history of jazz quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Tram
Fats Navarro
Trumpet
Baby Dodds
Drummer
French Quater
The Lion
Nick LaRocca
Bix Beiderbecke
Lee Konitz
Alto Sax
Father of Jazz
Sun Ra
Avant-garde: Orchestra leader
Duke Ellington
1899-1975 - Pianist
The Barrons of Rhythm
ballad
a slow, romantic popular song.
Billy Strayhorn flourished
in Ellington's shadow
Head
the melody of a song
Andy Kirk
Bandleader and saxophonists that settled his group in Kansas City and they rivaled Bennie Moten's Band
Louis Armstrong
1901-1971 - Singer, Trumpet, Cornet
Billy Strayhorn
Ellington's "alter ego"-co-wrote much of the music during the period-Liked to compose is "dark" keys
What Instrument replaced the banjo when Jazz moved indoors
Piano
Ragtime
a piano style evolved from the "ragged" nature of banjo playing in the 19th century; left-march, right-syncopated
bar
a rhythmic unit, lasting from one downbeat to the next. Also known as a measure. In written music, a bar is marked off by vertical lines known as bar lines.
What cultures primarily influence jazz rhythms, textures and traditions in the period of expanding diversity in the 1980s and 1990s?
Cuba
Brazil
Puerto Rico
Ellington's suites
Such Sweet Thunder, Suite Thursday, Nutcracker Suite, Black Brown and Beige suite
Spirituals
African American songs that arose in the nineteenth century and consisted of religious lyrics with folk melodies.
Name for black people moving north
Great migration
What was Charlie Bird Parker's Instrument of expertise
Alto Sax
accent
musical stress a more forceful or louder sound
Boogie Woogie
A piano style characterized by a moving 8th note left hand line,
 Northern Colonies Slavery
 
• Slavery was limited by legislation and existed on a very small scale.
• Slaves generally lived and worked alongside their masters
BIG BAND
9-18 players, more bass than tuba, three sections bass, rhythm, reeds, more arrangements
"lining out"
A European tradition- leader chants a psalm verse one or two lines at a time, congregation sings back the lines, often elaborating on the original tune.
Benny Goodman's Quartet (members)
Benny Goodman - Clarinet
Lionel Hampden - Vibes
Teddy Willson - Piano
Gene Krupa – Drummer
Reno Club
in Kansas City, located closer to downtown at 12th and Cherry, catered to both black and white customers ( although they were seperated by a divider that ran down the middle of the club), and four shows nightly. There were also rooms upstairs where prostitutes took clients via a private stairway. It was here that John Hammond discovered Count Basie Orchestra in 1935. It was also where young Charlie Parker would often hang out and listen to Lester Young, Basie's main tenor soloist
tempo
the speed or rate at which beats pass
Jimmy Blanton
1st bass solos to depart from a walking-bass style
boogie-woogie
a blues piano style in which the left hand plays a rhythmic ostinato (i.e., repeated pattern) of eight beats to the bar. For musical examples, see assignment on Kansas City Jazz.
ECM Music Label
Keith Jaret, Pat Metheny, Gary Burton, Carla Bleymore eclectiv, ethereal sounding music
The Jazz problem
People argue that jazz is killing music because it inspires musicians to use bad style. Also people argue that bebop killed big band.
Jazz Messengers (Trained on Piano)
Cedar Walton
Bobby Timmons
Keith Jarrett
Stride Piano
a virtuosic piano style played by Earl "Fatha" Hines that incorporated the use of octaves in the right hand
Swing or Big Band
Era largely associated with the bands that played in large ballrooms for multitudes of dancers;
Rhythmic Idiophones
 
(What Kind of rattles do they have and what do they do?)
Played by being shaken, or rattled.
Primary rattles: Held in the hand and played.
Secondary rattles: Worn on the body and activated by body movements.
What jazz styles are associated with the diversity era (5)?
Hard bop
Cool jazz
Funky
3rd Stream
Eclecticism
Duke Ellington: Key Players (Trumpet)
Trumpet - Cootie Williams
Trumpet – Rex Stewart
Trumpet – Bubber Miley 
Cherry Blossom
located at 12 and Vine in KC, where one of the most notorious cutting contests in jazz history took place in late 1933
What are the major characteristics of Dixieland jazz?
blues, rags and marches
collective improvisation
soloist established as an artist
stride piano style established
Early Jazz Bands: (Name/Location)
ODJB - New Orleans King Oliver & Creole Jazz Band - New Orleans --> Chicago (with Louis Armstrong)
Up and Down (Midsummer Night Dreams)
Pairs up instruments to represent the couples from the play-changes it up to represent Puck's plans
What are the major characteristics of the Swing Era?
Big bands are the "kings of swing"
much competition and variety
only time a form of jazz is the popular music of the USA
"American Popular Song" forms (AABA/32 bar variations)
composers and arrangers important
Blown Idiophones
 Aeolsklavier
Dizzy Gillespie
Trumpet
Gene Krupa
Drums
Freddie Keppard
Buddy Boldin
Joe Jones
Drummer (Basie)
Father of Stride
Ella Fitzgerald
1917-1996 - Singer
African Groove Music
Jazz
Funk
Rap
Rock
Latin Music
Brazilian Music
Raggae
I, IV, V, I
cadence
stopping places, usually associated with tonic and dominant chords, that divide a harmonic progression into comprehensible phrases.
Improvised from formulae-Patterned oriented, rigid eighth note repetitions
John Coltrane-
Riff
short melodic phrase or melody
Head Arrangement
people are playing from memory
 “Go to Sleepy"
 
