleton proteins
1. microtubules
2. microfilaments
3. intermediate filaments
minor all serous
lingual serous glands of von ebner:- are minor all mucus- are major all serous- are minor all serous- are minor mixed
alveolar crest
- most cervical or coronal region of alveolar bone- 1/2mm apical to CEJ- uniform height in healthy mouth
- bacteria, dead cells, and other material sare ingested via phagocytosis or endocytosis/pinocytosis- specific granules and then azurophilic granules fuse sequentially with phagosomes or endosomes to form secondary lysosomes- Within secondary lysosomes, bateriostatic and bacteriocidal agents kill bacteria and acid hydrolases and other enzymes break down components of phagocytosed bacteria, cells and or other materials.
new bone matrix that has not yet been calcified
Embryonic origins of glands
Develop from surface epithelium which grows in underlying tissue
distinguishing features of the membranous urethra
(1) pseudostratified or stratified columnar
(2) surrounded by skeletal muscle
Collagen fiber arrangement
Tropocollagen > Fibrils > Fibers > Bundles
What is polycythemia?
An increase in hematocrit due to low oxygen stress or high altitude. Can create thick blood.
how is cartilage nourished?
by diffusion, it is avascular and therefore has a low metabolic rate and cell turnover and thus inherent stability.
classification of exocrine
- complexity of duct system- shape of secretory units- type of secretion-method of secretion
plates of hyaline cartilage
- structure that keeps the bronchus open
AEFC (acellular extrinsic fiber cementum)
- no cementocytes- sharpey's fibers insert to anchor periodontal ligament - covers cervical 1/3-2/3 of root- major role in anchoring root to the PDL
immature bone
first type of bone to be produced in prenatal life
RBC shape? held in shape by?
Concave discs, complex membrane proteins bound to the cell cytoskeleton.
five cell types that comprise respiratory epithelium
(1) ciliated cells
(2) goblet cells
(3) brush cells (V)
(4) basal cells
(5) small granule cells
What runs through the Central (Haversian)canal
Blood Vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels
What cell type produces pigment? Where are they located?
Melanocytes, derived from neural crest. Located in the basal layer of the epidermis and in hair follicles.
true or false: myofibroblasts are derived from fibroblasts but are not mitotically active
false; mitosis will produce more myofibroblasts
serous glands of von Ebner
- found on circumvallate papillae- all serous secreting minor lingual salivary gland- serves as solvent for food molecules called "tastants"
- eccentric nucleus- large amount of basophilic cytoplasm- kill virus infected cells and tumor cells
Osteoclasts definition? nuclei? Often in Marrow \"____\" (_______)?
Monocyte Relatives involved in Bone Re absorption; Multiple Nuclei; Cups; Howship's Lacunae.
dense connective tissue: dense irregular
dermis of skin, submucosa of digestive tract, fiborous capsules of organs and joints
What are the four types of cells found in epidermis?
keratinocytes, melanocytes, langerhans cells, and Merkel cells.
deep cortex of lymph nodes
- part of lymph node that contains lots of t cells
How does the nucleus look like under the E/M?
Dark material:1- Pars fibrosa.(site of RNA synthesis)2- Pars granulosa.(ribosomes)
Give four examples of APUD cells
(1) Kulchitsky cells of the trachea (small granule cells)
(2) Enteroendocrine cells of the GI
(3) Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medula
(4) Parafollicular cells of the thyroid
What is the stratum spinosum? Describe it.
It is several layers of polyhedral cells connected by desmosomes. There are bundles of cytokeratin filaments called tonofibrils. Can be mitotic by the basal aspect of this layer. lamellar granules (membrane coating granules)can be observed here. Spiny connections between cells.
true or false: dense connective tissue includes areolar, dense regular, dense irregular, and reticular
false; areolar and reticular are loose CT
Two things that distinguish an intrapulmonary bronchus from an extrapulmonary bronchus
(1) presence of a smooth muscle layer between the mucosa and submucosa
(2) irregular placement of hyaline cartillage (i.e., no-longer C-shaped rings)
T/F. Hemoglobin is formed by mature denucleated RBCs.
False. Hemoglobin is only synthesize in immature erythrocytes.
Describe the tubular system of the cardiac muscle, comparing it with the skeletal muscle one.
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