History and Systems Flashcards

Terms Definitions
La Mettrie
processing of sensation
used lesion technique
Free will
See Nondeterminism.
(anxiety disorders) symptoms
British Empiricism and Associationism
brand of animal magnetism?
Edward Titchener (2)


Stimulus error

frogs leg nerve conduction
brain studied by broca
Lee Ross
Fundamental attribution error
motor aphasia
cant get it out
Herbert Spencer (2)

 Social Darwinism.

Humans strive for “perfection” through survival of the fittest competition. How people interact with each other.
Foundations of Experimental Psychology (3)



Elements of Psychophysics (Fechner, 1860).
developed humoral hypothesis of personality
heirarchy of souls
vegatative, sensitive, rational
The philosophical belief that knowledge can be attained only by engaging in some type of systematic mental activity. Importance og logical, systemic, and intelligent thougth process.
Pyrrho of Elis
Founder of Skepticism.
Categorized mental illnessStudent of Wundt
Freud studied physiology under BruckeHelmholtz-ism: mechanist everything could be reduced to a physical activity
thoughts and actions are necessarily correlated whether or not there is causality
only thing that exists is objects
Mediate Experience
Experience that provides information about the interpretation of experience (i.e. interpretation of information based on background knowledge)
Wilhelm Wundt
Ernst Weber (2)

Just noticeable difference (difference threshold): The smallest difference in stimulation that can be reliably detected by an observer when two stimuli are compared.

Lifting 2 different weights, Amount of brightness in different rooms, The saltiness or sourness of different foods.
Passions of the Soul (Descartes, 1649)
father of modern medicine, humoral theory of health
follower of mesmer in nancy school
E.C. Tolman
Theorist who developed Latent learning
He was instrumental in fostering sensitivity training to reduce inter-group conflict and develop individual potential.
Causal laws
Laws describing causal relationships. Such laws specify the conditions that are necessary and sufficient to produce a certain event. Knowledge of causal laws allows both the prediction and control of events.
The contention that mental processes emerge from brain processes. The interactionist form of emergentism claims that once mental states emerge, they can influence subsequent brain activity and thus behavior. The epiphenomenalist form claims that emergent mental states are behaviorally irrelevant.
Risky predictions
According to Popper, predictions derived from a scientific theory that run a real chance of showing the theory to be false. For example, if a meteorological theory predicts that it will rain at a specific place at a specific time, then it must do so or the theory will be shown to be incorrect.
Anyone who believes that important human attributes such as intelligence are largely inherited.
Philosophy that emphasized the most mystical aspects of Plato's philosophy. Transcendental experiences were considered the most significant type of human experience.
Persistent observations that cannot be explained by an existing paradigm. Anomalies eventually cause one paradigm to displace another.
Antecedents of Cognitive Psychology
verbal learninghuman performancecomputer science
Ulric Neisser
Cognitive Psychology First book
Patricia Linville
Those with more simple self-conceptions are more vulnerable to failures in their critical domains.
problem which cant be solved with current paradigm, leads to crisis
First level of Marr’s level of analysis
the ability of the mind to self-organize mental contents into higher levels through mental processes (consciousness, awareness).
Wilhelm Wundt
Complex phenomena can be reduced to basic elements or events.
David Marr
Report of the Commissioners Charged by the King, with the Examination of Animal Magnetism (Franklin et al., 1784)
Maladaptive personality
These people work hard at maintaining/protecting their self concept. Because their lives are not authentic, this is a difficult task and they feel they are under constant threat.
They deploy defense mechanisms of distortion and denial.
Psychological types
Carl Jung
Personality types based on interactions of the attitudes and functions with others.
Introversion (shy) and Extraversion (outgoing)
wanted to prove panpsychism but sorta ended up the opposite
B.F. Skinner
He said successive approximations of behavior creates a desired behavior or chain of behaviors
Learned helplessness:
feelings of being worthless that develop after constant experiences of failure in situations when any effort taken by the individual does not affect the outcomes
Primary punisher
a stimulus that is inherently punishing to the organism (pain, extreme heat or cold)
Unmoved mover
According to Aristotle, that which gave nature its purpose, or final cause, but was itself uncaused. In Aristotle's philosophy, the unmoved mover was a logical necessity.
The belief that one should live according to nature's plan and accept one's fate with indifference or, in the case of extreme hardship, with courage.
The form of emergentism that states that mental events emerge from brain activity but that mental events are subsequently behaviorally irrelevant. mental events are caused by physical events in the brain, but have no effects upon any physical events.
A proposed answer to the mind-body problem maintaining that bodily experiences influence the mind and that the mind influences the body.
artistotles reasons
active reason, passive reason, common sense, sensory information
Anselm, St.
Argued that sense perception and rational powers should supplement faith.
An Arabic scholar who translated and modified Aristotelian philosophy and attempted to make it compatible with Islam.
Passive reason
According to Aristotle, the practical utilization of the information provided by the common sense, but not trying to understand in first principles or essence
The belief that there are universal truths about ourselves and about the physical world in general that can be discovered by anyone using the proper methods of inquiry.
The attempt to explain objects or events in one domain by using terminology, concepts, laws, or principles from another domain. Explaining observable phenomena (domain1) in terms of atomic theory (domain2) would be an example; explaining human behavior and cognition (domain1) in terms of biochemical principles (domain2) would be another. In a sense, it can be said that events in domain1 are reduced to events in domain2.
The study of the origin, structure, and processes governing the universe.
The belief that the behavior of organisms, including humans, can be explained entirely in terms of mechanical laws.
Jean-Martin Charcot
Love neurosis and hysteriaNeurosis was biological and geneticHypnotize people to find out what was causing the paralysis/neurosis
Self-fulfilling prophecy:
A perceiver’s expectations about a target person leads that target person to adopt those expected attributes and behaviors.
animal magnetism
idea that animals have magnetic fluid analogous to hippocrates humors
Mentalism: (3)

