Human Anatomy 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
large intestine
Nucleus divides
Transmembrane Protein
physical break down
synarthrotic joint, immoveable
Stratified Cuboidal
-Glandular Epithelium
point of shoulder
towards the center
(on top of dermis)
FLEX hip, EXTEND leg/knee
-formed by tubulin-structural component of centrioles (cell division) and cilia (motility)
divides thoracic from abdominopelvic
Ceruminous glands
modified apocrine glands
occur in association with hair folicles or solo
ducts open into the external ear canal
produce cerumen, a brown waxy substance
protects ear canal from dehydration, microbial infection and invasion of small animals
homeostasis is maintained by
feedback loops
Humerus: anatomical neck
inferior to head
Why don't RBC's divide?
No nucleus
fluid-filled sacs to reduce friction
Cardiac Muscle
-striated-multiple perpipheral nucleus-branches-intercalculated discs
tissue has no blood supply
This type of contraction under isotonic contraction shortens the muscle and is the optimal way to increase strength.
Longest muscle in body-flexion of hip/knee
Coracoclavicular Ligament
connects coracoid process and clavicle
Inorganic Compounds
Do NOT contain Carbon (nonliving)
Lumbar Vertebrae
Large body, flat-quadrangular shaped spinous process
Positive feedback
creates something ex. blood clot
Intercalated discs
cardiac muscle.provide electrical adn mechanical coupling.
perfectly organized actin and myocin filaments
once an osteogenic (progenator) cell is differentiated into a particular bone cell it is called an
All macromolecules form by dehydration synthesis (anabolic) 
Come apart by hydrolysis (catabolic)

What are bundles of skeletal muscle fibers called?
fibrocartilage pads found in the knee joint. They provide lateral stability and cushion the joint by conforming to the shape of the femur and tibia.
synergistic muscles
similar functions; quads and calf muscles
Number of chromosomes a person has (46)
What separates the two atria?
The interatrial septum.
Rare type of epithelium tissue
STratified columnar epithelium
medullary cavity
The structure within the diaphysis that is the site of yellow bone marrow.
general term for a muscle which extend a joint
Dence Fibrous tissue (regular)
Fibers run parallel
Resist two dimensional stress
Collagenous type anchors muscle to bone (tendons) and bone to bone (ligaments)
Ligaments have more elastic fibers in them.
Reticular Tissue
Net or web like branching pattern
framework for filtering tissues 
-lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow
Medullary cavity
yellow adipose with blood vessels. Yellow bone marrow
smooth muscle
not voluntary, no striations (no black lines)
Z Discs
These are the "bookends" of a sarcomere that anchor to proteins. Name it.
Four Types of Tissue
(CryingMEN): Connective Tissue (CT), Muscle, Epithelium, and Nervous
Sebaceous Glands
produce sebum, an oily substance which lubricates the hair shaft
Diarthrotic Joints: Pivot
-uniaxial rotation around a central axis-atlas and axis (dens), radioulnar
Pelvic Girdle: Os Coxae (hips)
Illium- superior, largest Ischium-posterior, inferior; sit onPubis/Pubic Bone-anterior, superior to ischium
Internal spread of depolarization
releases acH causes depolarization which travelsto the transverse tubule system. this leads to release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic retiuclum in a fraction of a second.
thick and straight like elastic band
Collagenous extracellular fibers
the cavity in which the yellow bone marrow or medullary cavity fit in is called the
Sweat or sudoriferous glands
Eccrine sweat gland 
Most common type found all over the body
secretory portion is located in subcutaneous tissue
Describe T-cells and B-cells.
Both fight infection;
T-cells - lumphocyte that interacts directly with antigen bearing particles and is responsible for cell mediated immunity; produced in thymus gland.
B0cells - lymphocyte that reactes against foreign substances in the body by producing and secreting antibodies; produced in liver
Mumps is the inflammation of what gland?
The parotid gland.
Function of Dermis
serves as an attachment for epidermis, contains dense network of blood vessels for diffusion or nutrients; sweatglands for temp regulation
Organ system : Lymphatic/ Immunity
Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, and lymphoid tissue
reflex arc
1. sensory neurons (afferent arm of reflex)2. Alpha motor neuorn (efferent arm of reflex)3. Gamma motor neuron (sesitivity of spindle)
What are the five purposes of bone?
