Human Anatomy and Physiology 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Renal Corpuscle
Collection of protein filaments and cylinders that:
1. Determine the shape of the cell
2. Lend it structural support
3. Organize its contents
4. Move substances through the cell
5. Contribute to movements of the cell as a whole.
Like skeleton
Delta Cells
Produce Somatostatin
Eventually makes Chromosomes
White blood cell
Segmental Arteries
Enter the Kidneys
cushions bones to joints
part of MALT
peyer's patches
Topics of Physiology
Integumentary System (Skin)
Nervous System
Skeletal System
Endocrine System
Muscular System
Cardiovascular System
Lymphatic System
Urinary System
Respiratory System
Digestive System
Reproductive System
Topics of Physiology
11 Topics
Away from the trunk
The study of tumors
Produce Glucagon: Raise glucose levels
produce a hard, calcium-rich extracellular matrix
liquid portion of the blood
phospholipids with attached sugar groups, found only on the outer plasma membrane surface and account for about 5% of the total membrane lipid.
3 Components of Homesostasis
Control Center
responsible for tissue deterioration after death
Interlobar Veins
Travel down the renal columns
Male sex hormone, causes secondary male sexual characteristics, masculine features, regulates spermatogenesis, secreted out of latex cells
returns the limb to anatomical position Biceps(flexor) triceps (extensor)
supplies the lower limbs
external iliac artery
Serous layer covering the heart muscle
erectile tissue in the male
corpora cavernosa
t/f: the entire responsiblity for urine formation lies w/ the nephron
Large particles, macromolecules, and fluids are transported across plasma and intracellular membranes by this process.
Vesicular Transport
Large particles, macromolecules, and fluids are transported across plasma and intracellular membranes by this process.
Energized by ATP.
Macromolecules are too large to transport across by themselves.
Membranous sacs containing a variety of powerful enzymes, the most important of which are oxidases and catalases.
Moving substances across the plasma membrane into the cell from the extracellular environment.
Moving substances across the plasma membrane into the cell from the extracellular environment.
"within the cell"
Nucleoplasm Includes:
Chromatin and Nucleoli
Nucleoplasm Includes:
Contains everything within the nucleus.
All chemical reactions that release energy from food require this.
Unequal right and left halves
Sagittal Plane
Includes the activities promoted by the muscular system, such as propelling ourselves from one place to another by running or swimming, and manipulating the external environment with our nimble fingers.
The breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.
Energy that travels in waves
Radiant Energy
Energy that travels in waves
Used to expel heat from the body.
Copy information into a complementary sequence of codons.
Right/Left Renal Arteries
Carry Blood to the kidney
Capsular Space
Space in-between the Bowman's Capsule and Glomerulus
Gonadotropic Releasing Hormones (GnRH)
Stimulates release of FSH
bean shaped organ located just above the waste behind the peritoneum on the posterior wall of abdominal cavity
Located in the male scrotum, release sperm
includes the skull, vertebrae, ribs, and sternum
Axial skeleton
Central nernous system
includes brain and spinal cord
The functional unit of the nervous system is the
Protein capable of changing shape and color in the presence of O2
t/f: Aldosterone is a hormone that causes the renal tubules to reclaim sodium ions form the filtrate
t/f: the functions of the nasal conchae are to enhance the air turbulence in the cavity and to increase the mucosal surface area exposed to the air.
isolated clusters of lymph follicles found in the wall of these small intestine
peyers patches
t/f: failure to attain erection is called impotence
T/F: Lymph transport depends on teh movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.
t/f: the terminal portion of the urinary system is the urethra
Provides the means for the control center's response.
Provides the means for the control center's response.
Organs that affect the change.
Powerhouse of cell, providing most of the ATP supply. They are rod or bean-shaped membranous organelles.
Enclosed by 2 membranes.
Uses Aerobic Respiration. (Get 15% more when Oxygen in converted in the mitochondria)
Contains mitochondrial DNA which is used to replicate mitochondria.
We are able to provide more factories for energy if needed
Composed of about 30% DNA, 60% Globular Histone Proteins, and 10%RNA chains.
What concerns the function of the body, how the body parts work and carry out their life sustaining activities?
Golgi Complex
1. Small System of cisternae
2. Principle traffic director for cellular proteins.
3. Synthesize carbohydrates and finish protein and glycoprotein synthses.
4. Products include: lysosomes, portions of the plasma membrane, or secretory vesicles.
5. "Splice, Dice, and Slice" proteins, and package them into secretory vesicles (or sometimes called golgi vesicles)
Golgi Complex
Found in both plant and animal cells.
Shaped like five to eight deflated baloons.
Traffic director of the cell.
A chemical agent or radiation that produces cancer
Benign Tumor
A neoplasm that does not metastasize
The distribution of two sets of chromosomes into two separate nuclei. The process results in the exact partitioning of genetic information.
Renal Hilus
Located near the center concavity of the kidney sitewhere ureter leaves and blood vessels enter
2 Main sections of urine formation
Renal corpsuscleRenal Tubule
Collecting Duct
Common site for multiple nephrons to connect, runs through the Renal Pyramids
Pineal Gland
Located in the center of the brain
Homeostatic Regulation
1. Composition and Volume of Blood2. Blood Pressure3. Ionic Composition4. Glucose Levels5. Excretes Waste and Foreign Material
The__ is located below and behind the cerebrum, and is responsible for muscular cordination and balance
are also found in plasma and are pieces of cells that are important in blood clotting
Sound coming into the inner ear moves the fluid that causes the __, to transduce this movement in to signals or action potentials
The fertilized egg egg travels to the uterus, the __, and the remains here for the rest of its development
the embryo is directly enclosed in and protected by the amnion
the source of blood carried to capillaries in the myocardium would be the __________
coronary arteries
the respiratory membrane is composed of fused basement membrane of the capillary walls and ___________./
type I cells
t/f: The position of the kdneys behind the peritoneal lining of hte abdominal cavity is described by the term "retroperitoneal"
Equal right and left halves
Median or Midsagittal Plane
The diffusion of a solvent, such as water, through a selectively permeable membrane
Body structure is studied system by system.
Systemic Anatomy
3 Major Elements of Cytoplasm
1. Cytosol
2. Cytoplasmic Organelles
3. Inclusions
Chemical Reactions need this to continue at life sustaining rates.
Normal Body Tempature
total number of genes in your body (approx. 30K)
What are cells?
living structural and functional units enclosed by a membrane
Increase in the size of cells without cell division
The phases of Mitosis are:
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Contain phosphorus and take up 75% of the membrane lipids
Oxytocin (OXY)
Allows release of milk from breast and stimulates uterine contractions (labor onset)
an impulse is generated when the __ of a neuron are stimulated by the environment of another nueron
the umbilical arteries carry ________
waste products to the placenta
presbyopia is what?
-The loss of elasticity of the lens.-aka "old person's vision" b/c it happens in people over 50. it is NOT the unequal curvature of refracting surfaces.
The pulse pressure is _________
systolic pressure minus diastolic prssure
Significance of concentration in relation to chemical reactions.
Chemical reactions progress most rapidly when the reacting particles are present in high numbers, because the chance of successful collisions is greater. As the concentration of the reactants declines, chemical equilibrium eventually occurs unless additional reactants are added or products are removed from the reaction site.
Significance of concentration in relation to chemical reactions.
Higher number of molecules, the faster they will collide.
Force that air exerts on the surface of the body.
Atmospheric Pressure
Surrounded by the ribs and muscles of the chest.
Thoracic Cavitiy
Surrounded by the ribs and muscles of the chest.
Subdivision of Ventral Body Cavity
Process by which the cell provides the metabolic energy (ATP) needed to move substances across the membrane.
Active Process
Process by which the cell provides the metabolic energy (ATP) needed to move substances across the membrane.
Energy is Required
A decrease in the size of cells, with a subsequent decrease in the size of the affected tissue or organ; wasting away.
Ascending Limb og Henle
Coiled tube attached to ascending limb of Henle, opens into collecting ducts
There are three types of neurons
sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons
it is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) untill after _________
they undergo capacitation
Cells Divide When:
They grow large enough to have enough cytoplasm to distribute their own 2 daughter cells.