All knowledge is a function of mental phenomena dependent on the perceiving of experiencing person (subjective reality).

How you interpret events is different than how I interpret events.

Experience is subjective.

George Berkeley
Foundations of Experimental Psychology
detecting physical energies or chemicals present in the environment. The external physical energies or chemicals are detected by receptors in the sense organs. (light - see, air movement - hear, chemicals – taste/smell).
Recapitulation theory of psychological development:
children’s personal development repeats the life history of the human race.
Granville Stanley Hall
The validity and meaning of ideas is tested by its practical consequence. How good is it in explaining how people adapt? Being practical.

William James
As experiences occur in the life of the individual, they are either,
a) symbolized, perceived and organized into some relation to the self,
b) ignored because there is no perceived relationship to the self structure,
c) denied symbolization or given distorted symbolization because the experience is inconsistent with the structure of the self.
Alfred Adler

He minimized the role of sex in shaping personality and focused on the conscious, rather than unconscious, determinants of behavior.

People are more strongly affected by what the future holds. 
Continuous reinforcement
occurs when a particular response is always reinforced (or punished).
Vegetative soul
The soul possessed by plants. It allows only growth, the intake of nutrition, and reproduction.
A simple, sensitive man whom St. Paul and others claimed was the Messiah. Those who believe Jesus to be the Son of God are called Christians.
Historical development approach
The approach to history that concentrates on an element of a field or discipline and describes how the understanding of or approach to studying that element has changed over time. An example is a description of how mental illness has been defined and studied throughout history.
Material cause
According to Aristotle, what a thing is made of.
George Miller
The Magical number 7 Channel capacity
 Secure attachment:  
these infants cry and protest when mothers leave the room. They welcome back the mother when she returned and children were more attached to the mom than with the stranger.
Rosenthal & Jacobson
These researchers found that the students with teacher expectations have gains in IQ scores at a later retest.
Method of limits
subjects are presented with 2 stimuli and the researcher adjusts one stimuli until the subject can detect a difference between the 2 stimuli. (2 equal brightness lights are presented to people and the researcher slowly dims one light until the subject can detect a difference between the 2 lights)
Gustav Fechner
Arousal Curve
Low and high levels of arousal leads to poor performance.  Medium level arousal, produces the highest level of performance
(Robert) Yerkes-(John) Dodson
Heraclitus (2)

