History Systems Flashcards

Terms Definitions
started mesmerism
1st "paradigm" (disputed)
Neurypnology (Braid, 1843)
worked with gall
Verbal Learning
EmpiricismLaboratory traditionNomothetic goals
Broca's area
"i cant talk!"
life force animates animals
Research concepts investigated in _______'s laboratory include visual perception (color, visual size, optical illusions), auditory perception, speed of reaction, attention, and emotion.
against mesmer using exorcism
anterior posterior motor sensory
Leon Festinger
Cognitive dissonance:
John Bowlby
Attachment theory: (person)
systematic analysis of cranial topology and subsequent correlation to personality
Rene Decartes (5)

Interactionist Dualism

Theory of reflex action

Derived ideas

Innate ideas

He encouraged investigating the physical explanations to human behavior that are governed by the physical laws of nature
John Locke (4)

Simple ideas

Complex ideas

The mind works by associating ideas emerging from experience.

The mind is a blank slate at birth

Phlegmatic personality
(Phlegm)- slow, lazy, lethargic
Hippocrates and Galen
Handbook of Physiology (Muller, 1826)
physicist; conservation of energy; nerve conduction velocity; mind organizes sensations into learned categories
Knowledge is gained from observation
Theorist who used topographical maps to describe the complex interactions within the life space
Interpreting and evaluating historical events in terms of contemporary knowledge and standards.
Carl Jung
Disagreement with FreudAnalytic psychologyEgo: our consciousnessCollective unconscious: psychic pathways?Personal unconscious: ArchetypesPersona: what I change for the public
early 1900s, simple observation of behavior
Sanguine personality
 (Blood)- warm, optimistic, easy going

 Hippocrates and Galen
Method of investigation (3) (Wundt)


Research goals

Critique of Pure Reason (Kant, 1781)
helped found nancy school; liked magnetism/hypnotism but used a tamer more pc version
mind organizes sensations into innate categories
E.C. Tolman
He suggested a “cognitive explanation” for learning.
Immanuel Kant
Theorist who said: elements are organized beforehand, rather than a mechanical process of association.
Confirmable propositions
Within science, propositions capable of validation through empirical tests.
The examination of one's inner experiences.
Scientific law
A consistently observed relationship between classes of empirical events.
According to Aristotle, the purpose for which a thing exists and which remains a potential until actualized. Active reason, for example, is the human entelechy, but it exists only as a potential in many humans.
The Indian religion that emphasized the importance of semiecstatic trances.
Various ceremonies and rituals that are designed to influence spirits.
A Neoplatonist who emphasized the importance of embracing the soul through introspection. These inner experiences were more important and informative than physical experiences.
physical symptoms, with no biological cause
Information Theory
discipline within applied math, involves figuring out how much data can be stored on a specific mediumChannel Capacity Computers
Henri Tajfel & John Turner
Social Identity:
sensory thresholds
minimum stimulus intensity which can be detected
Immediate Experience
Experience that is unbiased by interpretation (i.e. initial impression without bias).
Wilhelm Wundt
In making this statement, _______ reflects his optimism that researchers would discover the best theoretical concepts and methods to capture the complexity of the human experience
Robert Sessions Woodsworth
Complex ideas
 Derived ideas based on the combination of simple ideas (Freedom, Self). 

John Locke
Thomas Henry Huxley (2)


The mind and consciousness does not exert any influence on the body
Observations on Man, His Frame His Duty, and His Expectations (Hartley, 1749)
Archetypes: (2)
Carl Jung

Inherited tendencies within the collective unconscious that dispose a person to behave in a manner like that of ancestors who confronted similar situations.

This reflects the commonality of social themes across cultures (Greek myths, Modern Myths etc.) (Joseph Campbell)

