History of Jazz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Art Tatum
Max Roach
Duke Ellingtion
muted trumpet
bebop trumpet
dizzy gillespie
Bill Evans Trio
Kid Ory
trombone, A
Johnny St Cyr
Banjo, Guitar
Louis Moreau Gottschalk
ragtime progenitor
Gil Evans..
conducted and arranged
Dizzy Gillespie's musically experimented with ______ music, which helped establish him as an international musical champion in jazz
Huddie "Leadbelly" Ledbetter
voice, A
Funky/Soul Jazz
earthy, bluesy, gospel flavored
A reconstruction/adaptation of a musical composition for a specific ensemble of instruments. In a written arrangement, the arranger has written down the specific notes he wants each instrument to play. Also, a particular setting or interpretation of a precomposed piece of music.
Artist of "Civilization Day"
Ornette Coleman
In ___________, Ellington's band swelled to 16 members and picked up bassist Jimmy Blanton (Jack the Bear) and tenor saxophonist Ben Webster (Cottontail).
RECORDING: "Honeysuckle Rose" by _____
Musical term meaning get softer
John McLaughlin
guitarist in Mahavishnu Orchestra, influenced by modal jazz
Lil Hardin
jazz pianist, composer, arranger, singer, and bandleader, and the second wife of Louis Armstrong
minstrel shows
19th century dominant theatrical entertainment stereotyping blacks (often performed in blackface)
An upbeat, syncopated dance style popular prior to the beginning of the 20th century.
Artist of "Boogie Stop Shuffle"
Charles Mingus
Brass bands often performed for funerals where they would play a fast march followed by a dirge after the burial.
What symphonic jazz bandleader introduced the notion of using vocalists with the jazz ensemble?
Paul Whiteman
technique used for taking unsyncopated music and adding syncomation
A short repetitive figure usually played by a section behind a soloist.
dizzy gillespie
trumpet player, architect of bebop-"manteca"-great personalities and elder statesman of jazz scene
trading fours
trading short solos (usually 4 bars)
- audience is in charge
- boundary between jazz and pop
- jazz = dance music (and also commercial)
Thomas 'Fats' Waller
jazz pianist, organist, composer, singer, and comedic entertainer
What year did Michael Jackson break out and become a success as a solo artist?
Originally a solo piano style popular in the US from 1895 - 1915, this European-derived form followed a rondo scheme also featured in marches along with 2/4 meter, simple right-hand syncopations with very regular, oom-pah-like left-hand chord accomplishment. Ragtime was initially a composed, not improvised style. It is considered the first style of American music to enjoy widespread popularity, and demonstrates that a music highly influenced by black performers and composers could be the basis of commercial success.
Sidney Bechet
1st jazz musician to receive recognition as an artist
What famous trumpeters talents were realized in Oliver's band?
Louis Armstrong
Chuck Wayne, Bill Evans, Scott LaFaro, Paul Motian 1961
Wes Montgomery's guitar playing was rooted in the style of what swing era guitarist?
Charlie Christian
Characteristics of Cool Jazz
moderate range/tempo/dynamics, French horn/tuba had melody, more mellow, intimate
Cite the reasons for the gradual decline of swing style popularity.
A short section (usually 2 bars) repeated over and over.
Artie Shaw
-most interesting of the white bandleaders to ahieve celebrity during the swing era.- only clarinetist to rival Goodman in popularity8 marriages, recorded "little jazz" in 1944
"I Can't Get Started" (1945)
Dizzy Gillespie (1945)
Stan Getz
tenor sax, recorded many albums of bossa novas
Why Benny Goodman?
- crossing racial boundaries because Goodman sounds "black"
- presented a new style of dance music -- white can do it too!
