History of Theatre Flashcards

Terms Definitions
wrote faust
Roman actors

Melodrama characters
wrote Hernani
victory hugo
fly gallery
control ropes

Homme d' evil

table in circle?
wrote barber of seville
Thespis 534 BC
First actor
ways to obtain objective
3 main tribes
o Igbo (mine) o Yorubao Hausa

language of the church

Globe theatre
vocal audience
flag represented plays
open roof
Ballad opera
no talking, singing
A play with strong symbolism
founder of modern realism
Henrik ibsen
side entrances to roman theatre
comes from Greek word sceney
Group Theatre
dedicated to introducing Stanislavsky's system and producing socially relevant drama
william gillete- sherlock holmes focused on realism; NC

what is a Tragedy
Sad song

1st greek drama
When? Where?
534 B.C.


Emile Zola
Henrik Ibsen
George Bernard Shaw
this non commerical company "american's moscow art" theatre
group theatre
director, erwin piscator developed this concept
epic theatre
Red Lion
First theatre for professionals, earliest theatre that we have a name for, know very little about it
Pierre Corneille
Playwright (1636) experiments with neoclassical rules
New comedy
Comedy focusing in family situations
Ben Johnson
1. Elizabethan England
2. Playwright who wrote very political plays; not afraid to write against the current government
3. His play the "Isle of Dogs" closed all of the English theatres for a time; caused political unrest
illogical dramatic pieces that often idealized war and the developing machine age.
necessity is the mother of invention’- Albert Einstein…people will find ways to get into the union if you couldn’t get in originally
the importance of being ernest
oscar wilde
arms of the man
george B Shaw
Freie Buhne
-1889, Berlin
-An independent theatre in Berlin
-Utilized professional actors and all performs were on Sundays
-Gave hearing to plays normally never heard.
leading shakspearean actor of 18th century
richard wagner
in this form plays are highly subjective, dramatic action is seen through eyes of protagonists. dream like
Action on stage resembled what people could observce around them
women only space where there were guards so that women could only sit in. Located at the back of the theatre
wrote the Youthful Adventures of the Cid play
play by Sackville and Norton, 1st blank verse tradgedy, written by 2 law students, the only tradgedy at that point written by English authors, had some dumbshows and a chorus (reads as if single person)
Not a theatre supporter, teacher of Aristotle
Female Wits
late 17th century women playwrights who worked in London during Restoration time: Catharine Trotter, Mary Pix, Delariviere Manley.
stands in the way of getting objective
1. Renaissance Europe
2. A movement during the renaissance that focused on the importance of humanity, human powers, and individual accomplishments. Put focus on people rather than gods and encouraged people to enjoy life.
3. Playwrights began to look at the world through human eyes, as a result of this newly found importance of human beings.
Arthur Miller
Playwright who wrote Selective Realism (Death of a salesman)
Enlightenment/Age of Reason
during 18th century Europe
Human beings can discover truths through careful observation and perception.  Science is key.
temple to consult oracle and receive guidance for the future, so high it is above small aircrafts, theatre is up there

Fall of Rome
476 A.D.

Christianity, spread thinly, corrupt attitudes, banned theatre (mortal sin)

