Anatomy Test 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
inferior
below
tracheo
trachea
-desis
fusion
Genital
Pubic
Chin
Mental
Hand
Manual
radiographs detect:
water
fat
bone
air
-orrhaphy
repair of
anterior
toward front
Chest (muscle)
Pectoral
caudal
toward the tail
tracheal
neck of uterus
internal
tward inner surface
Shoulder blade (bone)
Scapular
IV
Trochlear, Motor, ?
What does cervical mean?
Neck
trapezius
elevates clavicleadducts, rotates, depresses, elevates scapulaabducts and extends neck
Muscle has three groups
striated
smooth
cardiac
Xi
Spinal accessory, Motor, ?
trapezius origin and insertion
 
origin:
head
 
insertion:
upper limb
Representative locations of fibrocartilage
Pubis symphisis
 
Striated muscle
Skeletal
329 of them
voluntary muscles
attached to primary skeleton
all paired except for 2
IX
 
Glossopharyngeal, both, tongue and throat
Pleurae
double-layered sac surrounding each lung
parietal - outer layer
visceral - inner layer
superficial
toward or at the body surface
scoliosis
what and where?
 
curvature in thoracic region
Serratus Anterior
Rotates and
Abducts scapula
Elevates ribs when scapula fixed
____________ is the clear, feautureless, narrow zone seen only in thick skin
Stratum lucidum
The stratum spinosum consists of several layers of what types of cells
keratinocytes
Most widespread type of cartilage, forming nearly all the fetal skeleton and persisting in the adult in costal cartilages, the cartilages of the nose, trachea, and bronchi, and the articular carilages of joints
Hyaline
Mesothelial Tissu
Lines the primary body cavities
Peritoneal ( abdomen)
pleural (2)  lungs
pericardial (heart)
where does the spinal cord end
L2
another name for the sympathetic system
Thoracolumbar
Respiratory Organs
nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses
pharynx, larynx, trachea
bronchi and smaller branches
lungs and alveoli
What is the brachial region?
The upper arm
what holds scapula rigidly in place?
major/minor rhomboids
Hyaline cartilage, with the exception of that associated with joints (articular cartilage), is surrounded by a dense connective tissue capsule, called
the perichondrium
Major Action of temporalis
Elevates and retracts mandible
Epithelial has three groups
Epithelial Tissue proper
endothelial tissue
mesothelial tissue
The labia major is __________, produces ________, and contains _______
pigmented hairfat
The sympathetic neurotransmitter of the ANS utilizes what 2 neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine and norepinephrine
langerhan's cells
epidermal dendritic cells . phagocytes that arise from the bone marrow & epidermis.
33 bones of vertebrae
7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
*5 sacral
1-4 coccygeal
 
* fused
 
Distinguish the functions of hyaline, elastic and fibrocartilage
hyaline--eases joint moverment
Elastic---flexible
Fibrocartilage--- compression and absorbs shock
Muscles of facial expression are known as
mimetic muscles
In bone the primary cell type is the__________
osteocyte
 Metabolism can be broken down into how many processes that contribute to the whole.  Name them.
Catabolism
Anabolism
Bonse
rigid matrix, bone is rigid because of high amounts of salt. 206 bones
The adrenal medulla releases what
Catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine
Where is the fossa Ovalis
In the R atrium
The bulb of the penis becomes what
corpus spongyosum
Nasal Conchae
superior and middle nasal conchae - ethmoid bone
inferior nasal conchae - separate bone
Describe the hypodermis?
underlines the dermis &mainly adipose tissue.
ADP + P -> ?The Adenadine Diphosphate reacts with another phosphate to yield what?
ATPAdenadine Triphosphate
What is the nasal region?
The area around the nose
1) origin
 