- booming music business, bands (Goodman incl.) making it big
- Goodman at Carnegie Hall --> had a diff. context (not dance) and showed jazz as an "art music" (swing concert, 1938)
Slam Stewart
Jazz bass player whose trademark style was his ability to bow the bass (arco) and simultaneously hum or sing an octave higher
Django Reinhardt
Guitar player and gypsy musician from Belgium and France who was also a left hand cripple.
cup mute
an orchestral mute with an extension that more or less covers the bell of the trumpet.
A general term to describe the length of notes in performance. Example: short or long or somewhere in between.
Evolution of Bebop
evolved from improv clubs like Mintons; more about the art and music rather than entertainment and dancing; musicians weeded out people who couldn't play it (level goes up)
George Russel wrote a book..
"Lydian..Concept" 1st theoretical contribution, modal jazz
_________ parties were the means for some urban apartment dwellers to raise money. This practice employed many pianists and sometimes turned into ___________ contests.
Rent, cutting
Minstrel shows have white people with what color faces?
Black faces
Gerry Mulligan Quartet
-no harmonic instrument (piano or guitar)
- counterpoint
-brought Chet Baker to national fame
In what year did the Civil War end?
What was Cubop and who was largely responsible for it?
To play above the pitch. A chromatic alteration to a pitch.
2 or more different rhythms played at same time
diatonic scales
seven note scales that are the basis of melodies in western music
Basie soloists
- Lester Young (light sound on tenor sax)
- Herschel Evans (tenor sax, counterpoint to Young)
- Jones trombone
- Clayton (trumpet)
- "Hot Lips" Page (trumpet)
Congo Square
A place where slaves were permitted to dance. It is now called Louis Armstrong park. New Orleans City Council of 1817 designated Congo square as the official site for slave dances, and it was on the only place in the country to do this.
a change of key - i.e., changing the note that serves as the tonic.
Chick webb
when I get low i get high- ABAA
Bix was first introduced to jazz by the Original Dixieland Band, but all of that changed when he first heard _________
Louis Armstrong
Earl Hines
The first pianist to discard the busy, two-hand ragtime and stride styles in favor of a more single-line approach similar to that of wind players. This piano style was 'horn like.'
high art
Art made for art's (and the artist's) sake, not the audience's.
George Shearing is known for
locked hands, gave compact sound
in the late 1960's there was a fusion b/t jazz and ____ music
similar to a riff - a pattern of notes, in all keys, used as the basic vocabulary of jazz
Cool Jazz vs Hardbop
Jazz styles of 1950s
- more experimental
- "laid-back"
- jazz as modernism
- elemental
- "hard-driving"
- jazz as ethnic
the savoy ballroom
birthplace of the Lindy hop and other swing era dances
Roseland Ballroom
It was a club in NY where Fletcher Henderson played.
Three musicians responsible for creating the cool school
miles davis, stan getz, lennie tristano
RECORDING: Milestones by Miles Davis
Trumpet, saxophone, piano and drums. Piano plays in a 4/4 beat.
The Modern Jazz Quartet
- cool jazz
- NO horns (piano, vibes, drums, base
- complicates the "white concept" with classical music
- black cool jazz (= respectability = art music)
1. John Lewis (piano, composer)
2. Milt Jackson (vibes) -- bluesy/authenticity/gospel
-- wore tuxedos, classy, quiet and restrained
"vendome" (based off of "fugue" -- polyphonic texture established by 1 main theme
Manteca, and Night in Tunisia are
Afro-Cuban rhythms, both written by Dizzy Gillespie
Results of the "cool school"
west coast school, then produced a competitive east coast hard bop school.
What styles of music, European or American, were factors in the formation of early jazz styles?
Blues, marching bands, polkas, field hollers and work songs, religious music, ragtime and West African music.
How did Davis' collaborations with arranger Gil Evans in 1957, 58, 60 differ in both concept and presentation from other recordings the trumpeter made in that period?
The music was orchestrated and the improvisation was not really based off playing scales up and down like in "Kind of Blue"
Louis Armstrong & The Hot Fives
Made records that are perhaps the most important in the history of jazz. Included one of the first examples of scat singing in their songs.
jazz and classical combo and "jazz orchestra"
most important figure was stan kenton, recorded concertos and classical style pieces with jazz rhythms and harmonies
Where and when was the first instrumental jazz recording made?