Proscenium Stage
big box
2-doors on side of stage
"The Cherry Orchard"
-19th century, Russia
-CHEKHOV's last play; dealing with issues of cultural futility.
-Promoted and mirrored the social currents in Russia at the time: the Aristocracy fightin to hold onto thier social status and the the bourgeoisie/middle class rising.
Williamsburg, VA
Where was the first american theatre built?
painted setting on long cloth which unrolled across stage on scrolls
moving panorama
Jackobean Period
Audience members often sat onstage and were written in as commentators
Confrerie de la Passion
(brotherhood of the passion) theatrical group that produced medeival plays
could build a theatre there (also a private theatre)
Aeschylus (523BC-456BC)
Father of Drama, Introduced 2nd Actor, Reduced chorus of 50 men to 12
Sentimental Comedy
in 18th century Engliand, comedy that reaffirmed middle-class morality: the virtuous characters were rewarded and the wicked punished
Henry VIII
1. Renaissance England
2. King of England who broke from the Catholic Church and formed the Anglican Church, making himself the head of it. He made Catholicism illegal in England and established England as a world power by beating the Spanish navy.
3. ?
Edward Gordon Craig
Known for elaborate, symbolic set designs
golden ages of theatre
Greek, Roman, Medieval, Shakespeare, 19th century America
Requirements of drama
People assume a character
A magic place
Provided a fancy world of romance and escapeMost popular brand of musical for the first two decades
these riots took place in the london covet gardent theatre after remodel
oldprice riots
Sir Phillip Sidney
wrote a defense against Northbrook and Gosson saying that people actually learn morality from the stage
tragedy is a body of ten 1st century (A. D.) dramas, of which eight were written by the Roman Stoic philosopher and politician L. Annaeus Seneca (Seneca the Younger). Rediscovered by Italian humanists in the mid-16th century, they became the models for the revival of tragedy on the Renaissance stage. The Senecan tragedy also focuses heavily on the supernatural elements. Kyd was influenced by Senecan tradgedies.
Comedy of Manners
form of comic drama that became popular in the latter half of the 17th century in France and among English playwrights during the Restoration. It emphasizes a cultivated or sophisticated atmosphere, witty dialogue, and characters whose concern with social polish is charming, ridiculous, or both.
Waiting for Godot -
Beckett's most famous play, most famous traditionalist Absurdist drama
americas 1st great playwright
a long days journey into night
The iceman cometh, mourning becomes electra, and a long day's journey into night
What did Eugene O'Neill write?
Tirso De Molina
gave us the first don juan plays. (trixter of deville?)
Jeremy Collier, "A Short View..."
After this document was published sexual content of plays was diminished and 18th century English comedy lead to morality being stressed. May have been symptom or cause.
European Theatre in the 18th Century
[Germanic Territories]

I.      By 18th century, performance in various German territories has been taking 3 major shapes
a.     Court theatres modeled after French court, focusing predominantly on opera
b.     School theatre, especially in Jesuit institutions: drama as teaching tool


a.     Although venture doesn’t last, model proves important and Lessing’s journal, Hamburg Dramaturgy, is now considered one of the major critical works of the 18th century