2) insertion
 
1) less movable: attached to fixed trunk of body
 
2) more movable; attached to movable limbs of body
Name three different types of cartilage
1. hyaline
2. elastic
3. fribrocartilage
what is the mesosalpinx
layer that surrounds the fallopian tube
How many Thoracic vert are there and what do they articulate with
12the ribs
what are the 3 layers of uterus
endometrium, myometrium, perimetrium
How are strach marks formed?
stretching of the reticular layer.
What does lateral mean?
Closer to one side of the body
The bone as a whole is covered with a tough fibrous __________________
periosteum
Major Action of sternocleidomastoid
both muscles flex neck
One side alone turns head to opposite side
what are the 3 longitudinal lig of the colon called
tinea coli
The 2 crura of the penis become what in the penis
corpus cavernosum
What branches off the R and L Subclavian AA
Internal Thoracic AA
what is the inner portion of the vert disc called
Neucleous Pulposus
The uterus is b/w the what 2 structures
bladder and rectum
What is the main threat of burns?
loss of body fluids.
What does the trunk / torso contain?
The thorax (chest) and abdomen
What is the function of nerve tissue?
Generates and conducts electrical signals in the body.
List and define the four basic characteristics of muscle tissue. 
Excitability -- Contractility -- Extensibility -- Elasticity
Loose tissue is and has four groups
closeley packed fibers, collagenous fibers predominate, when boiled will yield gelatin.
 
Tendons
Ligaments
Fascia
Reticular
what are the veins on the Heart
Great cardiac VeinSmall cardiac VeinLeft post. ventricular VMiddle Cardiac V
What are the functions of the endocrine system?
Relay chemical messages through the body to help control physiological processes.
What's the definition of anatomy?
The structure of the human body and arrangement of parts.
The quadriceps femoris is a composite muscle, described as four separate muscles:
the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and vastus intermedius (
Diaphragm is a large dome consiting of a ______ _______ and _______ _______ which sperates what 2 cavities
Central tendonstriated MMThoracic and abdominal
what are the ligaments on the liver
Falciform, Round and cardiac and triangular
Basic Functions of the Respiratory System
4 Processes of Respiration
supples body with oxygen; disposes of carbon dioxide
pulmonary ventilation; external respiration; transport of respiratory gases, internal respiration
What are the functions of the nervous system?
Direct behaviour and movement and, along with the endocrine system, controls physiological processes (breathing, digestion, etc.)
Name and briefly describe the three types of muscle tissue?
Skeletal muscle -- Cardiac muscle --  Smooth muscle --
what dumps into the portal veinous system
all the blood coming from the intestines and digestive tract
What are the functions of the urinary system?
Filter out cellular wastes, toxins and excess water or nutrients from the circulatory system.
What is the brachium and what are its boundaries?
The arm, boundaries are from the axillary to the cubital
where do the posterior intercostal AA come from
9 of the 11 pairs come from the aorta
What do you mean when you speak of the anatomy of the body?
You are referring to the study of structures and the relationships between structures.
Macro
large
ORCHIDO
testicle
-itis
inflammation
therm-
heat
inter
between
 
Define: crural
 
Leg
Teratogens
p. 74
base foundation
bas
lordotic curve
curve anteriorly
Action?
Pectoralis major
 
Flexs arm
Adducts arm
Medially rotates arm
5 TYPES VERTEBREA
CervicalThoracicLumbarSacrumCoccygeal
crest
narrow and ridgelike process
abdominal hiatus'
aortic hiatus
esophageal hiatus
Brachial
pertaining to the arm
Hepatopancreatic ampulla
ampulla of Vater
CN3
Occulomotor Nerve- eye muscles
Alveolar ducts


(resp portion)
Tissue
Simple squamous epi
matacromion
bone projecting caudally from acromion; only in carnivores
K is what % water?
80.00000%
demineralization of bone, spontaneous fractures(what is produced in excessive amounts?)
parathyroid
keratinocytes are the predominant cells in the
epidermis
defined asbetween wrist & elbow
Antebrachium
hypo-
below, under (hypoglycemia: low blood sugar)
Acids
Acids are proton (hydrogen ion) donors(release H+ in solution) HCl → H+ + Cl–
electrolyte
Formed when ionic compounds dissociate into positive and negative ions in a solution.
Bone Matrix:
collagen fibers withcalcium phosphate crystals
subscapular artery
3rd part of axillary artery
 
