most common wbc.
dna within the nucleoplasm
localized developmental growths of normal bone on the buccal surface of the alveolar process of the maxilla. Hereditary etiology.
closest to the tongue
enamel loss through chemical means
process by which is cavity is created through demineralization
due to acid
a prominent, rounded organelle within the nucleus that mainly produces rRNA
intramembranous- formation of osteiod between two dense connective tissue sheets which eventually replaces outer connective tisssue.
endochondral- ossification the formation of the osteiod within the hyline cartalage
lined by a respitory mucosa
pseudostatified columnar epi w/ cilia
goblet cells are surrounded by serous and mucous cell
|what is the function of molars?||
process of dentin matrix, or pre-dentin formation
occurs during the apposition stage of tooth development
the upper jaw, origionally from two bones that are sutured together
most common wbc in the connective tissue. called macrophage after it leaves the blood and goes into tissue.
|filiform lingual papillae||
slender, threadlike, whitish lingual pappillae on dorsal surface of tongue
wartons duct- of the submandibular salivary gland. More prominent and deeper.
function in both extra and intra cellular digestion. Contain powerful hydrolytic enzymes.
the process of enamel formation that occurs during the apposition stage of tooth development
accurs in two waves
first wave- enamel matrix is first formed in the incisal/occlusal portion of the future crown.
second wave- over laps the first wave, entire process then moves cervically to the CEJ
|periodontal ligament (PDL)||
fibrous ligament that attaches the tooth to the bony surface of th alveolus. Also acts s a shock absorber for the tooth.
|maturation of enamel||
during the maturation stage enamel completes its mineralization process. Ameloblasts activley pump even more calcuim hydroxyapatite into the enamel matrix and withdrawl and equal amount of the organic materials at the same time. This occurs in two stages. First at the occulsal portion, then over laps the occlusal protion and continues towards the CEJ.
the bony extenstions of the maxilla and mandible that contain the tooth sockets of the teeth (called an alveolus)
function to pierce or tear food during mastication bc of the tapered shape and prominent cusps
contents and functions
exocrine glands that produce saliva
controlled by the auntomonic nervous system
classified as either minor or major based on size
contains minerals, electrolytes, buffers, enzymes, IgA, and metabolic wastes
lubricates, cleanses, and buffers the oral mucos, protecting it from dryness, ascids and bacterial biofilm
aids in digestion via enzymes
involved in antibacterial activity
involved remin of enamel
portion of the root covered by cementum
visible tooth structure not covered by gingiva. CAN include portions of the root if root is visible. (can change over time if gingival recession/swelling occurs)
|what is the function of premolars?||
tearing and grinding
|which mucosa is the nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium associated with?||
the lining mucous
most common cell type in connective tissue. synthesize certain types of protein fivers and intercellular substance. flat, elongated cells with cytoplasmic processes at each end.
junction between cell and non cellular surface. eg gingival attachment to tooth. finger nail to finger bed
60 to 65% of saliva output. mixed saliva
|orthokaratinized stratified squamous epi||
keratiniztion of the epi cells throughout the most superficial layers. Least common form of epi. associated w/ masticatory mucosa of hard palate. 4 layers
|what is the function of canines?||
pierce or tear food
|Contour lines of Owen||
microscopic feature of dentin
a number of adjoining parallel inbrication lines
demonstrate a disturbance in the body metabolism that affects the odontoblasts by altering their formation efforts
appear as a series of dark bands
the junction bw the tooth and the gingival tissues
crevicular epi, stand away from the tooth creating the sulcus
a space filled with gingival fluid. Depth of healthy gingival sulcus: .5-3.0mm w/ an average of 1.8
seeps bw the epi cells an dinto the sulcus. It allows the components of the blood to reach th tooth surface through the junctional ep from the blood vessels of the adjacent lamia propria (contains WBCs and IG)
a dense pad of tissue just dital to the last mandibular tooth
|describe the clinical and histological aspects of filiform lingual papillae||
Clinical: most common lingual papillae, on the dorsal surface of the tongue, fine-pointed cones that give tongue its velvety texture.Histological: thick layer of ortho or parakeratinized epithelium overlying a core of lamina propria. An increased amount of keratin and the surface of each, forming a snow-covered "christmas tree" appearance and white color of this lingual papilla. Pointed structure. No tastes buds in epithelium.
|order of duct tissue types||
starting at the terminal acini there is the intercalated ducts, then the straited ducts, then the excretatory ducts.Intercalated ducts have a single layer of cuboidal epi cells
strated ducts are larger in diameter and have a single layer of columanar epi cells that have striations due to the presence of numerous elongated mitochondria in narrow cytoplasmic partitions seperated by highly folded cell membranes. This portion of the duct transports saliva and also resorbs and secretes electrolytes into the saliva from the blood.
the excretory duct portion is located in the septum of the gland. Even larger in diameter. Lined w/ a variety of epi cells
first is psuedostratififed columnar epi
then stratified cuboidal epi
finally stratified squamous epi
|International standards organization designation system (ISO)||
teeth are designated using a two digit code. The first digit refers to the quadrant and the second digit refers to the tooth within that quadrant. *probably not on quiz but may be on boards*
|describe the regional differences of attached gingiva||
Clinical: opaque pink, dull, firm, immobile, with varying amounts of stippling (little depressions that give orange peel appearance).Epithelium: thick keratinized (mainly para, some orthokeratinized)Lamina propria: tall narrow CT papillae, extensive vascular supply, serves as mucoperiosteum to bone. Submucosa: not present
|name and describe the 2 types of bone development (ossification)||
intramembranous ossification- formation of osteoid between two dense connective tissue sheets, which then eventualy replaces the outer connective tissue.endochondral ossification- the formation of the osteoid within a hyaline cartilage model thay subsequently becomes mineralized and dies. osteoblasts penetrate the disintegrating cartilage and form primary ossification centers that continue forming osteoid towards the end of the bone during prenatal birth. Later after birth, secondary ossification center from which allow for further growth.
|describe the clinical and histological features of circumvallate lingual papillae||
clinical: 7 to 15 large, raised mushroom shaped structures just anterior to the sulcus terminalis. Larger in diameter than fungiform (the other mushroom shaped one) measuring 3-5mm.Histological: mushroom shaped structures with ortho or parakeratinized epithelium overlying a core of lamina propria. Taste buds in the epithelium surround the entire base of each circumvallate.
|when does the mixed dentition period occur?||
approximately between the ages of 6 years and 12 years. Starts when first permanent mandibular molar erupts and ends when the last primary tooth is shed.
|what are the two layers of the basement membrane?||
1)basal lamina which is further layered a)lamina lucida b) lamina densa2)reticular lamina