student of Wundt and Titchener in mentalism; said exp. psyc. more important than applied
Fixed-ratio schedule:
reinforcement ( or punishment) happens after a fixed number of responses (ex. reinforce after exactly 2 or 5 behaviors. (Salesperson can get a extra money after selling a certain amount of products (commission). Get jailed for life after 3 felonies )
Aversive conditioning:
Substituting a punishment for a previously reinforcing behavior.
A child thumb sucking produces a pleasant feeling. Being teased by peers for thumb sucking causes an unpleasant feeling producing a decrease of thumb sucking over time.
E.B. Twitmyer
He found classical conditioning for knee-jerk reflex independent of Pavlov’s discovery.
The belief that because what is considered true varies from person to person, any search for universal (interpersonal) truth will fail. In other words, there is no Truth, only truths. The Sophists were nihilists.
A primary substance or element from which everything is thought to be derived.
First a disciple of Socrates, came under the influence of the Pythagoreans, and postulated the existence of an abstract world of forms or ideas that, when manifested in matter, make up the objects in the empirical world. The only true knowledge is that of the forms, a knowledge that can be gained only by reflecting on the innate contents of the soul. Sensory experience interferes with the attainment of knowledge and should be avoided. Nativist dualism of th emind a body. did not further science
A viewpoint shared by many scientists while exploring the subject matter of their science. A paradigm determines what constitutes legitimate problems and the methodology used in solving those problems.
Passive mind
A mind that simply reflects cognitively one's experiences with the physical world. The empiricists assume a passive mind.
Public observation
The stipulation that scientific laws must be available for any interested person to observe. Science is interested in general, empirical relationships that are publicly verifiable.
The belief that complex processes can be understood by studying the elements of which they consist.
Sensitive soul
According to Aristotle, the soul possessed by animals. It includes the functions provided by the vegetative soul and provides the ability to interact with the environment and to retain the information gained from that interaction.
Nomothetic goals
laws of how the mind works
a given social position (place in society) determined by a set of social expectations or standards for proper behavior.

These are derived from Social norms:
large vessel which serves as a conduit of heeling between mesmer and patient
Bell-Magendie Law
anterior of ns is, in general, motor-related while posterior is sensory
Introspection (2)

The examination of one’s own mind to inspect personal thoughts or feelings as they are currently experiencing an event. How are you feeling moment by moment.

 Application of precise experimental control over the conditions/stimuli under which introspection occurred (duration, size, intensity).

Wilhelm Wundt
Hermann von Helmholtz (2)

 Investigated reaction time to sensory stimuli.

Large individual differences in reaction time to sensory stimuli. How long does it take for you to recognize certain things (sound, touch, etc.)?
Hippocrates and Galen (1)
Personalities associated with four bodily fluids: black bile, yellow bile, blood, phlegm
Converging evidence
The use of different methods to investigate psychological phenomena. Evidence consistently found by using different methods provides strong support to claims about a given phenomena (second opinions).
David Marr
Henry Murray
Ego is a conscious organizer of behavior
Anna Freud
 In parallel with Melanie Klein, she developed an approach to psychoanalytic therapy with children that took to account their relative immaturity and low level of verbal skills (play materials and child observation at home)
Inferiority complex:
Alfred Adler

Inferiority feelings operate to the benefits of the individual and society because it leads to continuous improvement.

 A condition that develops when a person is unable to compensate for normal feelings of inferiority. (This may come about because of excessive pampering or rejection during childhood leading to abnormal compensatory behaviors)
Social Cognitive Theory of Learning: 
Albert Bandura
Reinforcement through social interactions has impacts on overt behavior, beliefs and expectations. (Reactions to stimuli in the environment are self-activated.) 
John Garcia
he stated: People and animals are biologically wired to associate sickness with taste than with sights and sounds
Zeigarnik Effect:
Bluma Zeigarnik

people remember uncompleted or interrupted tasks better than completed ones.

The effect is in use as a plot device in TV series and movies for maintaining viewer interest (by use of a cliffhanger).
Double aspectism
The belief that bodily and mental events are inseparable. They are two aspects of every experience.
Those who search for or postulate a physis.
The belief that the basis of all knowledge is experience.
Efficient cause
According to Aristotle, the force that transforms a thing.
Magnus, Albertus, St.
Made a comprehensive review of Aristotle's work. Following Aristotle's suggestion, he also made careful, direct observations of nature.
The belief that the good life consists of seeking pleasure and avoiding pain.
Psychical determinism
The type of determinism that stresses mental causes of behavior.
Biological determinism
The type of determinism that stresses the biochemical, genetic, physiological, or anatomical causes of behavior.
Aquinas, Thomas, St.
Epitomized Scholasticism. He sought to "Christianize" the works of Aristotle and to show that both faith and reason lead to the truth of God's existence.
Social comparison:
People prefer comparisons with similar others.
Social comparison can lead us to see ourselves as similar to others (assimilation) or different from them (contrast).
Social comparison motivates us towards actions and contributes towards our self-esteem. 
Social Function of Gossip
Central route processing:
persuasion based on logic and practical characteristics of the situation. (Logical arguments of the speaker, Availability of information, Reciprocity: the tendency of returning a favor)
just noticeable difference
minimum change in intensity which can be detected; dependent on absolute intensity
Granville Stanley Hall (3)