We exist in a world in which everything is constantly in flux or changing

In using the analogy of a flowing river, “We both step and do not step in the same rivers.  We are and are not.”
Platonic realism (2)
universals are concepts do not exist in the way that ordinary physical objects exist, but are thought to have a sort of a metaphysical or heavenly mode of existence
People cannot see or otherwise come into sensory contact with universals, but in order to conceive of universals, one must be able to believe in these abstract universals
Functional Autonomy:
Gordon Allport
adult motives are independent of childhood experiences. Even though we have an unconscious, adult motivation can be understood only in terms of our present behavior and intentions.
Karen Horney
In contrast to Freud who claims that personality depends on unchangeable biological forces (Id, sex), ______ focused on the helpless infant seeking security in a threatening world.
Field Theory:
Kurt Lewin
Theory that explains human behaviors in terms of one’s field of social influences called a life space.
Operational definitions
John Watson
Psychology should be focused on the elements of behavior that can be described objectively without using subjective or mentalistic terminology (introspection)
Instinctual drift:
Marian Breland Bailey
even with operant conditioning animals will eventually generate behaviors associated with their biological habits or tendencies
fads and fashions in science
viewpoints disappear simply because they become unpopular, which vary with the zeigest, not always because incorrect
The belief that the best life is one of long-term pleasure resulting from moderation.
Eidola (singular, eidolon)
A tiny replication that some early Greek philosophers thought emanated from the surfaces of things in the environment, allowing the things to be perceived.
Obedience experiments:
People will follow the orders of a “legitimate” authority figure even when circumstances contradict a person’s own rational/emotional judgment. 
Social loafing:
one member of the group slows down, forcing others to work harder on the group effort or project.
Situational attribution:
identify the cause of an action or event due to the situation or environment. (Joe stole money because his family is starving)
When in a large group or crowd, people are more likely to lose awareness of their own individuality.
In crowds, people tend to forget their own values, beliefs, and do not feel accountable for their actions, thus they are more likely to violate social norms.
method of constant stimuli
presents stimulus in random order of intensity
Levels of Analysis of Human Cognition, Emotion and Behavior
(David Marr)
Algorithm and computational level:
the representations and cognitive processes that are involved in thoughts, emotions and behaviors (The processes involved in sensation, memory, attention, emotion, problem solving, intelligence, and behaviors).  The steps involved in the process
Law of Contiguity:
The more closely linked two ideas are in time and space, the more readily the concepts will be associated (i.e., thunder and lightening, Freud and psychoanalysis).
David Hume
Anna Freud
Expanded the role of the ego as it functions independently from the id.
Henry Murray
The superego is shaped not only by the teachings of the parents, but also one’s peer group and society’s literature.
The superego develops over a lifetime.
Factors that lead towards Self-efficacy

Having experiences in mastering new skills and overcoming obstacles.

Having successful and competent role models.

Getting feedback and encouragement from others

Learning to understand and manageing your own emotional state
Max Wertheimer
similar items tend to be seen together as forming a group
Law of frequency
In general, the more often events are experienced together, the stronger they become associated in memory.
Analogy of the divided line
Plato's illustration of his contention that there is a hierarchy of understanding. The lowest type of understanding is based on images of empirical objects. Next highest is an understanding of empirical objects themselves, which results only in opinion. Next is an understanding of abstract mathematical principles. Then comes an understanding of the forms. The highest understanding (true knowledge) is an understanding of the form of the good and includes a knowledge of all forms and their organization.
Examples of Cognitive Dissonance
A person eats tuna to lower cholesterol intake, but they learn that high tuna consumption can lead to an significant intake of mercury. 
A person has to make a choice where they either tell a friend of a truth that will hurt him/her and jeopardize a relationship or withhold the information and later jeopardize their relationship.
A wife who stays in an abusive relationship.
Hugo Munsterberg
 Contributions to Forensic psychology: (3)

He looked at the reliability of eyewitness testimonies. He studied illusions, the memory of the witness, and the prevention of crime. He brings to light how differently we view or arrange events (i.e. memory distortions).