• Children’s lullaby.
• Notes are swung.
• Very strong rhythm adds to swing feel.
• Scoops and slides in the voice add another dynamic to the song
*Recreational Secular Song
Entrenched in the "Thesaurus of Musical Scales"
Coltrane
DON REDMAN
specialist in arrangements/ arranged material according to families of instruments/sax player
What was Thelonious Monk's Instrument of expertise
Piano
lead player
player who dictates tone quality, phrasing, and other musical elements to the other members of the section and between sections of the band
chromatic scale
the scale containing twelve equally spaced notes within the octave, corresponding to all the keys (black and white) on the piano.
What period constitutes the era of fusion and funk?
1970s
Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie parker
Founders of bebop
Front Line
Lead (melody) instruments in early jazz bands: trumprt (or cornet), trombone, and clarinet.
Cool Jazz: (Bands/Artists)
Miles Davis
Dave Brubeck
Stan Getz
Gerry Mulligan
Chet Baker
Modern Jazz Quartet (Art Blakey)
Joao Gilberto recorded the music of which Brazilian songwriter
Jobim
tonality
the organization of music around a central tone (the tonic) and the scale built on that tone
Buddy "King" Bolden
Cornet player, important improviser of jazz in New Orleans; Most importantly, he was the first individual "personality" of jazz
William "Count" Basie
Band leader and piano player originally from NJ, started the All-American Rhythm Section in Kansas City
Leon Bix Beiderbecke
cornet player; self-taught, no formal teaching of notes therefore interested in alternative fingering
Musicians were able to study and mimic the great performers because of:
recordings
Buddy Bolden
The first Jazz musician /best cornet player from 1895-1906
Swing Era Soloists: Tenor Sax
Ben Webster
Lester Young “prez”
Coleman Hawkins “hawk”/“bean”
Who was the Harlem Renaissance pianist and bandleader the broacasted from the cotton club
Duke Ellington
key
a group of notes with one designated as the tonic
Nat King Cole
piano player and vocals; Show debuted on NBC-TV
backbeat
a consistent accent on beats 2 and 4 of a measure. The backbeat produces a rhythmic layer that contrasts with the usual accenting of beat 1 (the downbeat) and beat 3 in the underlying meter.
Characteristics of work songs
 
• Mainly rhythmic to accompany work.
• Short phrases.
• Solo and chorus follow each other instantly (call and response).
• African music.
• Words and music improvised.
• Work songs remained relatively untouched by European Influence
Jelly Roll Morton
FIRST JAZZ COMPOSER and ARRANGER/ Hed Hot Chili Peppers? swing feel
New Orleans Jazz: (Key Players)
Charles "Buddy" Bolden - Cornet
Sidney Bechet - Clarinet/Soprano Sax
Jelly Roll Morton - Pianist/Composer
Blues
a form characterized by the use of a 12-bar chorus and an AAB lyrical verse that can be incorporated into jazz, rock, and other styles. The blues is also a separate style in and of itself that comes in many different forms
Social Characteristics of West African Music
 
a) African music is functional.
b) Music is organized as part of all social events.
c) Dance and music are inseparable.
d) There are no spectators in West African society.     
Coltrane turned to ...
radical musical style in the mid 1960's attracted large audiences
Modern Jazz Quartet (Members)
Art Blakey
John Lewis - Piano
Kenny Clark - Drummer (replaced by Connie Kay)
Percy Heath - Bassist
Milt Jackson - Vibes
Kansas City Style
the jazz style that evolved in Kansas City in the 1920s and 30s that is characterized by the use of 12-bar blues forms and head arrangements
Jazz Messengers (Original Members)
Art Blakey - Drums
Horace Silver - Piano
Hank Mobley - Tenor Sax
Kenny Dorham - Trumpet
Doug Watkins - Bass
Significance of "Kind of Blue"
A set of inspired improvisations by an all-star band. A significant departure from traditional bop-derived styles. Introduced the format of Modal Jazz
Sonet in Search of a Moor
Duke Ellington- wrote in same form as Shakespear
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