 He initiated a research program designed to investigate the psychological development of children. This serves as the foundation of educational psychology. How do children learn and what lessons can be created.

He also investigated the life span psychological development.

Recapitulation theory of psychological development
Foundations of Experimental Psychology
A research method where an investigator can directly manipulate variables to observe how the manipulation of one variable (Independent variable) affects another variable (Dependent variable).
Three components of the Soul
Nutritive soul: (growing, nourishing, and reproducing)
Sensitive soul: (experience/sense the world and move around the world)

Rational soul: (reasoning and thinking)

Theory of reflex action:
An external object (stimulus) can bring about an involuntary response (knee jerk, eye blink).
Rene Decartes
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Kuhn, 1962)
outlined stages of revos; pre-paradigm, para, normal, anomaly, crisis, scientific revolution
Thematic Apperception Test
David Clarence McClelland
A projective test that involves people generating a story from an ambiguous scene
The assumption is that the subject will project his or her own needs into the story and these will reflect certain underlying themes.
Law of primary reinforcement:
Clark Leonard Hull
when a stimulus-response relationship is followed by reduction in a bodily need, the probability increases that in subsequent occasions the same stimulus will generate the same response. 
Positive punishment
occurs when a response is followed by the presentation of an unpleasant stimulus. This makes a behavior less likely in the future. (A child is scolded by parent for misbehaving)
Eclectic approach
Taking the best from a variety of viewpoints. The approach to the history of psychology taken in this text is eclectic because it combines coverage of great individuals, the development of ideas and concepts, the spirit of the times, and contributions from other disciplines.
science is often characterized as having two major componenets
empirical obseration and theory
Limits of attention-
limits of amount of information people could process, performance suffers when limits are reached
Adult attachment style
attachment style may change if a person has a significant attachment-related event (e.g., divorce, abuse, etc.)
Wernicke's area
"i see your lips moving but i dont understand the words that are coming out of your mouth. i mean, i dont get it. is that gate round or purple? i like baseballs.

3 Key claims of Functional Psychology
John Dewey
and James Rowland Angell

Functional psychology is the psychology of mental operations/processes rather than mental elements

Functional psychology focuses on the function of behavior and mental processes (attention and memory) in terms of how an organism adapts to its environment.

Functional psychology looks at the total relationship between the mind/body with the environment. Furthermore, there is no distinction between mind and body.
Person centered therapy:
Carl Rodgers
The placement of responsibility for change is placed on the client rather than the therapist.
If the child realizes that the affection from the mother is dependent on good and proper behavior, the child only feels worthy under certain conditions to avoid disapproval. 
Humanistic Psychology
As a result of interaction with the environment, and particularly as a result of evaluation interaction with others, the structure of the self is formed (Working-self concept/social roles).

Purposive behaviorism:

E.C. Tolman
the objective study of behavior with the consideration on the purposiveness or goal orientation of the behavior.
Classical Conditioning Stimulus Discrimination
is the tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli. It occurs when a stimulus similar to CS fails to produce CR. (fearful of just German Sheppards, preference for a particular products, recognizing your cell phone ring)
Olympian religion
The religion based on a belief in the Olympian gods as they were described in the Homeric odes. Olympian religion tended to be favored by the privileged classes, whereas peasants, laborers, and slaves tended to favor the more mystical Dionysiac-Orphic religion. (See also Dionysiac-Orphic religion.)
Law of contrast
A thought of something will tend to cause thoughts of opposite things.
The principle of psychophysical isomorphism
Direction correlation between the mind and the bodyMental activity and brain activity are the same
Principle of Falsifiability: 
A hypothesis is stated so that it can be refuted, or disproved by counter-evidence.
David Marr
De Humani Corporis Fabrica (Vesalius, 1543);
based on disection of cadavers; overturned uncontested ideas of Galen
Carl Rogers Humanistic Psychology
All individuals exist and react in a continually changing world of experience of which they are the center
Classical conditioning Stimulus Generalization
is the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the one involved in the original conditioning. This occurs when a stimulus similar or resembles the CS produces the CR. (fearful of all dogs, use car keys to open the house)
The principle of Pragnanz
You try to simplify the world into units we can understand The mind self organizes into the simplest wayforce fields
Doctrine of the Specific Energies of Nerves
Muller; perception defined by modality but not necessarily stimulus
Plato’s Allegory of the Cave (3)