His procedure was to have people would look at the pictures for a period of time and would then be asked to write down what they saw. His findings show that each picture was interpreted differently by each person.

The application of psychology findings and methods to the legal system and crime prevention. How memory works.
De Anima, [On the Soul] (Aristotle)
mind collects, organizes, and recalls sensory data and thats all we have. influenced by association, frequency, and emotional impact
 Five foundations of Humanistic Psychology
James Bugental

Human beings cannot be reduced to components.

Human beings have in them a uniquely human context.

Human consciousness includes an awareness of oneself in the context of other people.

Human beings have and make choices and responsibilities

Human beings are intentional, seek meaning in their lives, have values and seek creativity
Observational learning (vicarious reinforcement):
Albert Bandura
a process where a person learns new behaviors by observing the behavior of another rather than through direct experience
Authenticity vs. inauthenticity
If you choose to not accept that you will die, you lose the sense of urgency, you are inauthentic. Live a traditional lifestyle, let lives happen to them
Who wrote Psychology: A Study of Mental Life?
2 points from the book
Robert Sessions Woodsworth

he was the first to employ the now standard multiplicative 'rectangular' interactionist metaphor (i.e., heredity x environment) for considering the nature vs. nurture debate

credited for popularizing the terms "independent" and "dependent variables" as well as with presenting the following scheme of experimentation --as establishing cause of variation in a dependent variable by way of holding all but one independent variable constant "c"
High need for affiliation
David Clarence McClelland
Employees with a high affiliation need perform best in a cooperative environment.
Kenneth Clark
Maime Phipps Clark
The results of their work were cited in the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court’s decision to end racial segregation in public schools
Ontological argument for the existence of God
St. Anselm's contention that if we can think of something, it must be real. Because we can think of a perfect being , that perfect being must exist.
systematic observation
started phrenology
George Berkeley (1)
found wernickes area
Uncertainty principle
See Indeterminism.
Stanley Milgram
Obedience experiments:
normal science
working within paradigm
james braids "nervous sleep"

Psychological maladjustment exists when the organism denies awareness of significant sensory and visceral experiences, which consequently are not symbolized and organized into the gestalt of the self structure. When this situation exists, there is a basic or potential psychological tension.
first work on jnd's
father of clinical psychology
Philip Zimbardo
Stanford Prison Experiment:
Weber's Law
relationship between stimulus intensity and perceived intensity
Plato (2)

Platonic realism

Theory of Forms
Charles Darwin (1)
Theory of evolution
Handbook of Physiological Optics (Helmholtz, 1856-1867)
reason vs. will vs. desire
Mill (James and John Stuart)
Disagreed with the Sophists' contention that there is no discernible truth beyond individual opinion. Socrates believed that by examining a number of individual manifestations of a concept, the general concept itself could be defined clearly and precisely. These general definitions were stable and knowable and, when known, generated moral behavior. knowledge and morality were related.
Epicurus of Samos
Founder of Epicureanism.
Zeno of Citium
Founder of Stoicism.
The synthesis of Aristotelian philosophy with Christian teachings.
Human Performance
Limits of attentionInformation theory
differences in perception based on knowledge and experience
the metaphysical and theological view that all is one
mental phenomena are caused by physical phenomena, and mental phenomena cannot cause anything by themselves
Thomas Henry Huxley
used RTs to study mental processes
founder of modern philosophy; cogito ergo sum, rationalist, nativist, dualist, mechanist, interactionist; first physiological psych
Variable-interval schedule:
reinforcement (or punishment) occurs after an average period of time. More resistance to extinction (A professor gives pop quizzes, waiting for a wave during surfing)
Theorist who said:

There are Simple and Complex reflexes.

There is a simple point-to-point connection of reflexes (Stimulus-Behavior) according to which the brain serves merely to switch incoming sensory nerve impulses into outgoing motor impulses.