splits into circumflex scapular and thoracodorsal arteries
Nucleus of a neutrophil is ----------------
multilobed
TWO MUSCLES OF THE NECK
sternocleidomastoid, trapezius
mesenteries
fused, double sheets of peritoneal membrane that stabilize attached organs
LONGISSIMUS THORACIS
Origin: Thoracolumbar fascia and accessoryprocesses of the lumbar vertebrae.Insertion: Transverse processes of the lower ninethoracic vertebrae and the lower nine ribs.Innervation: Dorsal rami of spinal nerves T1 to T12.Action: Extends and laterally flexes the vertebralcolumn.
how many METACARPAL bones are there?
5
neurotransmitters
chemical compound released by one neuron to affect the membrane potential of another (MIGHT BE INCORRECT)
arbor vitae
Enter your back text here.
heart
The coronary arteries supply blood to the...
tuberosity
projection or bump with a roughened surface
how many layers make up the pseduostratified epithelium?
one
transitional
the mucosa of the urinary bladder includes _______ epithelium
nuclei of cranial nerves V-VII are found in the
pons
visceral membrane
covers organs of thoracic abdominal cavities
The expulsion of fetus during labor occurs where?
uterus
Muscle insertion
structure acted upon, usually most distal insertion moves towards origin
abnormal narrowing of vertebral canal or intervertebral foramina caused by hypertrophy of vertebral bone
spinal stenosis
veins
collect blood from all tissues and organs and return it to the heart
Metaphase
chromosomes are lined up along the center of the cell
elastic cartilage
found where a structure w/elasticity is desired
Palmaris Longus
O: Medial Epicondyle of humerus
I: Carpals, metacarpals, and palmar aponeuris
A: flexion of the wrist
pubic
of, pertaining to, or situated near the pubes or the pubis.
growth
size of cells, number of cells, material around cells
cisterna chyli
The dilated inferior end of the thoracic duct is called the...
 
Describe the temporalis
O: temporal fossa
I: anteiror portion of mandibular ramus and coronoid process
N: mandibular division of CN V
A: elevates and retracts mandible; involved in excursion
Nasocilicary Nerve
Brings sensory info from the nasal cavity, cornea, & sclera
tight junction
encircles epithelial cell and joins to neighboring cells
 
don't allow things between cells
Arterial supply, venous drainage, lymphatic drainage, and innervation of the superior and inferior parts of the anal canal
Superior part:
superior rectal artery
superior rectal vein
internal iliac lymph nodes
visceral innervation by inferior hypogastric plexus (only sensitive to stretching)
 
Inferior part:
inferior rectal artery
inferior rectal vein
superficial inguinal lymph nodes
somatic innervation by inferior rectal nerves (sensitive to pain, touch, and temperature)
What are the 5 components of the villus
epithelium,arteriole,capillary,venuole,lymph duct
dehydration synthesisa
a reaction in which two chemical monomers are joined together with water produced as a by-product.
superior mesenteric vein
part of hepatic portal system, collects blood from stomach, small intestine, and first 2/3 of large intestine
The small intestine lies ____ to the anterior wall of the abdomen.
deep
Composition of Blood
Plasma and formed elements (RBC's, WBC's, etc)
pulmonary trunk
artery that takes blood to the lungs
branches into right and left pulmonary arteries
squamous
covered with or formed of squamae or scales.
How many pairs of spinal cords do we have?
31
Longitudinal Fissure
Divides the cerebrum into the left and right hemispheres
parkinsons disease results from a degeneration of the _______ leading to an under production of ________ resulting in _______ tremors
substantia nigra, dopamine, resting
Valgus
term to describe an angle in which the bone distal to the joint deviates laterally from the longitudinal axis of the proximal bone, and from the midline of the body, when the subject is in anatomic position.
What is the major driving force of AH production?>
Chloride
What week is the development of CV and nervous system?
Weeks 3-4
Alpha Motor Neuron
Immediate Response - A very hot stimulus leads to an immediate withdraw (of a finger, for instance) before awareness even occurs (signal reaches the CNS)
Necrosis
refers to the death of cells in a tissue, often resulting in ischemia (reduced blood flow). (p. 387)
what is the diaphysis?
tubular shaft. it surround the meduallary cavity and it is filled with yellow bone marrow
patellar
the flat, movable bone at the front of the knee; kneecap.
True Ribs
1. another name for them
 