They have replicated their DNA so they can give each daughter cell a duplicate set of genes.

They receive adequate supply of nutrients.

They are stimulated by growth factors.

Neighboring cells die, leaving space in the tissue to be occupied.
Cells Divide When:
Cells cannot die without having enough DNA to replicate.

Growth Factors (major contributor) helps us to continue to grow taller and bigger from birth to mid twenties.
Process in which a cell uses the bond energy (ATP) to move solutes across the membrane.
Active Process
Rules of Reactions
All reactions are theoretically reversible.
At equilibrium the rates of two opposing reactions are in balance.

Anabolism ↔ Catabolism

Being out of Equilibrium can cause problems.
Rules of Reactions
Technically can be done, but will be difficult.

S Phase (Synthesis Phase)
Cell makes duplicate copies of its centrioles and all of its DNA. Often referred to as DNA replication.
S Phase (Synthesis Phase)
Allows 2 sets to be available to each daughter cell.

Without this phase, cell will not properly divide, and eventually will die.
A wart. If it's on the foot, it is called "Plantaris". If it's on the hand, it is called "Palmaris".
Sexual reproduction involes the fusion of two __ to form a __.
Gamete(sperm and egg), zygote (union of sperm and egg)
name parts of the proliferative phase of hte female menstrual cycle.
vesicular follicle growth, development of endometrial cells, and late in this phase, cervical mucus becomes thin and crystalline.
G₁ Phase (First Gap Phase)
Cell spends most of its functional life in this phase.

Cell synthesizes proteins, grows and carries out its preordained tasks for the body.

Cells accumulate the materials needed to replicate their DNA in the next phase.

Stimuli trigger cell division event.
Substances composed of two or more components physically intermixed.
Substances composed of two or more components physically intermixed.
Physically mixed, not chemically mixed. (Sand and Water)
No Chemical Reaction needed to separate, and not chemically bonded.
Secretory Vesicles that include Lysosomes
Migrate to plasma membrane and others become stored for later use. (Breast milk, etc.)
these two organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems?
the lungs and the kidneys
Transport is driven indirectly by energy stored in ionic gradients created by the operation of the active transport pumps.
Secondary Active Transport
Transport is driven indirectly by energy stored in ionic gradients created by the operation of the active transport pumps.
When Na⁺ is pumped, other substances get dragged along with it.
The antomy of the ear can be divided into three regions
outer, middle, and inner ear
failure of the foramen ovale to close at birth may result in _________.
mixing of oxygenated an nonoxygenated blood.
2 major phases of the life cycle of a cell
Interphase and Cell Division
sperm move to the uterine tube through uterine contractions and the energy of their own flagella. what other factor is involved in sperm movement?
reverse peristalsis of the uterus and uterine tubes
Occurs when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules.

AB → A + B
Decomposition (AKA Catabolic)
Occurs when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules.

AB → A + B
Break large bonds to form small ones.
t/f: the ureter transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
true.yes and it does have a sort of peristaltic motion or squeezing action.
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