MovementSupportBlood cell formationMineral storageProtection
Types of Cartilage - Hyaline
Clear, milky or shiny looking.
-Ends of bones, rings of trachea - reduce friction in joints
parts of the glottis
vocal folds (flaps), vocal ligament (stiffer part in the middle that is like a guitar string), and rima glottidis (opening of the vocal folds)- under vocal fold is when it becomes pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
M Line
This is the name for the center line that holds myosin together in a sarcomere. Name it.
CT proper: Adipose
-composed of fat cells -found all over the body
can turn into any cell (has not yet differentiated)
pleuripotent cell
Appendicular Skeleton
consists of the arms and legs, and the bones supporting their attachment
The pectoral girdle (scapula and clavicle) supports the arms
The pervic girdle (ox coxae) supports the legs
Blood vessels of kidney- from interlobar artery to peritubular capillaries
interlobar artery, arcuate artery, interlobar or cortical radiate artery, Afferent glomerular arteriole, glomerulus (1st capillary plexus), efferent glomerular arteriole (smaller than afferent glomerular arteriole), peritubular capillaries (second capillary plexus), venule, interlobar or cortical radiate vein
Define leukopenia and leukocytosis.
leukopenia- when white blood count # drops below 5,000/mm^3
leukocytosis- when your body has to many white blood cvells and exceeds 10,000/mm^3
Define peristalis. Which muscle contracts first-circular or longitudinal?
The mixing and moving of digestive material. Circular muscles contract first.
Pelvic Girdle: Acetabulum
a deep fossa for the head of the femur
carilage being turned into bone first occurs at the ___________ within the _________.
Primary ossification center within the diaphysis.
Describe arteries, veins, and capillaries.
arteries - carries blood and oxygen away from heart; very thick.
veins - carries blood and oxygen to the heart; thinner and have valves.
capillaries - in villi, carry digestive products to all parts of body; tiny.
What cells would have a lot of mitochondria?
Muscle cells and digestive cells
How does the hair stand up?
Arrector Pili Muscles- small bundle of smooth muscle attached to fibrous sheath and attach to papillary layer, paralleling the oblique angle of the hair. NOT found in facial, axillary, pubic, eyelash, eyebrow, nostril, and ear canal hairs
What are the 3 sections of the male urethra? Where is each located?
1. Prostatic urethra-travels through prostate gland
2. Membranous urethra-travels through muscle at base of abdominopelvic cavity
3. Penile (spongy) urethra-from urogenital diaphragm to tip of penis
What are the 3 intrinsic glands? What do they do?
There's an indefinite number of lingual, labial and buccal glands that secrete saliva.
What are perforating fibers? What is their function?
Thick collagen bundles that hold the periosteum to the compact bone at the center of a bone.
How do the ureters enter the bladder?
They connect the kidney to the bladder and enter obliquely.
This entrance serves to close off and prevent backflow of urine when the bladder is full.
Describe the 4 steps of the cardiac cycle.
1. All four chambers relaxed, AV valves open, ventricles filling
2. Atrial systole completes ventricular filling
3. Ventricles contract, AV valves close for the Semilunar valves to open, blood is ejected into arteries
4. Heart returns to initial state of relaxation and refills
What is a nephron? How many are there per kidney?
A nephron is the kidneys filtration unit, and there are generally 1.25 million per kidney.
Define puberty and describe in males and females.
puberty - stage of life during which a person's reproductive system starts to work.
-female - 8 to 11 yrs breasts develop, hips broader, hair growth
-male - 10 to 12 yrs voice deeper, hair growth, muscle stronger, skin thicker
Skeletal Muscle
Brachialis: Nerve
Thin fibers
stomach digests
proteins, lipids
chromosomes become condensed
"foramen or "meatus"
alpha motor neurons
towards attached base
skeletal muscle is located
Femur: head
proximal and medial
Pectoralis Minor: Nerve
medial pectoral
fibers and ground substance
function of small intestine
digestion, absorption
Bone Cells
osteocyte, osteoblast, osteoclast, chondrocytes/chondroblasts (ossification and calcification)
iron containing pigment; deliver oxygen
Ventral Body Cavity
Thoracic Cavity
Abdominopelvic Cavity
Muscle action
related to contraction...not relaxation.
