Histology- Final Exam Review Flashcards

cells
Terms Definitions
Cuboidal
Cube-like
Apoptosis flowchart
Trigger->Regulator->Effector->ApoptosisIrradiation->p53->caspases->apoptosis
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"""LOWER PONS"
epithelial purpose
cover
Bone
- vascularized- innervated
reticular
inside lymphatic organs
 
 
 
Formed Elements of Blood
 
Erythrocytes
Leukocytes
Platelets
 
What are the two types of leukocytes?
Granular
Agranular
leukocytes
a white blood cell
H-PSC
Hematopoietic Pluripotent Stem Cells- give rise to all blood cells
Hormones regulate:
homeostasis, metabolic function, growth, reproduction, immune system smooth and cardiac muscles
calcitonin
- decreases blood calcium levels
 
 
Autonomic Nervous System
 
Two Branches
 
 
1. Sympathetic Division
 
2. Parasympathetic Division
macrophages in loose connective tissue
histiocyte
Cardiac Muscle forms the?
Myocardium (Cardiomyocytes).
gangrene
tissue necrosis resulting from ischemia
3 types of cartilage
Hyaline CartilageFibrocartilageElastic Cartilage
Follicle growth
initiation signal is unknown. Continued growth is FSH and estrogens.
Inclusions
1. Glycogen2. Lipid Droplets - Adipocytes3. Pigment - melanin in lipofuscin4. Crystalline - Phagocytes
How many days does erythropoiesis take?
7
desmosomes
aka macula adherensconnect outside of cell to keratin inside cell
III
reticular cartilage is made of collagen type:- I- II- III- it is not made of collagen
antibodies
plasma cells release __________ into the circulation
dentin
- forms first in the crown
AGRANULOCYTES
- non-lobed nucleus- relatively few cytoplasmic granules- lymphocytes- monocytes
lymph
fluid that collects in lymphatic capillaries
The myocardium has an interstitium filled with loose C.T. called
endomysium
lymph nodes are?
encapsulated, bean-shaped organs, surrounded by dense ct capsule with invasive trabecule. extensive framework of reticular fibers
Transmission electron microscopy
look inside the cell
tight junctions
zipperlike junction between epithelial cells that limits the passage of substances between them
types of connective tissue (7)
adipose loose/areolarelasticdensebone bloodcartilage
Bladder layers
Mucosa: 6 layers of transitional epitheium. lamina propria: dense collagenous connective tissue. No submucosa. Muscularis: three layers with complex orientation. Middle layer is most prominent. Adventitia: upper portion covered with connective tissue and mesothelium= serosa.
What do Eosinophils fight?
Larval parasites and allergies.
what capillary type has tiny openings in the wall with one-way flaps of membrane covering them?
fenestrated
Schwann cells
myelination in the periphery
mesaxon = 2 membranes of the same Schwann cell in contact with each other
neurilemma - part of Scwann cell with cytoplasm
Myelinates only one axon
Can associate with several unmyelinated axons
proteins exit the Golgi on the Cis/trans side?
trans
peripheral nerve
- group of axons in PNS
enterocyte
- located in small and large intestine- digestion and absorption of fats, proteins and carbohydrates
Spleen
The lymphatic organ that functions to destroy aged erythrocytes
cap stage
- stage where ectomesenchyme under enamel organ is called dental papilla.
 
 
Sympathetic Divison
 
 
 
Part of the Autonomic Nervous System
 
Promotes visceral processes that involve expenditure of energy
NUCLEOPLASM
- gel in which chromatin and nucleolus are suspended- TEM level- Unstained regions
beneath striated border of intestinal epithelial cells; horizontal network of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, spectrin, and some myosin
Terminal web
primary function is to form the organic constituents of bone matrix
osteoblasts
__________ consists of concentric layers of helically arranged smooth muscle cells. Interposed between the layers are elastic laminae, elastic fibers, and type III collagen.
Tunica media –
Tunica Adventitia includes?
Connective tissue, collagen fibers, and supporting vessels
constituents of cerumin
(1) apocrine secretions from ceruminous glands
(2) sebaceous glands (associated with hair follicles)
(3) desquamated skin cells
Ribosomes (general)
large and small subunits assemble around strand of mRNA, protein synthesis
regeneration
replacement of damaged tissue with new tissue of the original type
loose connective tissue
most widespread connective tissue in vertebrates (extracellular matrix)
Cardiac Muscle
: Limited to the heart
:Myocytes or cardiocytes are much shorter, branched & motched at end
:Contains 1 centrally located nucleus surrounded by light staining glycogen
:Intercalated discs
:Striated & involuntary
 
