|Father of Jazz||
Avant-garde: Orchestra leader
1899-1975 - Pianist
|The Barrons of Rhythm||
a slow, romantic popular song.
|Billy Strayhorn flourished||
in Ellington's shadow
the melody of a song
Bandleader and saxophonists that settled his group in Kansas City and they rivaled Bennie Moten's Band
1901-1971 - Singer, Trumpet, Cornet
Ellington's "alter ego"-co-wrote much of the music during the period-Liked to compose is "dark" keys
|What Instrument replaced the banjo when Jazz moved indoors||
a piano style evolved from the "ragged" nature of banjo playing in the 19th century; left-march, right-syncopated
a rhythmic unit, lasting from one downbeat to the next. Also known as a measure. In written music, a bar is marked off by vertical lines known as bar lines.
|What cultures primarily influence jazz rhythms, textures and traditions in the period of expanding diversity in the 1980s and 1990s?||
Such Sweet Thunder, Suite Thursday, Nutcracker Suite, Black Brown and Beige suite
African American songs that arose in the nineteenth century and consisted of religious lyrics with folk melodies.
|Name for black people moving north||
|What was Charlie Bird Parker's Instrument of expertise||
musical stress a more forceful or louder sound
A piano style characterized by a moving 8th note left hand line,
|Northern Colonies Slavery||
• Slavery was limited by legislation and existed on a very small scale.
• Slaves generally lived and worked alongside their masters
9-18 players, more bass than tuba, three sections bass, rhythm, reeds, more arrangements
A European tradition- leader chants a psalm verse one or two lines at a time, congregation sings back the lines, often elaborating on the original tune.
|Benny Goodman's Quartet (members)||
Benny Goodman - Clarinet
Lionel Hampden - Vibes
Teddy Willson - Piano
Gene Krupa – Drummer
in Kansas City, located closer to downtown at 12th and Cherry, catered to both black and white customers ( although they were seperated by a divider that ran down the middle of the club), and four shows nightly. There were also rooms upstairs where prostitutes took clients via a private stairway. It was here that John Hammond discovered Count Basie Orchestra in 1935. It was also where young Charlie Parker would often hang out and listen to Lester Young, Basie's main tenor soloist
the speed or rate at which beats pass
1st bass solos to depart from a walking-bass style
a blues piano style in which the left hand plays a rhythmic ostinato (i.e., repeated pattern) of eight beats to the bar. For musical examples, see assignment on Kansas City Jazz.
|ECM Music Label||
Keith Jaret, Pat Metheny, Gary Burton, Carla Bleymore eclectiv, ethereal sounding music
|The Jazz problem||
People argue that jazz is killing music because it inspires musicians to use bad style. Also people argue that bebop killed big band.
|Jazz Messengers (Trained on Piano)||
a virtuosic piano style played by Earl "Fatha" Hines that incorporated the use of octaves in the right hand
|Swing or Big Band||
Era largely associated with the bands that played in large ballrooms for multitudes of dancers;
(What Kind of rattles do they have and what do they do?)
Played by being shaken, or rattled.
Primary rattles: Held in the hand and played.
Secondary rattles: Worn on the body and activated by body movements.
|What jazz styles are associated with the diversity era (5)?||
|Duke Ellington: Key Players (Trumpet)||
Trumpet - Cootie Williams
Trumpet – Rex Stewart
Trumpet – Bubber Miley
located at 12 and Vine in KC, where one of the most notorious cutting contests in jazz history took place in late 1933
|What are the major characteristics of Dixieland jazz?||
blues, rags and marches
soloist established as an artist
stride piano style established
|Early Jazz Bands: (Name/Location)||
ODJB - New Orleans King Oliver & Creole Jazz Band - New Orleans --> Chicago (with Louis Armstrong)
|Up and Down (Midsummer Night Dreams)||
Pairs up instruments to represent the couples from the play-changes it up to represent Puck's plans
|What are the major characteristics of the Swing Era?||
Big bands are the "kings of swing"
much competition and variety
only time a form of jazz is the popular music of the USA
"American Popular Song" forms (AABA/32 bar variations)
composers and arrangers important
|Father of Stride||
1917-1996 - Singer
|African Groove Music||
|I, IV, V, I||
stopping places, usually associated with tonic and dominant chords, that divide a harmonic progression into comprehensible phrases.
|Improvised from formulae-Patterned oriented, rigid eighth note repetitions||
short melodic phrase or melody
people are playing from memory
|“Go to Sleepy"||
• Children’s lullaby.