The human soul divided into reason, spirit, and appetites

 Human souls are born with the concepts of the Forms, and just have to be reminded of those concepts from back before birth, when the souls were in close contact with the Forms in the Platonic heaven

Plato believes that humans are born with a priori knowledge and they have access to the knowledge through a process of reasoning or thinking
Law of Effect:
Edward Lee Thondike
Actions that produce pleasure or reach a goal are more likely to be reproduced. Likewise, actions that produce pain or hinder reaching a goal are less likely to be reproduced.
Key Assumptions of Classical Conditioning
US paired with CS several times over a period of time.
CS comes before (predicts) US.
UR becomes a CR in the presence of CS.
If the CS is not paired with the UR after a significant period of time, extinction of the behavior occurs.
whig history
Patricia Linville
George Berkeley (1)
midwife of thought
Founder of Cynicism.
sensory aphasia
cant interpret/process stimuli
Gustav Fechner (4)

 Absolute threshold

 Method of average error

Method of constant stimuli

Method of limits
Gordon Allport
Grouping of traits
identified cells and neurons
Alfred Adler
Viennese Psychoanaytic SocietyIndividual psychology: departure from Freud, tired of the sex We had goals in life which determined our behaviorSocial interests Our life is based on the common goodIdeas: Goal setting: Inferiority complex: we are born inferior, and have to overcome inferior situations Turning weakness into a strength
Robert K. Merton
Self-fulfilling prophecy
relationship between stimulus and perception
John Locke (4)

Simple ideas

Complex ideas

The mind works by associating ideas emerging from experience.

The mind is a blank slate at birth (tabla rosa).
(Robert) Yerkes-(John) Dodson (1)
Arousal Curve
 Melancholic personality
 (Black bile)- depressed, anxious
 Hippocrates and Galen
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (Locke, 1690)
infinity of subconscious experiences that influence behavior
demonstrated reflexes are controlled by spinal cord
learning and perception suggesting that the act of combining sensory elements produces new patterns with properties that did not exist in the individual sensory elements. (The whole is greater than the sum of its parts) (theory)
The spirit of the times.
Defining mental illness
Harmful behaviorUnrealistic thoughtsInappropriate behaviors
Leon Festinger, Albert Pepitione, Theodore Newcomb
philosophy and methodology of doing hx
instrument used to examine eye; babbage invented, helmholtz used
Conscious experience, as it is dependent on the subjective experience of participants. Experience is subjective.

Edward Titchener
big into the lack of causality
famous neurologist in time of mesmer
Variable-ratio schedule:
reinforcement (or punishment) happens after a range of responses (ex. reinforce after an average of 5 responses, but can occur after 2, 4, 6 responses. More resistant to extinction. (Playing slot machines, committing crimes until caught)
Jewish physician and philosopher who attempted to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Judaism.
Like his mentor Antisthenes, advocated natural impulse as the proper guide for action instead of social convention.
Scientific theory
Traditionally, a proposed explanation of a number of empirical observations and guide for future observations
Those who believe that ultimate reality consists of ideas or perceptions and is therefore not physical.
Psychophysical parallelism
The contention that experiencing something in the physical world causes bodily and mental activity simultaneously and that the two types of activities are independent of each other.
Any explanation of human behavior stressing determinants that are not under rational control--for example, explanations that emphasize the importance of emotions or unconscious mechanisms.
According to Aristotle, the experience of images retained from waking experience. Dreams are often bizarre because the images experienced during sleep are neither organized by our rational powers nor supported by ongoing sensory experience. That dreams sometimes correspond to future events was, for Aristotle, mere coincidence. However, because bodily processes are exaggerated in dreams, physicians can sometimes use dreams to detect the early signs of disease.
The philosophical belief that mental phenomena, such as learning, remembering, and imagining, can be explained in terms of the laws of association. (See also Laws of association.)
Franz Anton Mesmer
Animal magnetismRedistributing the animal magnetism in the bodyHe was and technique was popularPower of suggestion
Edward Ellsworth Jones, Harold Kelly
Attribution theory
cogito ergo sum
i think, therefore i am
[in hickish accent]"lets cut out a chunk from there and see what happens!"
The process by which mental elements are organized where creative synthesis of immediate experience creates new properties in the mediate experience (the whole is by no means the sum of its parts).
Wilhelm Wundt
Parmenides (4)