Funtions of cell types:
Eosinophils- destroy larval parasites and work in allergies. Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils kill bacteria and are innate immune system. Basophils- who knows?Monocytes- precursors for tissue macrophages that live for many years. Platelets function in hemostasis. Lymphoctes are the main players in acquired immunity.
what skeletal fibers have small diameter, much myoglobin, many mito., little glycogen?
slow, red fibers
Loose (areolar) CT
Contains collagen and elastic fibers embedded in abundant ground substanceCells present include: fibroblasts, mast cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells (capillaries)Location: beneath epithelia that cover body surfaces, lines internal surfaces, associated with glandular epithelium, and surrounds the smallest blood vessels.Functions: gas and nutrient/waste exchange between epithelium and blood vessels. Initial site where pathogens that breach epithelium encounter the immune system.
mucous-secreting glands
- minor: minor palatine and minor lingual glands in posterior 1/3 of tongue
RBCs
- biconcave shape- main function is O2 and CO2 transport and exchange btwn tissues
pituitary gland
- function is controlled by the hypothalamus
mineralized/calcified
the hard tissues of the tooth are called hard because they are _____.
basal lamina/basement membrane
the _____ between odontoblasts and ameloblasts become the DEJ.
PDL
- develops at same time that root begins to form- forms from dental follicle (sac)
NUCLEOLUS
- TEM and LM- Very basophilic and spherical- Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR)- chromosomal region that contains the gene sequences for ribosomal RNA- The presence of the nucleolus and chromatin are indicative of the extent of production of ribosomes and how transcriptionally active the cell is. - The more euchromatin and the more prominent the nucleolus the mmore extensive the transcriptional activity meaning there are more ribosomes.
proteins in basement membrane that anchor cells to basement membrane
laminin and fibronectin
extend into regions where oxygen and nutrients are in greater supply
osteocyte processes
In _______ veins:1) t. intima contains some smooth muscle cells2) t. media relatively thin and contains circumferentially arranged smoothmuscle cells3) boundary between t. intima and t. media indistinct4) t. adventitia thick
Large (>1 cm)
The sarcomere shrinks as the __ lines move closer together?
Z
Endochondral Ossification: The periosteum produces ________ which secrete _________ trapping _______in lacunae?
osteoblasts, calcified bone matrix, trapping chondrocytes
keratins 5 & 14 are found here
basal keratinocytes
3 shapes of epithelium and sub-shape
1. squamous2. cuboidal3. columnar - Ciliated
Oviduct mucosa
has two types of cells, ciliated and peg (secretory) which secrete stuff to promote capacitation of sperm and nourish ovum.
what has 9 microtubular triplets around a hollow center?
centriole and basal body
What is the main fuel for energy production in the cardiac cell?
FATTY ACIDS
the principle factor for regulation of circulating RBC level
erythropoetin from kidney
hypodermis
- not part of skin- loose CT and fat
reduced enamel epithelium
- formed during protective stage in ameloblast life cycle when they flatten - covers enamel crown until tooth erupts
RIBOSOMES
- TEM- very small dark dots- when in groups are called polyribosomes- composed of ribosomal RNA molecules and ribosomal proteins- Detectable at LM level with basophilic staining- site of polypeptide synthesis- Have free and attached ribosomes
1st step of collagen synthesis
formation of alpha-chains in RER
Histology is...tissue is?
study of tissues; groups of similar cells and their productsarise from germ layerswork together to perform structure/physiological rolediffer from other types and functions
why do melanocytes appear to have clear cytoplasms under the LM?
absence of keratin
sphincter
ring of muscle that opens or closes an opening or passageway; found, for example, in the eyelids, around the urinary orifice, ad at the beginning of a blood capillary
Stratified Epithelia
2 or More Layers of Cells to Basement Membrane
Barr body
In females one of the X chromosomes is repressed and stays tightly coild and is commonly see adjacent to the nuclear envelope.
A goiter can be caused by
1) Graves disease- hyperthyroidism, resulting from Ab which bind to TSH receptors and stimulate the overproduction of thyroid hormones, hyperplasia of the follicular cells of the thyroid gland2) iodine deficiency- hypothyroidism, but the body produces a lot of TSH which causes thyroid hypertrophy
elastic CT
- type I collagen fibers and lots of elastic fibers- allow organs to stretch in several directions then recoil- found in aorta
1. mucosa2. submucosa3. muscularis externa4. adventitia/serosa
four layers of digestive tract, starting from lumen:
accessional or non-succedaneous teeth
- permanent teeth with no primary teeth before
1. Epithelial Membranes (Epithelia)
2. Epithelial Glands
2 Major Divisions of Epithelial Tissue
Function of the sensory component of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
the reception of information
34. VACUME IMPREGNATION:
Is not required for tissue such as spleen, Is not recommended for cysts. Does not require a longer fixation time.
Simple columnar epithelial cells locations
1. Lining of GI tract
2. Uterus
3. Kidney
4. Uterine tubes
What two elements does thin skin have that thick skin doesn't?
sebaceous glands and hairs.
true or false: myoepithelial cells can surround acini but are never found around ducts
false: they can surround both
protective function of pulp
- sensory nerves in pulp respond with pain- formation of tertiary/sclerotic dentin protects pulp from bacterial invasion
Alpha chains contain a high % of?
glycine, proline, hydroxyproline, and hydroxylysine
_____ and ___ ______ slide past each other during muscle contractions?
thick and thin filaments
What are the Characterisitics of collagenous fibers?
 
they are white, thick, tough and strong.
what are the main components of the matrix of cartilage?
type II collagen, fibrils, proteoglycans, and bound water! (75%of weight)
inner and outer enamel epithelium
____ and ____ from enamel organ form HERS.
How does the nuclear membrane appear under the E/M and L/M?
L/M: Single basophilic line.E/M: 2 membranes each 8nm in thickness, separated by a 20nm perinuclear space.
What stain combination can be used to distinguish POMC cells from thyrotrophs?
aldehyde thionin (stains thyrotrophs intensely blue) + PAS (stain POMC cells, while thyrotrophs are only weakly PAS positive)
Describe the anatomy of an eccrine sweat gland.
secretory portion of gland is in dermis or hypodermis. The cuboidal secretory cells are surrounded by a prominent basement membrane. There are myoepithelial cells between basal lamina and secretory cells. Electrolyte content of secretion is similar to blood plasma, but most of the sodium, potassium, and chloride ions are absorbed by the cells in the duct.
- CEJ or cervical line
- the point at which the cementum and the enamel join
what is a canal of Hering?
a short bile ductule that connects a bile cannaliculus to the bile duct of the portal triad
Deep Cortex of the Lymph Node
- part of the lymph node that contains lots of T cells
True of False: the ER is continuous with the inside of the nucleus?
False, it is continuous with the space between the 2 layers of nuclear membrane.
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