Made the first jazz recording in 1917 in New York.
Why was New Orleans such an ethnic, cultural melting pot?
It was one of the most active seaports that was inhabited by several nationalities.
Dave Holland
Scott LaFaro
Milt Jackson
guitar hymn
bill connors
Moon Dreams
Miles Davis
Horace Silver
piano, C
Coleman Hawkins
Tenor Sax Soloist
bebop alto sax
charlie parker
Who was "Lady Day"?
Technical facility, endurance (Slang)
Bix Beiderbecke
Jazz Cornetist, Pianist Composer
Bessie Smith
empress of the blues
Who did Salt Peanuts?
Dizzy Gillespie
Contrafact: Sho Nuff
I got rhythm
1 or 2 measure repeated
entire section of instruments playing block chords
Dave Brubeck
- pianist, composer
cool jazz!
- humble roots, California
- studied composition
- brought in irregular meters (his contribution) = 5, 7, 9 beats to the bar
- concerts on college campuses
- very classy!
"Take 5"
Bossa nova is Brazilian wave..
Stan Getz
When a musician plays another instrument in addition to their primary instrument.
Miles Davis Quintet
Red Garland
Philly Joe Jones
Paul Chambers
RECORDING: "Body and Soul" by _____
teddy wilson was a ___ player
coherant and succession of single pitches
rythm section
the instuments that provide the rythmic harmonic structure in a peice of music( drums bass or piano)
Swing vs. Bebop
Swing: lower rhythm section (foundation), few short solos, written down and complex, predictable rhythms, dance-band tempos, based on popular song, for dancing, simple harmonies, rhythm section support
Bebop: walking bass & drums interact actively with soloist, long solos, "head" and solos = simple arrangement, fast virtuosic tempos, basic forms used, for listening, greater dissonance, rhythm section interacts
Miles Davis
Trumpet player first for Charlie Parker and then for the Miles Davis Nonet. Cool Jazz trumpet player.
What is the significance of early black vocal styles to instrumental jazz?
Lester Young was who's role model?
Stan Getz
The Cotton Club was designed for wealthy patrons to see what was considered "primitive" entertainment. During this era, Ellington called his own group a "__________ Band" for this setting.
chord voicing
The manner of organizing, doubling, omitting, or adding to the notes of a chord, and the assignment of notes to each particular instrument in the case of an arrangement for an ensemble.
Lennie Tristano
pianist played with lee konitz
critic of jazz musicians
central pitch which melody and harmony gravitate towards
RECORDING: Take Five by Dave Brubeck
Favorite song.
club with many bebop pioneers
mintons and monroes
"Pizzicato" - the strings are plucked instead of bowed (arco)
a brief passage - one instrument with no accompaniment
to emphisize a beat or series of beats
creating an unusual timbre on a wind instrument by growling in the throat while playing.
Jelly Roll Morton
Pianist, composer, arranger, and band leader from New Orleans; Bridged that gap between the piano styles of ragtime and jazz; Was the first important jazz composer
Coleman Hawkins would come to be known as the "father of the tenor saxophone."
The way in which melody and harmony are balanced.
A synonym for the sock cymbal, which is an integral part of the drum set. This pair of inverted cymbals is caused to clap together by a foot pedal.
Who built the modern jazz vocabulary?
Bird and Diz
chromatic scale
divides the octave into 12 equal pitches called semitones (half-steps)
pedal point
A sustained or repeated note, usually in the bass or lowest part, sounded while upper musical structures change.