Most bone growth occurs from
Ribosomes are in every cell
They can be attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or free floating in the cytoplasm
Made of rRNA and protein 
Two subunits
function in protein synthesis
epithelial tissue
outside or lining certain structures
This type of contraction under isotonic contraction lengthens contraction (i.e. - sitting slowly). Flexion will pull apart the muscle. Name it.
Hyoid Bone
-involves in swallowing-doesn't articulate to any other bone (only muscle and cartilage)-inferior to mandible
contractile proteins actin (thin) and myosin (thick) filaments
The Skull
Frontal, Temporal, Occipital (post inferior), Parietal (sup lateral), Zygomatic (cheek), Sphenoid (above temporal), Ethmoid (inf to nasal), Mandible (infereior), Maxilla (superior), Palatine, Nasal, Vomer (inf to ethmoid), Orbit, External auditory meatus, Mastoid process (inf to temporal bone), styloid process, foramen magnum (spinal cord meets brain stem)
Cytoplasmic Inclusions
secretory granules, hemogobin (carries O2), lipids droplets, pigments, lysosomes, peroisomes, vacuoles
back of head, base of skull
analyzes the internal structures of cells
attached to the sternum, clavicle, and mastoid process of the skull
Stratum granulosum
Where keratin and glycophospholipid production begins cells are breaking down, nuclei are breaking up
Wandering Cells
Macrophages, Mast cells, Lymphocytes, and Plasma cells
Thin Filaments
_________filaments are made up by these (3) proteins: actin, tropomyocin and troponin.
Intrascapular ligaments
while all the diarthrotic joints exhibit extrascapular ligaments, only the knee and hip joints exhibit ligaments that pass through the capsule. In the knee these are the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. They are called cruciate because they criss-cross each other.
CT: Cell Types
Fibroblast, fat cells, macrophages, plasma cells, mast cells
increase in mitotic activity (leads to cancer)
3 Phases of Interphase
G1, S, and G2
skin tone
strength and resiliency caused by ELASTIC and collagenous fibers of dermis
3 Parts of Deltoid Muscle
Anterior, Middle, Posterior
Pectoralis Minor: Action
depresses scapula, elevates ribs (3-5)
Cells are contractile, very different then other cells, excitable, cause body to move
Muscle tissue
lamellaefound where?purpose?
lamellae are the concentric rings that make up an osteon. They are made of collagen fibers and other minerals aligned in one direction for added strength.
remote, farther from any point of reference
Connective tissue
Defined by living cells in extracellular matrix
- The immune system
- The skeletal system
- Transport - blood
- Storage - adipose or fat 
- damage repair
- Binds structures together and forms frameworks

explain hypodermis
contains adipose or loose connective tissue. Contains Fatty layer and Fibrous layer (paper thin sheet of connective tissue between adipose cells.
smooth muscle is located
around intestines, eyes, reproductive structures, excretion
Ulna (distal end)
articules of radius ulnar notchhead: styloid process
Main Functions of the Cell Membrane
Permeability, Communication, Receptors, Compartmentalization of the cell
Periosteum (around bone)
protective covering composed of dense CT
synovial membrane
membrane which lines the joint cavity and produces a lubricating fluid
motor neuron
may innervate from 1-3 muscle fibers (extraoccular muscles) or as many as several hundred fo rlarge limb muscles.
epithelial tissue that is 2 laters thick, and lines the ducts of glands and some glands
Stratified cuboidal
situated in front of or toward the front of a body part or organ. Term also used in reference to ventral or belly surface of the body
Cancellous bone located
heads (epiphyses) of the long bone
interior layers of shafts of the long bones
flat bones
epiphyses of most short bones too
interior of pelvic bone 20%
Articular cartilage of long bone
composed of hyaline cartilage
What increases the surface area of the small intestines?
Slow Oxidative
These muscles are a group type of skeletal muscle fibers t.hat are the thinnest with least amount of myofibrils in it. They are endurance fibers (AKA - red fibers that have a lot of myoglobin that binds the oxygen). They engage slowly. Name them.
What does saliva do?
Moistens the mouth and mucous membranes, inhibits bacterial growth, lubricates and dissolves food, and begins carb digestion.