Chorus did what?
didn't sing, were an actor, talked in unison, introduce the action, was a spectator, set mood, add color and movement, divide the play
David Garrick, Peg Woffington
Who was the greatest actor and actress (not the same person) of the Restoration?
The Man of Mode
A comedy of manners by George Etherage about affairs, matches, and who's sleeping with whom. Has quintessential fop character that it is famous for (sir flopling flutter)
3 decisions a director makes
- Casting - Where people stand and move (blocking) - Amount of space you use (if it takes place in jail, only use a few feet)
the time of your life, after the fall
What did william saroyan write?
Sheridan, Richard Brinsley/ School for Scandal
the best known writer of Sentimental Comedy. Became part-owner of Drury Lane theatre after Garrick. Sheridan's comedies of manners ridiculed the follies of society. One of his most popular plays, The School for Scandal, follows those courting Maria and Sir Oliver who tries to determine who should gain his inheritance. The play contains the famous "screen scene" and ends with the hypocritical punished and the good rewarded in the fashion of sentimental comedies.
how to tell a play is well directed
By Audience paying attention (engaged), people don’t leave at intermission - If you turn off the volume, you can still tell what is going on - Stage
tragedy and comedy most major forms of drama; tragedy most presitigious profound and grandest tragedy:
unfortunate sad awful celebration for man's capacity to suffer 
tone:sad and heavy 
events move towards death
ex:death of a saleseman modern american tragedy
He wrote Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus, Electra, and Antigone; 18 times
What plays did Sophocles write and how many times did he win the playwriting prize?
Theatre libre
fall of Rome
Intimate Theatre, Stockholm
a high headpiece
Noh plays about demon,five
*restoration: 650
*1700-1750: 1500
*1800: 3000-3600
-box, pit, gallery seating
fabula atelana
short improvised scenes
Noh plays about miscellaneous, four
Atellan Farce
improvisational entertainment focused on family problems
abstract character indicating virtues or vices in morality plays
19th century Belgian playwright; emphasis upon a symbolic/static theatre
3. self-validating
> gay pride; celebrate homo identity; might use drag or camp
> Charles Ludlam's "Ridiculous Theatrical Co.": Camille
> Split Britches
storyteller, a West African storyteller
In medieval theatre, special effects.
In French neoclassical theatre, boxes.
god of wine and fertility
prophets play
derivived from nonbiblical source, blame jews for getting their own prophets
roofed corridors provided access into the orchestra and auditorium
patron system
pays painters, sculptures, opera companies, supporting the arts by supporting them financially, art is secularized
Author of Sanskrit plays, 2nd-3rd ct.
Moscow Art Theatre
Late-Nineteenth-Century dedicated to realism. Founded in 1898 by Konstantin Stanislavski and Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko. First realistic production was "The Sea Gull".
George C. Wolf
*major playwright, director, producer
*the colored museum"
*+ wilson = 2 major Am theatre artists
The Theatre
First Elizabethan theater built; constructed by James Burbage in 1576
First American book musical; premiered at the end of the Roaring 20's, Show Boat is a musical in two acts with music by Jerome Kern and book (based on a novel by Edna Ferber) and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II. The plot chronicles the lives of those living and working on the Cotton Blossom, a Mississippi River show boat, from 1880 to 1927. The show's dominant themes include racial prejudice and tragic, enduring love.
This playwright wrote witty dialogue that has to do with characters and the situation as opposed to for its own sake.
In commedia dell'arte, the stock lovers.
Neoclassical rule, developed in the Italian renaissance, that dramatic characters must behave in set ways based on their social class and background.
Evolved out of dythrabic rituals; literally means "goat song"
liturgical drama
musical portion of mass, established uniform practice, takes place outside
the major lyric Latin poet (December 8, 65 - November 27, 8 B.C.) of the Augustan Era. Emperor Augustus requested that he write a poem for the special public entertainment event known as the Secular Games that Augustus put on in 17 B.C.
Elizabethan theatre always had 2 side doors used to get actors off and on stage and to keep the continous flow of dramatic action? true or false
rotating plays where a diffrent play would be performed every night
Written by Lope De Vega, Spanish Commedia, 16th c.
Italian Scenic Ideal
*1640-41: Richelieu builds first permanent proscenium arch theatre
*1645: installed chariot & pole system
*Italian perspective/spectacle used for machine plays, opera, ballet du cour
Yeats & Gregory
Founders of the Abbey Theatre
6. mixed media including video
8. mix high and low art: video = flying Karamazor bros "Comedy of Errors"
wayang kulit
shadow puppet, shadow puppet theatre in indoesia, dialogue and narration with music
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg. (p. 552), czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
the practice of investing things with symbolic meaning
Miss Julie
1888 August Strindberg. Won high praise for its emphasis upon heredity and environment , its unusual setting and its use of pantomimes to replace intermissions
What were 18th century Germany Troupes forced to do constantly?
Pole-and-chariot system
Giacomo Torelli's mechanized means of changing sets made up of flat wings.
Category of drama that is generally light in tone, is concerned with issues that are not serious, has a happy ending, and is designed to amuse and provoke laughter.
