Ancient Egypt - Section Flashcards

Terms Definitions
cataracts
rapids
canopic jars
Kashta
Piankhi's father
hieroglyphics
Egyptian writing system
silt
rich fertile soil
Upper Egypt
southern ancient Egypt
Ma'at
the Feather of Truth
Afterlife
or life after death
dynasty
a family of rulers
engineering
the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes
The principle god of Memphis
Ptah
Akhenaten
-Had generic dissorders (longated hips, longated head, flaired hips)
Theocracy
Govt run by religious leaders
nome
original autonomous city-states along the Nile
Pharoah
A ruler of Ancient Egypt (king)
Piankhy
Conquered first upper, then lower Egypt
Old Kingdom
a.k.a. Age of the Pyramid
embalming
process developed by the ancient egyptians of preserving a persons bdody after death
embalm
to preserve a body after death
pyramid
mountainlike stone structure built as tombs for pharoahs
Papyrus
Material used to make baskets, sandals, boats
Two Lands
Another name for Unified Egypt
Natron
Chemical used in mummification; helps dry out the body for preservation
*Howard Carter
discovered King Tut's tomb in 1922
Modern Egypt
a republic in northeastern Africa known as the United Arab Republic until 1971
mummy
A body treated for burial with preservatives to keep it from decaying.
Delta
triangle-shaped area of land at the mouth of a river
Artisan
workers skilled at crafting items by hand
How many Children did Hatsepshut have?
4 girls..
temple
a secret place whre praying, and giving to the gods took place.
patronage
the act of providing approval and support
isthmus
narrow strip of land connecting two larger masses of land
pharaoh
the ruler of an ancient Egyptian kingdom
trade network
System of people who traded goods
What is the major city of Sumer?
Ur
Menes
ruler who united Upper and Lower Egypt around 3000 B.C.E.
King Menes/Narmer
probably the same person; unified the two halves of Egypt (upper and lower Egypt); wore a double crown
Step pyramid
First pyramid to be built in Egypt
kemet
egyptian name for the dark soil left by the nile flooding
mastabas
an ancient egyptian tomb made of mud, brick, rectangular in plain with slopping sides and a flat roof
cartouche
an oval or oblong figure (as on ancient Egyptian monuments) enclosing the pharaoh name.
Memphis
The early capital of Egypt that King Menes decided upon
Hatshepsut
ruled as regent for son Thutmose 111 and as a pharaoh; pictured with a beard
Rosetta stone
an inscribed stone found near Rosetta on the western mouth of the Nile in 1799
regent
someone who rules for a child until the child is old enough to rule
RAMSES THE GREAT
ruled 64 years-temples at Abu Simbel
Pyramids
built on the west side of the nile
Ammit
Pagan god which is part hippo part alligator and part lion; eats the soul (heart) of those who fail the weighing of the heart ceremony
How did physicians make diagnoses?
Clinical examination: interrogations, inspection, palpation

Used empirical knowledge, consulted papyri.

