Historical Geology 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Heterotrophs
Consumers
biostratigraphy
correlation by FOSSILS
anoxic
absence of oxygen
proponent of catastrophism
georges cuvier
Limestone on top...
Transgression babay
Stages of preservation
Living organismdeathbiodegrades
trilobite
organism with a three-lobed exoskeleton that was abundant in Paleozoic oceans and is considered to be an index fossil, PA state fossil
Wrote Origin of Species
Charles Darwin
Lamination
less than 1 cm thickness
Glaciers Leave what?
Striations/polish
Till (poorly sorted)
Erratic rocks (move 20-30 km)
Isostatic Rebound can make ocean levels hard to read.
Desmarest
Vulcanism, basalt flows and valley cutting rivers
Mosasaur
Air breathing, large lizard like. Terrestrial ancestor
Radioactivity
The spontaneous changes in the structure of atomic nuclei
several important battles of american civil war were faught in valleys that were formed uring this period
triassic
major extinction was when?
permian. 80%-90% extinction
Transgression
Flooding due to sea level rise
terrane
distinctive region of earths crust that has behaved as a coherent crustal block
Weather
The temperature and precipitation and wind of today/ this week. Recent occurrences and measurements
Northern Hemisphere of Pangea is ___?
Laurassia
Iridium
Rare earth element, rains down in small dust particles. Common at meteorite sites.
uranium 238
the radioactive isotope of uranium having an atomic mass of 238 and a half-life of 4.5 billion years
...
The main component in limestone is _________________.
Originated the idea that acquired traits could be inherited
Jean-Baptist Lamarck
Hadean rock types
komatiites (olivene and pyroxene) ultramafic
Metamorphic Rocks
produced from other rocks, generally beneath earth's surface, by heat, pressure, and chemically active fluids
The Beach Envr.
5-15 degree angle, Beachrock underneath is young
homology
plants or animals that have same ancestral origins but serve different functions
type section
a stratigraphic section designated at a particular locality where the unit is well exposed
Only Herbivores were part of this Dinosaur group?
Ornithischians
era
a unit of geologic time that includes two or more periods
Continental drift
the gradual movement and formation of continents (as described by plate tectonics)
a and b only
Fossils
a) provide evidence of depositional environments
b) are important constituents of rocks
c) can be used for relative dating of rocks
d) all of the above
e) a and b only
the great permian mass extinction may have been caused in part by outpourings of these that covered 2 million square kilometers in what is now siberia
flood basalts
Herodotus (485BC-425BC)
- found fossils in mountains
- sea has changed levels
- represents past sea level
Physical Geology
Study of earth materials and the processes operating within earth and on its surfaces
Sulfate Minerals
Form in ocean waters, with great evaporation. All have Sulfate Radical SO4... ex. Gypsum, and Anhydrite
banded iron formations
cherts and iron rich sedimentary rocks
PLANTS
Plants can be divided into two major groups:
nonvascular plants and vascular plants.

Nonvascular plants include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
Nonvascular lack the true stems, leaves, and roots
that characterize vascular plants.

Vascular plants include club mosses, psilophytes, horsetails,
ferns, gymnosperms (cycads, ginkgos, conifers, and
gnetophytes), and the angiosperms (flowering plants).
Great American Interchange
Mingling of Fauna between North and South America through the Isthmus of Panama, formed 3 MYA. Mass carnage in S.A., where N.A. carnivores preyed on herbivore and animals. Many animals associated with S.A. originate in N.A. ex: llamas
alpha emission
the process in which two protons and two neutrons that are bound together and are emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
Great Oxidation Event
oxygen 1% of current levels, methane was oxidized
Precambrian Time
the interval of time in the geologic time scale from Earth's formation to the beginning of the Paleozoic Era, from 4.6 billion to 542 million years ago
Huge adaptive radiation of what two animals in the beginning of the Cenozoic?
Mammels and Insects
The oldest known mineral grains
4.1 BYMineral: zircon: zerconion silicate; uranium dating, very ruggedRocks:Oldest continental crust, Acosta Formation in Canada 4.1 BY
METAMORPHIC ROCKS AND PROCESSES
Metamorphic rocks form by the alteration of other rocks at high temperatures and pressures. Metamorphism causes chemical (mineralogical) and textural changes
in igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks.
geologic time scale
a record of the geologic events and life forms in Earth's history
atomic mass/weight
the sum of the protons & number of neutrons in a nucleus
Goldich's Mineral Stability Series (Weathering Series)
Same a Bowen's... Olivine, Pyroxene, Amphibole, Biotite, Orthoclase, Muscovite, Quartz
What major military battle took place in the Triassic Rift Basin?
The battle of Gettysburg
Considering that sandstone is more permeable than shale, would one be more likely to find the unaltered remains of a clam in sandstone or shale?
Its because shale protects the fossil
Clast Diameters
Mud < 1/16mm < Sand < 2 mm < Gravel...granule, pebble, cobble, boulder
Possible causes of the Cretaceous Extinction Event: Asteroid Impact
-Asteroid Impact: Asteroid struck the earth at about the time of the mass extinction. THe Chicxlub Crater is located on the Yucatan Peninsula that is 20 kilometers wide, which could have been produced by a meteor about 10 kilometers wide. Also, at the boundary within the earth's crust that dates from KT Extinction, there is a deposit of iridium, which is commonly found in meteors.
What is the significance of the Bitter Springs Formation?
Oldest good evidence for eukaryotes
Wet Vs. Dry; Cool Vs. Warm
Wet and dry=cold=90 degrees Nwet and cool=cool temperate=60 degrees Nwarm and dry=arid=30 degrees Nwarm and wet= tropical=0 degrees N (equator)Warm temperate is in the middle of all of it.
What are the 4 rock types of Gondwanaland?
1. Glacial Tillites, 2. Glossopteris Beds, 3. Nonmarine Red Beds 4. Flood basalts
Main sequence of events in Cenozoic Plate Tectonics
The Cenozoic era is when the continents moved into their current positions. The Atlantic Ocean continues to open as North America moves west awat from Eurasia. Antarctica comes to rest at the S. Pole
Who has a picture of the T-rex mating
The Museo Jurasioa de Austraos (The Jurassic Museum of Austrio, Spain).
Why is the middle east so enriched with gas?
Lots of source rock, traps, etc. All the things you need to make oil
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