In ancient Greece, a wealthy person who underwrote most of the expenses for the production of an individual playwright's works at a dramatic festival.
The French Academy
Cardinal Richelieu sanctioned what group?
the character moves from ignorance to knowledge
gifts of nature
beauty strength discretion (be safe darnit!)
The Roman Dramatic Event
peloponnesian war- Carthage battle where Rome the republic becomes an empire by defeating sparta. or the plaque
Boys could only play small or "extra" roles on the Elizabethan stage? true or false
The De Witt drawing we studied in class was drawn by a visitor to the Elizabethan theatre from
1585, Oedipus
First premier production in the Teatro Olimpico
4 Romance plays
The Tempest, Winter's Tale, Cymbeline, Pericles
Vittorio Alfieri
is often considered the "founder of Italian tragedy." His major works include 22 tragedies, four of which are Oreste, Antigone, Mirra, Saul. His first play, Cleopatra, was from dialogue he had written for one of his lovers when she was ill, which was returned to him after a fight. He had a sense of nationality and sought to make his audience feel this through tragedy. His writing inspired the Italian people, working to promote the Italian independence movement Risorgimento.
English Drama: Sentimental Comedy
*evoke tears, not laughter
*Richard Steele's "The Conscious Lovers" 1722
-virtuous people suffer but triumph in the end
*18th century philosophy: humans naturally good
-"lightning conversion"
Stanislavski Technique
The most famous system for training performers to act realistically. Designed to educate future actors about what it took to play a realistic character and used techniques such as the "circle of attention" and the inner truth of the characters. Later, dealt more with the physical actions of the actor.
the Cartoucherie
"found space"; outside Paris; and army buildings
Robert Wilson
Einstein or the Beach (opera); post modern
An Italian philosopher as well as a statesmen and author of books. He wrote a book called The Prince where he argues that a ruler must do whatever is necessary to protect their subjects.
Theatre du Marais
1644 burned and rebuilt, a raked stage
Theatre of Pompey
built by pompey who admired classic drama and the elaborate permenant greek theatres, who was able to push ratification to build a permanent theatre. the structure was dedicated to the goddess of venus- god of victory and to glorify pompey's victories. it was constructed in 55 BC and was first permanent theatre building in rome. the theatre had a semi-circular orchestra with a corresponding auditorium with a diameter of 150 meters holding 10-20 thousand spectators. the theatre formed a single architectural unit with the auditorium touching the scene house.
Commedia troupes
traveling actor groups of 7-8 men and 4-5 women, were most of them were families and half of them were shareholders. they performed together and shared profits equally.
Old Masks of Commedia
3 types: Pantalone, Doctor, Capitano, Italy, 16th ct.
Jeremy Collier
wrote, A Short View of the Immortality and Profaneness of the English Stage (1698). Though this Collier began with the accepted neoclassical doctrine that the purpose of drama is to teach and to please and went on to show the disparity between theory and practice.
1980s Pulitzer Winners
> Henley's 'Crimes of the Heart'
> Norman's 'Night, Mother'
John Millington Synge
Irish poet and playwright whose plays are based on rural Irish life (1871-1909), Irish playwright, poet, prose writer, and collector of folklore. best known for his play The Playboy of the Western World, which caused riots during its opening run at the Abbey Theatre.
Female actors pretending to be men on stage in restoration theatre
breeches roles
Term referring to the rule that a play should occur within one day, in one place, and with no action irrelevant to the plot.
which form of art do you think he supported? Neoclassicism or Romanticism?
Second level
was the juliet level or balcony on the stage
Life is a Dream
Spain, play by La Barca, 17th ct.
French Academy's Verdict
1. establish who is fit to judge (elitism)
2. argues truth is grounded in nature
3. watershed event: turning point
*neoclassicism dominates Europe until 1800
comedy of menace
coined by Esselin, a term used to describe the plays of David Campton, Nigel Dennis, N. F. Simpson, and Harold Pinter by drama critic Irving Wardle, borrowed from the subtitle of Campton's play The Lunatic View: A Comedy of Menace, in reviewing Pinter's and Campton's plays in Encore in 1958. (Campton's subtitle Comedy of Menace is a jocular play-on-words derived from comedy of manners—menace being manners pronounced with somewhat of a Judeo-English accent.
chambre a quartre portes
smller room with four doors usually an interior
Astor Place Riot
Riot at a theatre in New York, first time the National Guard had been called out to fire at an unarmed civilian crowd, revolved around whether Charles Macready or Edwin Forrest was better at playing various Shakespearean roles
Rules of conduct for an acting company
established by Lady Elizabeth company in 1614.
1 shilenge if late to rehearsal
3 shilenges if late to performance
10 shilenges for being intoxicated in performance
20 shilenges for missing a performance
40 shilenges for stealing from the company, share is forfeited
the three unities as defined by the italian neo-classic movement and describe/define the rules
time: dramatic action should mirror actual life, real time play interpreted to time being believable. came up with 24hr rule where 24hrs will pass in a play
place: all action should take place in one setting, can set a play were the caracter can get to in 24hrs
action: there cna be only one plot and can have sub plots as long as it goes with the story, there is no seperate or different plots in a story
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