Some ailments were listed as incurable, so there would be no attempt at treatment.
Hatshesput
Who ruled from about 1473 B.C. - 1458 B.C. she was Egypt's first female pharaoh she built the great temple at Dayr al-Bahri?
pupyrus
a tall tree reed that grows in the nile river.the pith was used to make paper. Represents lower egypt
Barge
a alrge and strong boat built to carry material
Book of the Dead
Collection of religious spells which were thought to be helpful to the deceased in the afterlife.
Obelisk
a tall, four sided stone that rises to a point and is associated with the sun. They are usually found in pairs outside of temples
land ownership and management
The Pharaoh was god-incarnate and therefore owned all the land. So technically all the people were serfs of the land.
Napata
The new capitol of Kush made after the Kushites fled Kerma; located on the Nile River, in northern Sudan in Africa
what is cataract?
a steep, rocky rapids on the river
During the Old Kingdom Egypt grew and prospered
Old Kingdom Rulers
ankh
a T shaped cross with a loop at the topused for a symbol of enternal life
Nile River Valley
the area of land surrounding the Nile River
What are the three seasons?
The Inundation, Emergence, and Drought seasons.
King Tutankhamen (Tut)
Known as the boy king because he ruled for 9 years and died before his 20th birthday
The Nile River
A long river that would flood and help grow crops. It flows south to north which is unusual.
Bes:god of Family & health
-protected the home & God of family and family life
-favored by pregnant women
-image painted on furniture, etc.
What would happen if some one were to do something that the Book of the Dead said you cannot do?
Sent to the fiery pits.
give 4 examples of why "all Egypt is a gift of the Nile"
mud bricks for building, transportation, fertile soil, water, allowed settlements to grow
what is bitumen and what is it used for
its a tar like substance that had currative powers
chamber
a room
unify
join or combine
vizier
high government official
Ka
double of the person
cartouch
an egyptian name plate
number system based on
10
method
a way of doing something
Cat
Holy animal to all Egyptians.
scroll
A long roll of paper
omnipresent
being present everywhere at once
Imhotep
step pyramid was built by________
anubis
god who judges the soul
hieroglyphs
pictures and other written symbols that stand for ideas, things, or sounds
Nubia
This country, located between Egypt and Central Africa, was a center for trade
dream stela
found between paws of sphinx
Mummies
Specially treaated bodies wrapped in cloth
queen shanakhdakheto
first women to rule Kush
king zoser
step pyramid built for __________
Horus
sky god. son of Osiris and Isis.
Thebes
Capital was moved here from Memphis; here they restored order and stability, ushering in a new period called the Middle Kingdom
Tutankhamen
Pharaoh of Egypt around 1358 BC, youngest pharoh, restored old gods, died at an early age and his tomb was discovered by Howard Carter
Assyrians
known as a warrior people who ruthlessly conquered neighboring countries; their empire stretched from east to north of the Tigris River all the way to centeral Egypt; used ladders, weapons like iron-tipped spears, daggers and swords, tunnels, and fearful military tactics to gain strength in their empire
Where is the Nile River is located?
Egypt
Lower Egypt
the northern part of ancient Egypt
scribes and craftspeople
scribes wrote and craftspeople produced goods
Egypt
an ancient cicilization along the Nile River
economy
the way a countries people manage money and resources for the production of goods and services
Which Direction does the Nile river flow?
North
Pyramid build for Khufu at Giza
Great Pyramid
Had square bases
Pyramids and why they were built
astronomer
a scientist who studies the stars & other objects in the sky
Sahara Desert
The largest desert in the world, covering most of northern Africa
civilisation
a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)
What greatly influenced the lives of egyptians peasants?
Planting seasons
Isis
goddess who was wife of Osiris and known for her wisdom
Jean Francois Chapollion
The Frenchman who translated the Rosetta Stone
Menes (Narmer)
Pharaoh who created Upper and Lower Egypt in 3100 B.C.
sanctuary
small, dark room with statue of the god, only the priest is allowed in
Pharoaoh
He was the most powerful in Ancient egypt. The politcal and religous leader. Holding the titles Lord of 2 lands and High Priest of Every temple.
solar
relating to the sun, measured by the earths course around the sun
empire
group of lands and people ruled by one government
Amon
god of wind joined with re to become king god amon re
Scribe School
studied for 12 years; started at age 5; school run by priests
When did Cleopatra die?
She died before the Egypt empire coould fall.
On the Nile to the South.
Where were there dangerous rapids?
Scarab Beetle
A dung beetle. Lays its eggs in animal dung then forms the dung into a ball and rolls it around with its pinchers until the eggs hatch. Because the eggs seemed to hatch out of nothing the Egyptians used the beetle as a symbol of regeneration and new life (Sun god Ra). It was often used as a protective amulet for good luck.
Why were projects constructed when they were?
peasants were not working the land
what is mummification?
the act of preserving the body for the afterlife
what did the invaders of the second intermediate period bring to egypt
horse chariot bronze compound bow
Egyptian creation story -- Osiris and Isis
Osiris' brother Seth murders him and scatters his body throughout the land. His wife, Isis, collects the pieces and gives him a proper burial. The gods are pleased so they grant Osiris back to life a immortality, making him the god of the underworld.
Why was Ancient Egypt called a "gift of the Nile"?
The Nile provided water which enabled life to flourish in a desert; civilization was possible
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