2. where they articulate anteriorly
 
1. 1-7 vertebrocostal ribs
 
2. Anteriorly they have a costal catilage and articulate directly to the Sternum
Where are preganglionic sympathetic cell bodies found that are destined for the head?
 
Where do preganglionic sympathetic ganglion synapse?
 
What structure is preganglionic sympathetic ganglion closely associated with?
 
Where are post ganglion
T1-L2 (mostly T1 & T2)
 
Superior cervical ganglion (C1-C4)
 
Internal & external carotid a
 
Internal & external carotid plexus
decussation refers to
crossing of fibers from one side of the brain to the other
Functional Human Anatomy
focus on gross levels of study and combine the 3 normal approaches to anatomical study with a histological look at the various organ systems
Joint allows the greatest freedom of motion.ex- hip and shoulder joint
Spheroid(ball and socket) joints
T1-T12 are the thoracic vertebrae. what does it articulate with
they articulate with the RIBS.
buffer systems
resist change in pH, pH of most body fluids need to remain within narrow limits
 
 
What is unique about the Axis?
C2 = Axis
 
has considerable amount of rotation occurs to produce no motion
contains the dens process that fits into the enlarged foramen of the atlas
 
 
Course of the small saphenous vein
Small saphenous vein= superficial vein of the posterior lower limb
Collects blood from later aspect of the foot
ascends posterior to the lateral malleolus and posterior aspect of the leg
pierces deep fascia to empty into the popliteal vein.
 
**Accompanied by the sural nerve
Intrinsic muscles of the tongue
Withing the tongue - no bony attachments, arranged as transverse, longitudinal and vertical sheets. Responsible for major shape change
Why do children have the pitches to their voices at certain ages?
slender folds in larynx
Which layer of the scalp is called the "danger area"?
 
What is it continuous with?
 
What is the buildup of fluid in this area called?
 
How do infections in the "danger area" enter the cranial cavity?
Loose connective tissue
 
The subcutaneous tissue around the eyes & root of the nose -> infection or fluid can spread to eyelids & nose
 
Ecchymosis
 
Thru the emissary veins
What is the age when the testes descend into the scrotum?
8 months of fetal age
What are chordae tendineae and what do they do?
they are tendinous cords.