Coleman Hawkins
-elevated the tenor sax to prominence as a jazz voice- toured with the jazz hounds with Marrie Smith
Quintet of the Hot Club of France (1934)
- Django Reinhardt: guitar
- Stephane Grappelli: violin
Trumpet Style (7 Components)
manners of handling trumpet sound, using a Harmon mute, skillful timing and structure of melodic figures, played outside strict tempo, sensitivity in paraphrasing, simplistic phrases, handling of tone quality and pitch range
Clifford Brown
- trumpet
- hard bop
- Art Blakey and his Jazz Messengers
- brilliant technique and awesome tone
- NO drugs, squeaky clean!
Harmon mute
a hollow mute made by the Harmon company.
chicago school
a group of young white chicagoans who emulated styles of New Orleans musicians in the mid-1920's
Musical Foils
Composing for two sections to play off of one another.
Who is considered to be the first great jazz soloist?
Louis Armstrong
Bud Powell
Relieved the left hand of its rhythmic function to comp in a freely syncopated chordal manner. Left it to the drummer to leave a steady pulse.
Developed solo piano style. right hand improvises long scalar solos while left hand comps.
the speed or rate at which the beats pass
the man who claimed he invented jazz
jelly roll morton
"Cake Walking Babies"
Clarence Williams Blue Five (Jan. 8, 1924)
- Louis Armstrong: trumpet
- Sidney Bechet: soprano sax, clarinet
who is known as the "father of jazz dance"?
Jack Cole
Creole of Color
A person who has mixed french & african ancestry
What characteristics distinguished "hot" bands from "sweet" bands? Can you name some representative bandleaders in each style?
"Hot" bands captured the essence of hot jazz by featuring stellar soloists while appeasing the dance crowd by including more tempered, danceable repertoire and vocalists; like Benny Goodman and Artie Shaw. Sweet Bands focused on society dance repertoire; like Guy Lombardo.
King Joe Oliver
Who gave Louis Armstrong a trumpet and lessons?
"Walking & Swinging"
Andy Kirk Orchestra (March 2, 1936)
- Mary Lou Williams: piano
Explain the significance of the "arrangement" to jazz.
Arrangements were commonly used in jazz because adaptations of songs were required to suit the needs of the jazz performer. It provided a unique identity for the performer or band.
John Coltrane: "Classic Quartet"
McCoy Tyner - piano, Elvin Jones - drums
comprehensive modal approach:
-quartal piano voicings
-pentatonic scale usage
-polyrhythmic drumming
-extended length of improvisations
-soprano sax usage
-pedal point improvisations
-extended saxophone techniques; hard sound
The middle section of an A A B A tune. Usually has a different key area. It leads back into the A section. Also part of a stringed instrument that holds up the strings.
RECORDING: "Good Enough to Keep" by Benny Goodman
uses vibraphone, sounds like elevator jingle music.
9. Bossa Nova (brazilian Samba and Jazz Influences)
a. Antonio Carlos Jobim (definitive composer) b. Popularization through Stan Getz recordings of 1962-63
Who was the first important guitarist to emerge during the Chicago period? What instrument did the guitar gradually replace?
Eddie lang was the first important guitarist to emerge during the Chicago period. The guitar gradually replaced the banjo.
What are some of the theories regarding the origins and derivation of the word jazz?
The term was supposedly related to the act of intercourse. Linguistic variations of the word jazz may have originated from the French, Creoles or West African languages. May have come from names of musicians like Jasbo Brown.
Jazz was the result of what primary non-European or American influence?
Jazz is a direct result of West African influences on European derived music styles and popular American music.
Tal Farlow
Jean Goldkette
Fate Marable
Sidney Story
Benny Carter
Alto Sax
short abruptly separated
Ben Webster
Tenor Sax (Ellington)
Use of multiple melodies simultaneously
Joe "King" Oliver
1885-1938 - Trumpet
Third-Stream Music (Bands/Artists)
Gunther Schuller (composer)
the distance between 2 pitches
a single statement of the harmonic/rhythmic cycle defined by musical form (e.g., 12-bar blues, or 32-bar popular song form).
What period constitutes the Be-bop era?
