History of Jazz Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Louis Armstrong
Thelonius Monk
Chet Baker
famous prostitution district
1st stream is
Robert Johnson
singer/guitar, A
Chick Corea
Composer/Piano, D
New Orleans Rhythm Kings
Jimmy Dorsey
bodies of noodle
ghosts:1st variation drums
sunny murray
King Porter Stomp
Gil Evans
Johnny Hodges
alto sax, B
Benny Goodman
Swing Musician, Clarinetist, Bandleader
Eubie Blake
included sophisticated harmonic elements into his compositions
Short idea, appears quit often
Lambert, Hendricks, and Ross
Composed "Vocalees"
charlie parker was from
kansas city
James P. Johnson (June 1925)
Chick Webb
- small/short/hunchback with TB
- hard-driving drummer
- knew what to play in Savoy ballroom
- hired by Ella Fitzgerald at a young age
Art Blakey and the Messangers--Call and response with piano vs. trumpet
a time-lined pattern in Latin music.
Artie shaw
international sex symbol, bandleader, clarinetist, scholar
New Orleans
Birthplace of Jazz, party atmosphere
With reed instruments (clarinets and saxophones), the mouthpiece is inserted between lips. The player blows a stream of air into the narrow passageway between the limber reed and the hard part of the mouthpiece, causing the reed to vibrate and producing a sound less biting and more subtle than the brass instruments.
piano player at minton's playhouse
thelonious monk
Can you describe Billie Holiday's style?
bebop player with puffed out cheeks
A listing of recordings, usually categorized by genre, player, or band
Gil Evans
- Candian arranger; Wrote arrangements for part of "The Birth of the Cool
- jazz narrative
- approach that says artists are in charge
- experimentation
- simplicity to complexity
- gulf between artists and audience
Well You Needn't
Thelonious Monk--Piano start, adds saxophone and drums
harmonies that are stable (i.e., that do not need to resolve to another harmony).
When was ragtime popular?
Influential early 20th century
Don Redman
leading architect of the swing ear
Characteristics of Cool Jazz
moderate range/tempo/dynamics, French horn/tuba had melody, more mellow, intimate
Like the other players in this generation, Bechet and Armstrong thought of their solos as compositions or "routines" to be polished and played the same way in each performance.
The regulated fluctuation of a tone. Used to add warmth and expression to a tone created by a singer or instrumentalist except piano.
After hours jam session
Minton's playhouse in harlem
an arrangement of pitches that ascends and descends in a fixed and unvarying pattern
The space between vertical lines in written music; a means of division of music that groups beats together in specific, consistent numbers
charles mingus was a bassist and composer
Trading fours
alternating four (X) bar phrases between the rest of the band and the drummer. A type of drum solo.
chromatic harmony
extended chords based on the chromatic scale which sound complex and dissonant
the interractin of rythms to form a patern
Charlie Parker musical moods
- fast!!
- harmonic improvisation
- "Cherokee" ("Ko Ko") 1945
- Blues musician (modernizes blues for bebop) "Parker's Mood"
- ballands: romantic songster
Contemporary Jazz
formal education in jazz, more demands on musicians to be versatile(good sight readers, classical training and improvisation study), influence of non Americans (europe, latin america, and japan)
Two Bass Hit
cannonball adderley and john Coltrane 1958
bar (measure)
a rhythmic unit, lasting from one downbeat to the next.
Jelly Roll Morton
Important early jazz oral history narrator-
Buddy Bolden
the first "Cornet King"; made the "front line" of the jazz band popular
big bands in bebop era
billy eckstine, earl hines
Coon Songs
One of the earliest commercial forms of ragtime which yoked polyrhythmic accompaniments to racial stereotypes (of blacks, irish and chinese). These songs were a late product of the minstrel show.
race records
Records marketed in the 1920s for black listeners featuring largely black, female blues singers who were often accompanied by jazz instrumentalists.
Kind of Blue
1959 - culmination of cool school
what is contrafact?
taking standards and writing new melodies on top
What is meant by the "shag" and "shim-sham"?
george gerswhin
wrote rhapsody in blue, I got rhythm
"After You've Gone"
Benny Goodman Trio (July 13, 1935)
a group of musicians of the same style play each other's stuff to help out
Three Jazz Narratives
Where does jazz go after bebop?
- Modernism
- Fusion
- Historicist Jazz
what popularized the African style of dance and music, which depended greatly on solo performance and imporvisation?
the minstel show
An expression of the pace or speed at which the music moves.
Bop style characteristics
small combo; faster tempo; showing off their talent was important to musicians; improvation and surprise valued highly; a lot like modern jazz today
A quick trill between notes on a brass instrument.
4 Miles quintet Albums from 1956
Cookin', Relaxin', Steamin', Workin'
an accent on teahter the weak beat or between beats
not an attribute of cool jazz
lack of chord changes
"Ad Lib Blues"
Charlie Christian (Oct. 28, 1940)
- Charlie Christian: electric guitar
- Lester Young: tenor sax
- Count Basie: piano
Dizzy Gillespie
A trumpet player who was a soloist and composer for Cab Calloway. Very disciplined and more intellectual than Charlie Parker. Bebop trumpet player.
Pitting Saxes vs. Brass
both play competing melodies at the same time
Name 3 movements of Jazz
pas de borre, hitch-kick, pirrouette, and chasse
4 Great Bop Piano Players
Monk, Bud, Tadd Dameron, Al Haig
original dixieland jazz band
first jazz group to record in 1917
Describe the similarities between early jazz and African music.
From West Africa the use of polyrhythms was very important in the development of syncopated ragtime melodies and later to the swing feel of early jazz.