they anchor cusps to papillary muscles
How is the size of a muscle connected to depth from surface? (Ch. 10 pg. 263)
Superficial muscles are generally larger than the deeper muscles
where do the axons of the raphe nuclei project
reticular formation, thalamus, limbic system, and cerebral cortex, release of serotonin contributes to activation of the cortex
Main functions of the muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh
Extension of the LEG
Flexion of the HIP joint
what is the functional role of the talus bone
transfers the body weight from the leg to the foot
Ne
Neon
hem-
blood
ventro-
belly
pollex
thumb
Plasma Membrane
Plasmalemma
a-
absent,deficient,lack of
Foot
der Fuß
scapular
shoulder blade
ventral
toward the abdomen
trans-
across, through, beyond
Latissimus Dorsi
Extension, Adduction
blast-
generative of germ bud
PACS
picture archival communication system
adipocytes
contain a fat droplet
Toward or near the head
Cranial
disaccharide
Two monosaccharide molecules combined by dehydration synthesis.
Levatator Scapulae : Action
Elevates/adducts scapula
major and minor hip flexors
psoas
bipolar cell layer
-1st order neurons
elastic fibers
produced of elastininbetween vertebrae
furuncle
a painful, circumscribed inflammation of the skin or a hair follicle, having a dead, suppurating inner core: usually caused by a staphylococcal infection.
Excentuation of the lumbar secondary curvature is called?
Lordosis
anaphase
Third stage of mitosis. Centromers split and the 2 sister chromatids of each pair move toward opposite poles of the cell.
inulin
the polysaccharide used in renal function tests because its clearance equals the glomerular filtration rate is ________
Levatator Scapulae : Innveration
Cervical Nerves C3-C5
Muscular Systems
Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion and facial expression; maintains posture; produces heat
Glutteus Maximus
O-Illium and sacrumI- Gluteal Tuberocity and IT BandA- Extends and laterally rotates hipN- Inferior GLutteal nerve
The cytoplasm is made up of...
-cytosol-organelles-inclusions
Sclera
white outer coat of the eyeball
Piriformis
Location: Deep Muscles of Gluteal RegionAction: Laterally rotates thigh
Brachialis
O: anterior surface of humerus
I: coronoid process of ulna
A: flexes forearm
mucus
keeps the living epithelium wet, provides lubrication in the digestive tract and traps dust and bacteria in the respiratory tract.
anagen
active growht phase rnages from weeks to ears
dermis
Part of the integumentary system. part of cutaneous membrane that nourishes epidermis; provides strength; contains glands.
ground substance
A componant of connective tissue matrix that is between the cells and fibers. It supports and binds, and provides a medium for material exchange between blood and cells.
arachnoid layer
middle layer of meninges; underneath it is the subaractnoid space- has a lot of blood vessels, but rest is filled w/ CSF
clavicles
unite to form the furcula whose borders and median ventral expansion are tethered to the cranial end of the sternum and coracoids by tough membrane
deep body position
parts that are more internal
___________ REGENERATES ATP QUICKLY BY DIRECT TRANSFER OF A PHOSPHATE GROUP
creatine phosphate
Basic structural and functional unit of the kidney is called?
the nephron
SMALL INTESTINES
absorbs nutrients into the blood stream send remainder to large intestines
Taeniae Coli
three bands of longitudinally directed smooth muscle. equally spaced.
alveoli
thin-walled sacs in the lungs that permit the movement of air; they make up the walls of alveolar sacs, or the cluster of grapes that branch off of the bronchioles
the substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei make connections with this but are not anatomical parts of it
basal ganglia
flexor pollicis brevis
flex thumb
carpals
proximal phalanx of the thumb
osteoarthritis
a group of diseases and mechanical abnormalities entailing degradation of joints, including articular cartilage and the subchondral bone next to it.
cell body
contains the nucleus, axon carries impulses away from the cell body, dendrites carry impulses toward the cell body
Part of the Limb Closest to the Trunk
Proximal
tendons, aponeuroses
Part of the muscular system. harness forces of contraction to perform specific tasks
bone (osseus) tissue
This mature connective tissue consists of a matrix containing mineral salts, collagenous fibers and osteocytes. It supports, protects, stores minerals, and forms blood. It can be classified (depending on how the matrix and cells are organized) into compact and spongy.
Sarcomere
the distance from on Z-disc to the next Z-disc
Myotome
a muscle or muscle group that is innervated by a single nerve root
Hyoid bone
bone above larynx only bone which doesn't articulate with another bone
Myelin Sheath
-Large, long axons are covered in Myelin (fatty protein) electrically insulates axons
-Increases transmission of nerve impulses along axon.
-150x faster then unmyelinated axons
-Formed by schwann cells
-Cells wrap themselves around axon many times
-Tight coil of wrapped membranes
-A gap is left between adjacent Schwann cells called a Node of Ranvier. Therefore axon is exposed at node
If something is going into the hilius it is what?
Affarant
The transfer of disease or cancerous lesions from one organ or part not directly connected.
Bone metastases
soft palate
softer tissue posterior to the hard palate
GTS generalized thalamocortical system
projection from thalamus to cortexreceives input from the reticular formation, output is directed to most areas of cerebral cortex and affects the overall level of activity in the cerebral activity, excessive activity may cause a petit (absence) seizure
Extensors of the forearm are as follows:
Triceps brachii
Anconeus
carbohydrate
any of a class of organic compounds that are polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxy ketones, or change to such substances on simple chemical transformations, as hydrolysis, oxidation, or reduction, and that form the supporting tissues of plants and are impo
marrow
a soft, fatty, vascular tissue in the interior cavities of bones that is a major site of blood cell production
inferior vena cava
The renal veins are tributaries to the...
stratum lucidum
Located in the epidermis, it has 3-5 layers of clear, flat, dead keratinocytes. It is present only in the fingertips, palms, and soles of the feet (where there is no hair).
second lumbar
in the adult, the spinal cord extends from the medulla to the _______ vertebra.
Latissimus Dorsi : Innervation
C6-C8 (posterior cord of Brachial Plexus)
What is the name of this movement of the scapula?
 