The brain has a passive role in learning. 
The belief that the relationship between the mind and body is mediated by God.
The contention that even though determinism is true, attempting to measure the causes of something influences those causes, making it impossible to know them with certainty. This contention is also called Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
The Persian religion that equated truth and wisdom with the brilliance of the sun and ignorance and evil with darkness.
Very pragmatic approach: Everything is built of constructs to view the world to help understand what’s going on, constructing what you seePsychological problems are a matter of how individuals view/interpret thingsConstructive Alternativism: Get rid of bad constructs and add better onesFixed-Role Therapy: Replacing constructs through role playing; Taking on the more adaptive role
Humanistic Psychology
Also called, third-force psychology Study normal people too! Focus on the uniqueness of being human
hysterics are only patients that are susceptible to hypnosis according to salpetriere school and charcot
______________ also noted that the majority of psychologists of his day would not profess loyalty to any one school of thought
Robert Sessions Woodsworth
Innate ideas:
ideas from reflecting on direct experience. (initial impressions influenced by subjective interpretations) – freedom, God.
Rene Decartes
David Hume (2)

Law of Resemblance

Law of Contiguity
Lightner Witmer (1)

Defined the term clinical psychology

 are the analog to the metaphysical realm of atoms found in the physical world.  These are the elements within the context of monism.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Robert Sessions Woodsworth (2)

 Dynamic psychology

He noted that the majority of psychologists of his day would not profess loyalty to any one school of thought

L’Homme Machine, [Man a Machine] (La Mettrie, 1748);
Gordon Allport
He emphasized the uniqueness of personality and the importance of a person’s goals and expectations.
studied tans brain; found area of speech
figured out lots of stuff by dissection
Secondary punisher
a stimulus that has acquired  punishing properties through association with other punishers (criticism, verbal scoldings, fines)
A person’s sense of self-esteem that he or she is capable of producing desired results such as mastering new skills and reaching goals. (Life achievements)
Marian Breland Bailey
Theorist who: Commercial application of humane operant conditioning methods on animals. (previously, animals were trained only with positive punishment)
A sudden, deep and useful understanding about the nature of a difficult problem.
Fritz Heider
He published “The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations” (1958)
Gestalt was in direct contrast to _____
Theory of forms
Plato's contention that ultimate reality consists of abstract ideas or forms that correspond to all objects in the empirical world. Knowledge of these abstractions is innate and can be attained only through introspection.
The belief that everything that occurs does so because of known or knowable causes, and that if these causes were known in advance, an event could be predicted with complete accuracy. Also, if the causes of an event were known, the event could be prevented by preventing its causes. Thus, the knowledge of an event's causes allows the prediction and control of the event.
The belief that human thought or behavior is freely chosen by the individual and is therefore not caused by antecedent physical or mental events.
Active mind
A mind that transforms, interprets, understands, or values physical experience. The rationalists assume an active mind.
Augustine, St.
After having demonstrated the validity of inner, subjective experience, said that one can know God through introspection as well as through the revealed truth of Scripture. Augustine also wrote extensively on human free will.
The belief that life cannot be explained in terms of inanimate processes. For the vitalist, life requires a force that is more than the material objects or inanimate processes in which it manifests itself. For there to be life, there must be a vital force present.
According to Plato, the pure, abstract realities that are unchanging and timeless and therefore knowable. Such forms create imperfect manifestations of themselves when they interact with matter. It is these imperfect manifestations of the forms that are the objects of our sense impressions. (See also Theory of forms.)
The belief that because all experience must be filtered through individual and group perspectives the search for universal truths that exist independently of human experience must be in vain. For the relativist, there is no Truth, only truths.
Final cause
According to Aristotle, the purpose for which a thing exists.
Pierre Janet
Studied under Charcot, also a physicianFreud worked for himNeurosis was biological and genetic, but the causes of hysteria were due to:Repressed memoriesThe subconsciousDissociative experiences
method of adjustment
subject adjusts stimulus intensity to threshold or match of other stimulus
all of reality is made of indivisible basic building blocks
Imageless thought:
meanings in thoughts can occur without having any sensory or imaginal components. (abstract concepts such as freedom, justice etc.) 