Woody Herman
Clarient, Soprano sax,Singer, band leader
Lifetime (members)
Tony williams (drums, boston, MA)
John McGlaughlin - Guitar - Yorkshire England
Larry Young - Organ
Popular music and comedy shows based on African American culture; Jim Crow was a character
Pat Metheney
Fusion: open style, different than McLaughlin (guitar: technical and fast)
Coltrane's Influence
Enormous impact on contemporaries and future players-Re-established saprano sax as a modern jazz instrument-sold hundreds of thousands of albums in his final years, and established Avant-Garde jazz as popular
Swing Era Soloists: Trumpet
Buck Clayton
Roy Eldridge
Charley Shivers
Harry “Sweets” Edison
Heebie Jeebies
recorded in 1926, Louis Armstrong's first hit record
What Jazz saxophonist released the highly influential Free jazz album in 1960
Ornette Coleman
the doubling or halving of a fundamental frequency creating a pitch that sounds the same yet is higher or lower than the fundamental
Field Hollers
sung by solitary workers in the fields
“Bahl ‘Oman Bahl"
• Jamaican work song
• Steady rhythm after a slow intro.
• Song has a functional nature.
• Call and response form
"So What"
Miles DavisBased on one mode, Dorian (minor scale with a raised 6th scale degree)AABA form, the bridge is the same as the A sections, except one-half step higher. Miles only leaves the mode twice during his solo.
Duke Ellington: Key Players: Trombone/Clarinet

 Clainet – Barney Bigard
Trombone - Lawrence Brown
Valve-Trombone – Juan Tizol 

The Harlem Renaissance
an increased awareness and promoting of African American artistic culture in Harlem in the 1920s that included theatre, literature, art, poetry, and music
What instrument replaced the tuba when Jazz moved indoors
Double Bass
Legacy of 60s Avant-garde
i. Acoustic, electronic, cross-over to world music cultures
Who was the third "giant" of jazz (name, dates, style, instrument and contributions).
Charlie Parker
Alto Sax and Composer
modernized jazz soloing with a newer, "hipper" rhythmic style
expanded harmonic vocabulary
elevated technical standards
Free Jazz (Key Players)
Cecil Taylor - Piano
Ornette Coleman - alto sax - more "free jazz"
Front Line
the wind instruments in a small jazz group
What was Storyville
A neighborhood set aside for brothels and gambling
Blue Note Label
Mid 60s post hard bop legacy with African influencesMcCoy Tyner, Freddy Hubbard, Herbie Hancock/Wayne Shorter (before fusion)
Which musicians feature prominently in the era of continuing traditions and expanding diversity?
Miles Davis Quintet
John Coltrane Quartet
Ornette Coleman
Thad Jones & Mel Lewis
McCoy Tyner
Bill Evans
Chick Corea
Herbie Hancock
Jazz a summit meeting
Playboy helped break down the gender roles of the 50's First issue included jazz as a trapping of all the good life
Harlem Stride Piano (Players)
Eubie Blake - Baltimore, MD
James P. Johnson - New Brunswick, NJ - "Father of Stride Piano"
Fatts Waller - NYC
Art Tatum - Toledo, OH
Who are the major musicians of the Swing Era (9)?
Duke Ellington
Count Basie
Fletcher Henderson
Jimmy Lunceford
Glenn Miller
Benny Goodman
Tommy Dorsey
Artie Shaw
Claude Thornhill
(and many others)
Call and Response
a melodic phrase played or sung by one performer that is answered by the rest of the group
Black and Tan Clubs
a nightclub in the 20s and 30s where both black and white patrons were welcome
Who are the six major musicians of the fusion and funk era and what album exemplifies the style of the period?