  There are no fundamental divisions or categories in nature, and a unified set of laws underlie nature

 In other words, everything involves 2 sides of the same coin

God and Natures, Good and Evil
Social Darwinism.
Humans make adaptations to the environment to insure personal improvement.
Humans strive for “perfection” through survival of the fittest competition. How people interact with each other

Herbert Spencer
Derived ideas:
Ideas from direct experience (initial impressions).
Rene Decartes
Complex phenomena can be explained in terms of the mechanisms that operate upon the basic elements or events. (identifying cause and effect). For every action there is a reaction.
David Marr
 All knowledge is a function of mental phenomena dependent on the perceiving of experiencing person (subjective reality). How you interpret events is different than how I interpret events. Experience is subjective.
George Berkeley
David Hume (2)

Law of Resemblance

Law of Contiguity
A Treatise of Human Nature (Hume, 1739-1740)
Humanistic psychology:
system of psychology that emphasizes conscious experience, a belief in the wholeness of human nature, a focus on free will, spontaneity, and the creative power of the individual 
first to suggestion that mesmerism was actually hypnotism
Fixed interval schedule:
reinforcement (or punishment) occurs after a fixed amount of time. Develop a sharp sense of time. Person responds more as the time gets closer for reinforcement (or punishment) than after a reward. (Timing on dancing or playing a musical instrument, studying for an exam)
Primary reinforcer
a stimulus that is inherently reinforcing by satisfying a physical need. (Food, air, light touch)
Applications of Gestalt Psychology


Learning and Problem Solving (Animal Intelligence)

Social Interactions

these are applications of what?
According to the Skeptics, any person claiming to have arrived at an indisputable truth.
Sociocultural determinism
The type of environmental determinism that stresses cultural or societal rules, customs, regulations, or expectations as the causes of behavior.
The belief that abstractions for which we have names have an existence independent of their names.
The study of the nature of knowledge.
Golden mean
The rule Aristotle suggested people follow to avoid excesses and to live a life of moderation.
Great-person approach
The approach to history that concentrates on the most prominent contributors to the topic or field under consideration.
Rational soul
According to Aristotle, the soul possessed only by humans. It incorporates the functions of the vegetative and sensitive souls and allows thinking about events in the empirical world (passive reason) and the abstraction of the concepts that characterize events in the empirical world (active reason).
Something that is unchanging and thus, in principle, is capable of being known with certainty. Being implies stability and certainty; becoming implies instability and uncertainty.
Scala naturae
Aristotle's description of nature as being arranged in a hierarchy from formless matter to the unmoved mover. In this grand design, the only thing higher than humans was the unmoved mover.
Normal science
According to Kuhn, the research activities performed by scientists as they explore the implications of a paradigm.
Early in life, helpless children seek security and a sense of comfort from their caregivers. 
There is a strong urge to be with other people, such as seeking friends, companionship,or love.
trichromatic (Young-Helmholtz) theory
three types of receptors in eye
Hugo Munsterberg
Contributions to Clinical Psychology: (2)

theory of psychophysical parallelism:

He believed that mental illness had a psychological basis and made diagnoses based on behavioral observations, an interview and answers received by the patients whom he interviewed.
   Systematic experimental introspection: 
Use of qualitative retrospective reports of subjects cognitive processes after the completion of an experimental task. After the fact.
Oswald Kulpe

 Stream of consciousness: (2)

consciousness (awareness) is a continuous flowing process that any attempt to reduce it to component elements will distort it.
Complexity (i.e., plurality in unity) of psychological subject matter produces divergent schools and sub-disciplines within psychology
William James
Idealized Self-Image:

Karen Horney
Imperfect, misleading “mask” that prevents neurotic people from understanding and accepting their true selves. Neurotic conflicts are not innate and can be brought about by undesirable situations during childhood.
David Clarence McClelland
 A need for harmonious relationships with other people and need to feel accepted by other people. They tend to conform to the norms of their work group. High need for affiliation individuals prefer work that provides significant personal interaction. They perform well in customer service and client interaction situations.
Intermittent (partial) schedules
occur when particular responses are sometimes, but not always reinforced (or punished). This creates a more reliable response and more resistant to extinction.
Marian Breland Bailey
Theorist who developed a training manual (Teaching the Mentally Retarded) to improve techniques for working with profoundly mentally retarded individuals
Wolfgang Kohler
Theorist who said: Problem solving is a matter of restructuring the perceptual field.
Lombard, Peter
Insisted that God could be known through faith, reason, or the study of his work in nature.
Anyone who believes that there are two aspects to humans, one physical and one mental.
Internal sense
The internal knowledge of moral right that individuals use in evaluating their behavior and thoughts. Postulated by St. Augustine.
Transmigration of the soul
The Dionysiac-Orphic belief that because of some transgression, the soul is compelled to dwell in one earthly prison after another until it is purified. The transmigration may find the soul at various times in plants, animals, and humans as it seeks redemption.
Revolutionary stage
According to Kuhn, the stage of scientific development during which an existing paradigm is displaced by a new one. Once the displacement is complete, the new paradigm generates normal science and continues doing so until it too is eventually displaced by a new paradigm.
Temple medicine
The type of medicine practiced by priests in early Greek temples that was characterized by superstition and magic. Individuals such as Alcmaeon and Hippocrates severely criticized temple medicine and were instrumental in displacing such practices with naturalistic medicine--that is, medicine that sought natural causes of disorders rather than supernatural causes.
The belief that abstract universals exist and that empirical events are only manifestations of those universals.
Preestablished harmony
The belief that bodily events and mental events are separate but correlated because both were designed to run identical courses.
Naive realism
The belief that what one experiences mentally is the same as what is present physically.
Laws of association
Those laws thought responsible for holding mental events together in memory. For Aristotle, the laws of association consisted of the laws of contiguity, contrast, similarity, and frequency.
The Human Dilemma: we are both objects and subjects of experience; Can’t get at it with empirical toolsNormal and neurotic anxiety: We all have some degree of anxiety in our lives; Neurotic anxiety fear the free well because they are overwhelmedThe importance of Myth:Narrative therapy;The myth you hold about yourself; Get rid of the negative mythsHuman Science: We can’t quantify subjective experience
Stanford Prison Experiment:
Prisoners and Guards modeled behaviors based o their corresponding roles in a prison context.
history of science
how a branch of science has evolved
Method of average error
Subjects adjust a variable stimulus until they perceive it to be equal to a constant standard/comparison stimulus over several trials (comparing the volume of one sound until it matches another sound).
Gustav Fechner
Method of constant stimuli
subjects make judgments between 2 stimuli and the proportion of corrected responses are measured.  Same or different.

Gustav Fechner
Interactionist Dualism:  (2)

there is a distinction between the mind and the body. 

The body receives input from the environment and relays the information to the mind.  The mind sends instructions to the body in response to the information from the environment.

 Rene Decartes
History of Experimental Psychology (Boring, 1929)
Student of Wundt; discussed mentalism
Secondary trait

 Gordon Allport
 These are characteristics seen only in certain circumstances or context (such as particular likes or dislikes that a very close friend may know).
Development of self-esteem over a lifetime.