Oswald Kulpe
Stimulus error (2)

Confusing the mental process under study with the stimulus or object being observed. Experience things as a whole.  (i.e., observers who see an apple and describe it as an apple rather than reporting the color, brightness, and shape they are experiencing) (i.e. binding problem)

When observers focus on the stimulus object instead of being aware of the conscious process of experience, observers fail to distinguish what they have learned in the past about the object.
Edward Titchener
Absolute threshold:

smallest amount of energy that a person can detect with their sense organs.(Candle flame in a clear, dark night 30 miles away; Ticking watch in a quiet room 20 feet away)

 Limits of human sensation (ex. Sound of dog whistle, snakes can detect infrared radiation (heat signatures) through their eyes)

 Gustav Fechner
In contrast to strict association of ideas and experiences, _____stated that the human mind is inherently purposive and selective.
William James
An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision (Berkeley, 1709)
Henry Murray
everything upon which personality is based, such as feelings, memories, beliefs, fears and values, has basis in the physiology of the brain. 
In addition to primitive and lustful impulses, the Id contains socially desirable tendencies such as empathy, identification and love that needs to be fully expressed.
Incongruent Individual
An individual who is always defensive, cannot be open to all experiences and is not functioning ideally and may even be malfunctioning
Learning schedules
Describes the pattern that an organism is reinforced (or punished) .
cognitive explanation” for learning.

E.C. Tolman
This suggests that repeated performance on a task strengthens the learned relationship between the environment’s cues and the organisms expectations
Phi Phenomenon:
Max Wertheimer
 The perceptual illusion that 2 stationary flashing lights are moving from one place to another
Bonaventure, St.
A contemporary of St. Thomas Aquinas, argued that Christianity should remain Augustinian and should reject any effort to assimilate Aristotelian philosophy into church dogma.
Empirical observation
The direct observation of that which is being studied in order to understand it.
Active reason
According to Aristotle, the faculty of the soul that searches for the essences or abstract concepts that manifest themselves in the empirical world. Aristotle thought that the active reason part of the soul was immortal.
The belief that all beliefs can be proved false; thus, to avoid the frustration of being wrong, it is best to believe nothing.
Mystery religions
Ancient religions that were characterized by secret rites of initiation; ceremonies designed to bring initiates closer to a deity or deities, to symbolize death and rebirth, to offer purification and forgiveness of sins, and to cause the exaction of a new life; the confession of sin; and a strong feeling of community among members.
Environmental determinism
The type of determinism that stresses causes of behavior that are external to the organism.
Inductive definition
The technique used by Socrates that examined many individual examples of a concept to discover what they all had in common.
Those who believe that there is only one reality. Materialists are monists because they believe that only matter exists. Idealists are also monists because they believe that everything, including the "material" world, is the result of human consciousness and is therefore mental.
Dissociative experiences
Disruption of the integration of the persons psychological functioning Part of your personality was splitting off from the rest of it, causing the syptoms Because repressed memories
secure attachment style
attachment style have more satisfying, committed, close, and well-adjusted relationships than avoidant or anxious/ambivalent people.
Cognitive dissonance:
the tension or uneasiness that arises when a person becomes simultaneously aware of 2 inconsistent attitudes or actions. 
In order to reduce the tension experienced, people will sometimes rationalize their choice, thoughts or behaviors. 
idea of descartes et al that the body and mind are very separate
Hugo Munsterberg

Contributions to Industrial Organizational Psychology: (2)

In the book Psychology and Industrial Efficiency (1913), He examined the problems with monotony, attention and fatigue, physical and social influences on the working power, and the effects of advertising.