RECORDING: "Ko-Ko" by Duke Ellington
Call and response between trombone and sax section. Jungle music. Piano playing harmony.
RECORDING: Witchcraft by Bill Evans
Melodic bass line. Think of Frank Sinatra's version of this song. Listen for piano melody.
What style did Bud Powell minimize?
comping! (playing chords in a rhythmic way)
What was Charlie Parker known for?
first major alto sax soloist, great improv, extended chords, books of his improv
What is meant by the term Creole?
The result of intermarriage created by merging any combination of French, Spanish and African-American descent. This race is associated with the New Orleans Delta area.
Andy Kirk & His 12 Clouds of Joy
- breakthrough in 1936
- Mary Lou Williams = pianist/arranger popular soloist, big name of the band
"Lady Who Swings the Band"
3. Eric Dolphy (Alto Sax, Flute, & Bass Clarinet)
a. Extremely angular melodic lines b. Speech-like melodic style (alto sax/bass clar) c. Quintet with John Coltrane and Charles Mingus
percy heath
Milt jackson
Charlie "yardbird" parker
Paul Chambers instrument
Charlie Parker era
Clifford Brown instrument
Scott Lafarro instrument
Ornette Coleman instrument
Cootie Williams instrument
Chet Baker instrument
Dave Brubeck instrument
Lester Young era
Duke Ellington instrument
Benny Goodman instrument
Art Blakey era
hard bop
Art Tatum
1909-1956Severely limited visionAmazing Technique & velocity at pianoReharmonizationWillow Weep for MeTiger Rag
Sonny Rollins instrument
tenor sax
Dave Brubeck era
cool jazz
used triple meter
John Coltrane
Gerry Mulligan era
cool jazz
Billy Strayhorn
Ellington’s “alter ego”Co-wrote much of the music during this periodLiked to compose is “dark” keysWrote Take the A Train, Lush Life (age 18), and collaborated on the suitesFlourished in Ellington’s shadow It was difficult to discern where one's style ended and the other's began.
Birdland was performed by?
Weather Report
hard bop era
50's - 60's
worked with Clifford Brown extensively
Sonny rollins
simultaneous soundings of a single melodic line, in different tonalities, pitches, or keys.
composed Thesaurus of Musical Scales
Nicholas Slonimsky
Ornette Coleman invented a concept called?
had a pianoless quartet
Chet Baker/Gerry Mulligan
had a historically important engagement at the Cotton Club
Duke Ellington
bebop era
early 40's - mid 50's
Thelonious Monk
Piano, unorthodox composer, his work seriously challenged improvisers, able to bend notes
Miles Davis (band)
members: miles wayne shorter(sax), herbie hancock(piano), tony williams(Drums), ron carter(bass)created new jazz idiom, new concepts, no bridges turnarounds or sectionsencouraged free flowing sounds, caused an airy feeling
another definition of smooth jazz
instrumental pop music
John Coltrane
Tenor & Soprano SaxAfter Charlie Parker, the most widely imitated saxophonist in Jazz.Came to fame in 1955 with the Miles Davis quintet.Worked with Monk in 1957, an important period. Addiction to drugs/alcohol disrupted his career.
the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and rhythm, and interdependent in harmony.
Miles Davis used what instrument device.
Harmon Mute
What is the lengthening or widening of rhythms?
Ellington’s film score was:
Anatomy of a Murder
I Got Rhythm was written by:
George Bushwin
What doesn’t belong in bebop?
brass & reeds
Clifford Brown
Worked with sonny Rollins (sax) and Max Roach (drums)long fluid lines Died in auto accident at age 25
Art Blakey
Drummer and leader of the Jazz messengersEpitomized the loosening of jazz drumming stylesUsed loud intrusions as accompanimental figuresMoanin- 1958latin feel
stylistic aspects of bebop
Bop improvisation was more complexMelodic chromaticismHarmonies were more complex in bop(Much more chromatic)Comping was more prevalent than stride style and simple, on-the-beat chordingSurprise was more highly valued in bop.Bop was a more agitated style than swing.
“Music should make you wanna dance, sing or pray.” Who says this?
Jimmy Maxwell
This sax player used “scooping” of the pitch as expressive gestures?
Johnny Hodges
important names associated with Weather Report
Joe Zawinul, Miroslav Vitous
played on all four beats; emphasis on each beat equally
group known for adding rock elements to jazz
Weather Report
Lester Young influenced who?
saxophonists of West Coast jazz
Who played “Lord, what fool these mortals be”?
Clark Terry
Bill Evans was high influenced by
French impressionist Maurice Ravel
Notes that lend color to the sound of a chord or scale.
bebop characteristics
Name comes from the sound of the music. Dominated by the saxophone. Musicians tried to rise from entertainer to artist. Many compositions were written over the changes of other popular tunes.
At the end of the 1960’s Miles Davis moved his music to?
jazz fusion
Common format (instrumentation) of swing period group
5 saxophones, 3-4 trumpets, 3-4 trombones, piano, bass, guitar, and drums
Miles Davis and his nonet used what unusual instrumentation?
French horn and Tuba
Differences between Brazilian and Afro Cuban styles of Latin Music
ALL Cuban music fits inside a clave rhythmAll Cuban music descends from something significantly religiousMore 'high octane' Brazilian music melded into jazz and changed, but Afro-Cuban music was lifted straight from its culture and changed very little until the 1980's.
What was the problem with jazz waltz?
Problem with jazz waltz is ¾ time which was hard to get to get to swing first.
What is the order of the “Big 6”?
1) Louis Armstrong 2) Duke Ellington 3) Charlie Parker 4) Miles Davis 5) John Coltrane 6) Bill Evans
Sheets of Sound – what is it and who used this technique?
John Coltrane, eighth note progressions
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