Miles Davis Bitches Brew
Chick Corea Return to Forever
John McLaughlin Mahavishnu
Herbie Hancock Headhunters
Zawinul & Shorter Weather Report
Joe Henderson - tenor sax
Oscar Pettiford
Al Capone
Cotton Club
Don Byas
Tenor Sax
The Palace Gardens
Fletcher Henderson
Piano/Band Leader/Composer/Arranger; band established the modern instrumentation of a swing band and set the early standards for arranging music
Benny Goodman
1909-1986 - Clarinet
Original Dixieland Jass Band
Collective improvisation
multiple melodies played simultaneously
Lester Young
1909-1959 - Tenor Sax
1960's (Pianists)
Bill Evans
Herbie Hancock
Chick Corea
Keith Jarrett
Count Basie
Revolutionized rhythm section playing with his economical style was departure from typical, busy, comping style of the day; from Kansas City
1. Repertory movement(Master Works) & Wynton Marsalis2. Hard bop renaissance and the "Young Lions"3. Re-issue older recordings on CDS
This technology became the dominant medium during the 1950s:
Bix Bierderbeck
Self-taught cornet player/first jazz player admired by both blacks and whites/c-melody saxophonist
What west coast pianist/bandleader fused 20th century orchestral elements to jazz, playing in odd time signatures like 5/4 and 9/8
Dave Brubeck
“Georgie Lyon"
• Jamaican work song.
• Call and response form.
• Rhythm is syncopated.
• Strong accents.
Clark Terry
Trumpet playerplayed the quote "Lord what fools these mortals be" through use of mute in "Up and Down"
Meade Lux Lewis
Father of the Boogie Woogie
Most important venue of the time Named after Charlie parker 52nd and broadway
1st Blues recording by a black singer
The Inventor of Swing/featured Louis Armstrong
Fletcher Henderson
the weak notes (2nd and 4th) are accented in a bar of music
block chord
a chord or voicing built directly below the melody either on the strong beats or to create a four-part harmonized melody line
 Southern Colonies Slavery
• Slaves social environment was governed by farms and plantations.
• Slaves had limited contact with slave holders.2
• They were able to develop their own social structure within that environment.
Metronomic Sense
In African music, a steady, underlying beat (like that of a metronome) played through the performance.
Paul Whiteman (Life)
– “king of jazz”
– NYC --> Hired the best white musicians on the scene including:
frank trumbauer – C Melody Saxophone
Jo Venuti - violin
Eddie Lang – guitar
Bix Beiderbecke - cornet
Crazy Blues
recorded in 1920 by vaudeville singer and dancer Mamie Smith
Miles Davis' landmark album
The Birth Of The Cool
Blue notes
The third, fifth and seventh notes of a chord that are altered by lowering the pitch to create blues inflections
Art Ensemble of Chicago
Collective interaction, wide range of tone colors, sound structures, Suspension of fixed rhythm
Kind of Blue
Recorded in 1959. Most important and pivotal album in modern jazz.
Jazz Messengers (Trained on Sax)
Johnny Griffin
Jackie Hubbard
Lee Morgan
Wayne Shorter
Head Arrangements
an arrangement that is created in a spontaneous fashion without written music
 Slavery In The U.S
• In the 1600’s slavery was given legal sanction.
• The specific system of slavery varied from colony to colony.
• The lives of slaves were governed by these systems
Who are the current practitioners of jazz?
Kenny Garrett
Roy Hargrove
Conrad Herwig
Dave Holland
Joe Lovano
Steve Turre
John Coltrane (Life)
Tenor Sax - Born in Hamlet, North Carolina
Hard Bop with Miles Davis
Left Davis sextet, formed Coltrane quartet
Became Avant Garde Musician
Who are the current elder statesmen of jazz?
James Moody
Clark Terry
Bob Brookmeyer
John McLaughlin
Charlie Haden
Ornette Coleman Quartet (Members)
Coleman - Alto Sax
Don Cherry - Trumpet
Charlie Haden - Bass
Billy Higgins - Drums
What were the social characteristics of early jazz bands?
They were segregated by race and gender.  Most bands were all male bands.
From about 1917 on, what other cities had an active jazz scene?
Chicago, NYC, LA, London and Paris
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