• Notes are swung.
• Very strong rhythm adds to swing feel.
• Scoops and slides in the voice add another dynamic to the song
*Recreational Secular Song
|Entrenched in the "Thesaurus of Musical Scales"||
specialist in arrangements/ arranged material according to families of instruments/sax player
|What was Thelonious Monk's Instrument of expertise||
player who dictates tone quality, phrasing, and other musical elements to the other members of the section and between sections of the band
the scale containing twelve equally spaced notes within the octave, corresponding to all the keys (black and white) on the piano.
|What period constitutes the era of fusion and funk?||
|Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie parker||
Founders of bebop
Lead (melody) instruments in early jazz bands: trumprt (or cornet), trombone, and clarinet.
|Cool Jazz: (Bands/Artists)||
Modern Jazz Quartet (Art Blakey)
|Joao Gilberto recorded the music of which Brazilian songwriter||
the organization of music around a central tone (the tonic) and the scale built on that tone
|Buddy "King" Bolden||
Cornet player, important improviser of jazz in New Orleans; Most importantly, he was the first individual "personality" of jazz
|William "Count" Basie||
Band leader and piano player originally from NJ, started the All-American Rhythm Section in Kansas City
|Leon Bix Beiderbecke||
cornet player; self-taught, no formal teaching of notes therefore interested in alternative fingering
|Musicians were able to study and mimic the great performers because of:||
The first Jazz musician /best cornet player from 1895-1906
|Swing Era Soloists: Tenor Sax||
Lester Young “prez”
Coleman Hawkins “hawk”/“bean”
|Who was the Harlem Renaissance pianist and bandleader the broacasted from the cotton club||
a group of notes with one designated as the tonic
|Nat King Cole||
piano player and vocals; Show debuted on NBC-TV
a consistent accent on beats 2 and 4 of a measure. The backbeat produces a rhythmic layer that contrasts with the usual accenting of beat 1 (the downbeat) and beat 3 in the underlying meter.
|Characteristics of work songs||
• Mainly rhythmic to accompany work.
• Short phrases.
• Solo and chorus follow each other instantly (call and response).
• African music.
• Words and music improvised.
• Work songs remained relatively untouched by European Influence
|Jelly Roll Morton||
FIRST JAZZ COMPOSER and ARRANGER/ Hed Hot Chili Peppers? swing feel
|New Orleans Jazz: (Key Players)||
Charles "Buddy" Bolden - Cornet
Sidney Bechet - Clarinet/Soprano Sax
Jelly Roll Morton - Pianist/Composer
a form characterized by the use of a 12-bar chorus and an AAB lyrical verse that can be incorporated into jazz, rock, and other styles. The blues is also a separate style in and of itself that comes in many different forms
|Social Characteristics of West African Music||
a) African music is functional.
b) Music is organized as part of all social events.
c) Dance and music are inseparable.
d) There are no spectators in West African society.
|Coltrane turned to ...||
radical musical style in the mid 1960's attracted large audiences
|Modern Jazz Quartet (Members)||
John Lewis - Piano
Kenny Clark - Drummer (replaced by Connie Kay)
Percy Heath - Bassist
Milt Jackson - Vibes
|Kansas City Style||
the jazz style that evolved in Kansas City in the 1920s and 30s that is characterized by the use of 12-bar blues forms and head arrangements
|Jazz Messengers (Original Members)||
Art Blakey - Drums
Horace Silver - Piano
Hank Mobley - Tenor Sax
Kenny Dorham - Trumpet
Doug Watkins - Bass
|Significance of "Kind of Blue"||
A set of inspired improvisations by an all-star band. A significant departure from traditional bop-derived styles. Introduced the format of Modal Jazz
|Sonet in Search of a Moor||
Duke Ellington- wrote in same form as Shakespear