Flexor carpi ulnaris
flexion of wrist on ulnar side (pinky)
Pectoralis Major: Action
Medial rotate arm, adducts arm, flexes arm, extends arm
3 types of loss of muscle function
myasthenia graviscardiomyopathiesTMD
How many bones are their in the human body?
Types of Cartilaginous Joints
cartilaginous joints are party of synarthrosis joints not diarthrosis joints. (1) Synchondrosis- hyaline cartilage, found at growth plate between epiphysis and diaphysis of long bones. (2) Symphysis- found only in the medial line, absorb shock, intervertebral disk and pubic symphysis.
What is a nephron?
Functional unit of kideny, consisting of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule.
Axillary Nerve
O: C5-C8I: deltoid teres minor skin over deltoid
Cell Membrane: Fluid Mosaic Model
Arrangement theory for the cell membrane (i.e- lipid bilayer)
Name the two mechanisms that maintain homeostasis
-Negative feed back-Positive feedback
What causes the epiphyseal line?
the epphyseal plate where growth originates.
Neurons have
- a cell body or soma, which contains a nucleus
- dendrites which pick up the impulses and cause the axons to fire
- an axon, which transmits a signal down its length away from the cell body.
types of tissue of the heart
Epicardium (mesothelium with adipose connective tissue or loose connective tissue if there is no fat). Myocardium- bulk of heart, striated cardiac muscle with dense irregular connective tissue. Endocardium- endothelium with dense irregular tissue. Valves are endothelium as well.
sarcolemma / T / sarcoplasmic reticulum
Nerve stimulation from motor neuron must take place via ACH (acetylcholine) to be released from end of neuron to transmit action potential to the _________. Once the action potential is depolarized, it has to travel down the______tubule (which contacts the terminal cistern) or sarcoplasmic reticulum to open calcium channels in the ______________ (terminal cluster) that are in the cell membrane. The calcium is released (floods it) into the sarcoplasm.
Where are extrinsic salivary glands located?
Large organs located outside oral mucosa that communicate with the oral cavity by ducts.
Describe the 3 plasma proteins and their function.
1. Albumin-smallest, most abundant, viscous. Transports fatty acids and steroids, responsible for osmotic pressure, buffers blood pH.
2. Globulin-immune function. alpha-beta-gamma. They play a role in transporting solutes and clotting.
3. Fibrinogen-makes fibrin, which is the framework of blood clotting (a clot is non-soluble fibrin)
2 types of cells in nervous tissue
Neurons - carry the signal
Glial cells - support, feed and insulate the neurons

What is the function of larynx?
speech and opens airway for lungs
What are the specific transport-related functions of blood? What other functions does it have?
Blood carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues, and picks up carbone dioxide from the tissue, then carrying it to the lungs to be removed.
Other functions include picking up nutrients from the digestive tract to deliver to tissues, carries metabolic waste to the kidneys, transports stem cells from bone marrow, regulations ph&maintains heat, and creates antibodies to help destroy pathogens!
Physical properties of bone- tension, compression, ability to change
resist tension- due to collagen fibers (17,000 lbs/ resist compression- due to hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2]- up to 24,000 lbs/ Bone can change or remodel (1) in order to control [Ca+] in plasma and (2) to keep skeleton engineered for maximum effectiveness for mechanical use.
What are the 3 layers of the kidney from inner to outer?
1. Renal fascia-"anchoring system"
2. Adipose capsule-fat surrounding renal capsule
3. Renal capsule
What are the 4 regions of the stomach? Where are they located?
1. Cardia-next to cardiac sphincter
2. Fundus-above cardia
3. Body-main portion
4. Pylorus-next to pyloric sphincter
Compact (80%) & spongy bone location
All bones form with compact bone on the outside and cancellous bone on the inside
cancellous bone may be replaced by medullary cavity 
compact bone is located on the exterior surface of all bones and comprises the shafts of long bones as well.
What is the DCT? What does it do?
The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is the end of the renal tubule. It absorbs sodium, chloride, calcium, and water. It also secretes potassium and hydrogen.
What is the 'lub-dub' of the heart?
Lub is the closing of AV valves.
Dub is the closing of Semilunar valves.
What are 3 things gall stones can do?
1. Cause jaundice by blocking flow of bile to the duodenum
2. Poor fat digestion
3. Impaired absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
What is the name of the muscle that funnels urine into the urethra?
The trigone muscle, also the floor of the bladder.
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