Retraction
Asthma-causes ____ deaths per year-affects ____ children-is a result of ____-spasms?
50004.8 million childrenlittle smooth muscle/cartilage in bronchiolesCan also be caused because of spasms of the smooth muscle in the bronchioles.
connecting tubules and collecting duct
part of nephron-variable reabsorption of H2O and reabsorption/secretion of sodium, potassium, hydrogen, bicarbonate ion
found in high concentrations in the brain ie the cerebral cortexexcitatory neurotransmitter
glutamate and aspartate
name the coverings/linings anf the heart and heart wall from innermost to outermost.
endocardium-covers chambers of heart
myocardium- bulk of the heart made of cardiac muscle
epicardium(visceral pericardium)-covers the heart (secrete fluid)
parietal pericardium- lines the fibrous membrane (secretes fluid)
fibrous membrane- outermost covering (toughlayer of dense ct, protects andprevent overfilling)
tongue
the movable organ in the floor of the mouth functioning in eating, tasting, and in speaking
Internal pudendal artery and Pudendal nerve (NVbundle)
-loacation/course/relationships
-branch from
-enters gluteal region through the greater sciatic foramen, medial to the inferior gluteal NV bundle, (short course in the gluteal region) wraps around the sacrospinus ligament then exits the gluteal region through the lessor sciatic foramen to the perineum
 
Internal pudendal artery-branch of the internal iliac
 Pudendal nerve-branch of the sacral plexus
 
 
 
somatic
if the effector in a reflex arc is a skeletal muscle, the reflex is called a(n) ________ reflex.
Major risk of gastric ulcers
Gastric ulcers may erode posteriorly into the pancreas and may erode the splenic artery, causing hemorrhage into the stomach
What is a nerve?
a number of neurons which are organized together.
which of the follwoing is not increase by parasympathteic activation
increase heart rate
2 Functions of Urinary System
1) eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body 2) regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of blood
_____ is a lack of or decrease in blood flow to the spinal cord, which compromises typical neurological functions of the body.
spinal cord ischemia
naturally aquired passive immunity is
antibodies are passed from mother to infant (acorss placenta and/or breastfeeding)
What is the Pylorus in the stomach?
distal portion, contiguous with duodenum,ends pyloric sphincter
The Medial Branch of C2
(The Greater Occipital Nerve) is the largest dorsal ramus nerve
Bone marking: passage through a bone. ex?
foramen - obturator foramen in hip
Sympathetic innervation to the bladder results in what actions?
Contraction of smooth muscle fibers in the sphincter muscles, prevents urination
SECONDARY BRONCHI- LEFT LUNG
Consist of 2 entering @ lobes

Superior
<----- 2 lobes----->
Inferior
what do the exocrine cells of the pancreas do?enocrine cells?
secrete pancreatic juice with enzymes that break down all food categoriesrelease insulin and glucagon into blood
What are chemically gated ion channels:
they are ion channels that open or close whena chemical binds to it. Ond of the chemicals that binds is a neurotransmitter.
Sympathetic outflow acts to do two things
shunt blood away from viscera and into skeletal muscles and sweat glandscause release of epinephrine and norepinephrine (fight or flight)
What are the 5 things that Lungs are composed of?
1. Blood
2. arterial and venous network
3. connective tissue
4. respiratory pathway
5. tissue for gas exchange
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