He believed that the key to work place efficiency was matching the job and worker and successful matches generate satisfied employees, quality work and high productivity.

theory of psychophysical parallelism:
mental and physiological processes can co-occur with each other whether or not there be any causal connection between them
Hugo Munsterberg
Theory of Forms (4)
In every entitiy (people, animals, trees, etc.) in the world, there is an underlying Form (Idea) that cannot be directly experienced by our own senses
 Forms represent the highest and fundamental type of reality. 
Forms are inherent properties of entities in the world

Plato spoke of Form in formulating his solution to the problem of universals (qualities of a person, qualities of a tree)

Theory of Needs:
David Clarence McClelland
 This acquired-needs theory proposed that an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences
Negative punishment
occurs when a response is followed by the removal of a pleasant stimulus. This makes the behavior less likely in the future. (Being grounded after “misbehaving”)
Wolfgang Kohler
Focused on the application of Gestalt Psychology in learning and problem solving.
The study of the past for its own sake, without attempting to interpret and evaluate it in terms of current knowledge and standards, as is the case with presentism.
To exist is to changeAs human we exist in the physical world and things happens, and then we grow from changeSince we are going to change, humans can dictate how change, we have free willHumans choose the nature of their own existenceAuthenticity vs. inauthenticityThrownessNazi
Richard Petty, John Cacioppo
The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion
Bystander effect:
People are less likely to help (and take longer to help) when more people are present (Kitty Genovese case)
Law of Conservation of Energy
energy in closed system remains constant
Two-factor Theory of Emotion -who
William James and Carl Lange
Philosophical roots of Functionalism
What are the adaptations necessary to survive in the world?
Neurotic need:
Karen Horney
a mode of defense against basic anxiety.
unconditional positive regard
Carl Rodgers
allows the child to express all aspects of the self and eventually leads to a healthy self-actualized personality.
Life space
Kurt Lewin

consists of a person’s goals or needs interacting with the psychological environment.

It shows varying degrees of development as depending on the amount and quality of experiences accumulated over a lifetime (life experiences, socialization, friendships etc.)
difference btween plato and artistotle
plato thought went through pure thought and aristotle came through examining nature
old vs. new historyinternalist vs. externalist
is account only for developments within the field while es note the achievements in other fields at the same time.
Walter Dill Scott
Contributions to Personnel selection (6)

Developed psychometric tests of how applicants used their intelligence and abilities.

came up with a rating scale and group test to measure characteristics of people who were already successful as sales people, business executives, and military personnel. 

He also questioned army officers and business managers, asking them to rank the importance of appearance, demeanor, and character.  He then ranked job applicants on the qualities found for effective job performance. 

also developed psychological test to measure intelligence and other abilities, but instead of individual tests he made a test that could be given to groups of people. 

He was not only measuring general intelligence but he was also interested in how a person applies their intelligence.  He defined intelligence in practical terms such as judgment, quickness, and accuracy

He compared applicants’ test scores with scores of employees who were successful, and was not concerned about what those test scores would say about their personal mental problems
David Clarence McClelland
 seek to excel and thus tend to avoid both low-risk and high-risk situations. Achievers avoid low-risk situations because the easily attained success is not a genuine achievement. In high-risk projects, achievers see the outcome as one of chance (luck) rather than one's own effort. Achievers need regular feedback in order to monitor the progress of their achievements. They prefer either to work alone or with other high achievers.


If the CS is not paired with the UR after a significant period of time, ______of the behavior occurs.
platos two times of writings
first part was reporting thoughts and methods of socrates. 2nd combined the socratic method with mystical pythagorean philosophy
old vs. new historypersonalistic vs. naturalistic
ps focus on importance of individuals ns focus on importance of support for those individuals

Levels of Analysis of Human Cognition, Emotion and Behavior
(David Marr)

Functional level:
The purpose of the thoughts, emotions or behaviors.  (Information inputs and behavioral outputs of the system).  What is the purpose? 
Word-Association Test:
Carl Jung

The analyst reads a list of words to the patient one word at a time, and the patient responds to each word with the first word that comes to mind.

If a particular word that produced a long response time, breathing irregularities etc.

It was assumed that an existence of an unconscious emotional problem was connected with the word or the reply. 
In contrast to Form, form (matter) represents
the physical manifestation of the form in the world

Levels of Analysis of Human Cognition, Emotion and Behavior
(David Marr)
Hardware level:
the parts of the brain that control or manage cognitive processes, emotions, or behaviors.  What are the parts that do this process?
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