 Collective Unconscious:

Carl Jung
 the deepest level of the psyche containing the inherited experiences of human and pre-human species.
Attribution Theory
Fritz Heider
Theory that states: Because biases in object perception sometimes lead to errors (e.g., optical illusions), one might expect to find that biases in social perception likewise lead to errors (e.g., underestimating the role social factors and overestimating the effect of personality and attitudes on behavior).
aristotle and happiness
happiness is brought to humans most through rationally and moderation
The belief that the best life is one lived close to nature and away from the rules and regulations of society.
Principle of falsifiability
Popper's contention that for a theory to be considered scientific it must specify the observations that if made would refute the theory. To be considered scientific, a theory must make risky predictions. (See also Risky predictions.)
Formal cause
According to Aristotle, the form of a thing, partiful form of an object
Humanistic Psychology influences
Romanticism: Roussaeu and What makes us human?Existentialism: KierkegardPhenomenology: Husserl
Anxious or ambivalent attachment:
infant protests loudly when mother leaves, but resist contact with the mother during reunion.
These infants cry to be picked up and then demand to be put down.
They may behave as if they are angry with the mother and resist her efforts to comfort them.
Avoidant attachment:
infant does not care if mother leaves the room, lacks effort seeking contact from the mother when she returns. Treats the stranger the same as the mother.
scientific revolution
out with the old paradigm, in with the new
Radical empiricism 
There is no fixed external world to be discovered by one’s mind but instead a “humming-buzzing confusion” that one organizes through experience.  The universe, as well as one’s knowledge of it, is continuously evolving.  It is never complete, and it cannot be reduced to a single underlying substance.
At the very least, the mind of the observer will affect the outcome of any empirical approach to truth since, empirically, the mind and nature are inseparable. 

William James
3 Underlying Themes of the History of Psychology

 Nature and/or experience (genetics and/or environment)

Generalizations about human behavior vs. individual differences in human behavior (ex. Genetics, personality)

Categorizing human thought and behavior vs. understanding the holistic interaction between multiple factors that influence human thought and behavior
Aggressive personality:
Karen Horney
 a person who needs to move against people, expressing needs for power exploitation, prestige, admiration, and acheivement
Personality could change throughout life.
Positive regard:
Carl Rodgers
the unconditional love of a mother towards a child regardless of the child’s actions. 
Trial and Error Learning:

Edward Lee Thondike
learning based on repetition of response tendencies that lead to success.
Law of similarity
A thought of something will tend to cause thoughts of similar things.
Gestalt PsychologyThree main guiding ideas:
The principle of totalityThe principle of psychophysical isomorphismThe principle of Pragnanz
method of limits (aka method of jnd's)
ascending or descending stimulus intensity; subject reports when they perceieve stimulus
Walter Dill Scott
Contributions to Advertising: (4)

 He reasoned that consumers are not rational/logical decision makers

He said that emotion, sympathy, and sentimentality are all factors that increase consumer suggestibility

He recommended that companies use direct commands to sell their products

He suggested that companies issue coupons to consumers because they required consumers to take direct action. 
Characteristics of psychologically healthy or fully functioning persons (6)

An openness to, and a freshness of appreciation of all experience.

A tendency to live fully in the moment.

The ability to be guided by their instincts rather than by reason or the opinion of others.

A sense of freedom in thought and action.

A high degree of creativity.

The continual need to maximize one’s potential. 
Systematic desensitization (Mary Cover Jones, Joseph Wolpe)
gradual step by step process of decreasing the sensitivity of a patient’s thoughts to a feared object or experience
aristotles explanation of sensation
didn't think object sent copies to our senses, but motion of objects stimulated our senses. We could trust our senses.
old vs. new historypresentist vs. historicist
ps thinks everything was building to the current pinnacle of achievement and the others were stupid. hs think you have to understand achievements within their social context.
Two-factor Theory of Emotion -what (3)
A person physiologically reacts to a specific stimulus and this initial reaction leads to an interpretation of a corresponding emotion

Cognitive interpretation occurs after a physiological arousal

“I see a snake, this causes stress-related physiological changes in my body, then I feel afraid”
William James and Carl Lange
David Clarence McClelland
A person's need for power can be one of two types - personal and institutional. Those who need personal power want to direct others, and this need often is perceived as undesirable. Persons who need institutional power (also known as social power) want to organize the efforts of others to further the goals of the organization. Managers with a high need for institutional power tend to be more effective than those with a high need for personal power.
 “The Will to Believe” (or The Right to Believe): (3)
the adoption of beliefs as hypotheses and self-fulfilling prophecies even without prior evidence of their truth

  This doctrine allows one to assume a belief or concept and prove its existence by what the belief or concept brings to one’s life or society (Psychological construct?)

Justifying subjective beliefs such as in freewill and morality
William James
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