Ancient Greece 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
colony
settlement
polis
city-state
agora
outdoor marketplace
Helots
Conquered peoples/slaves
Aristocracy
Upper-class rules
Hippocrates
Father of Medicine
philosophy
love of wisdom
Socrates
ancient Athenian philosopher
plague
a widespread disease
9.tryant
9.a controller by force
25,000
Free population of Sparta
Where was central Greece?
Boeotia
Aristotle
classification of plants/animals. Scientific Method
olive oil
exports are ______
Pericles
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
barbarian
a wild and uncivilized person
Marathon
The battle in persian war.
Aegospotami
destroyed athenians fleet on Hellespont(405bc), athens besieged and surrendered next year, athenian empire dissolved, ended great war
Phalanx
formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears; group of men packed together (for attack or defense)
Greek Myths
The Greeks developed myths (traditional stories about Greek gods) to understand the mysteries of nature, life, and power. These Greek gods had human characteristics, like love, hate, and jealousy, but they also lived forever, unlike humans. All city-states in Greece are named after Greek gods, like Athens (Goddess Athena)
Athena
The goddess of wisdom,combat, and weaving.
oarsmen
people who power ships by rowing
Troy
Major trading city in Asia minor
Aspacia
a well-educated woman who taught public speaking and influenced Plato.
Euclid
a highly regarded mathematician who taught in Alexandria
hermes
god of herds, messenger of gods
Crete
Greek Mediterranean Island, south of and equidistant from the Greek and Turkish main lands.
oligarchy
to rule by a few people
The Peloponnesian War started when _______ attacked Athens.
Sparta
Philosopher
A philosopher was a "thinker" of Ancient Greece. They produced some of the most remarkable and influential ideas to Western civilization today. They laid out the foundations for history, politics, political science, biology, and logic.
Athens
a city-state of ancient Greece that was a rival of Sparta
ostracism
in ancient Athens, the practice of forcing a person believed to be dangerous to leave the city state for ten years
Acropolis
Fortified hilltop in an ancient Greek city where citizens gather to discuss city government (Where Parthenon is)
Minoan
the name given to the great civilization of Crete; the word comes from the name of King Minos, a character of Greek legend who was remembered as having ruled in Crete before the Trojan War.
eratosthenes
astronomer; came up with longitude and latitude; and calculated the earth's circumference
doric
boring, simple and plain like column styles
Knossos
capital of Crete; home of King Minos
Salamis
naval battle where the Greek forces defeated the Persians, shortly after the battle at Thermopylae
Citizens
People who had the right to participate in government, persons meeting the requirements of a given society to allow them to have certain rights
tragedy
serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war, or betrayal
military
of or relating to characteristic or army,war and arms
Infantry
an army unit consisting of soldiers who fight on foot
Alexander
son of king Phillip; great conquerer, greatest king of Greece. conquered much of asia, died at 33
Herodotus
historian that wrote History of the Persian Wars; considered first real history
Sparta
Greek city state that believed in military power
citizen
a person with certain rights and responsibities in his or her country or community
sophist who argued that justice is simply the best interest of the strongest
Thrasymachus
Alexandria
City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization.
classical
a style of art and thought emphasizing order and simplicity
Sophocles
one of the great tragedians of ancient Greece he wrote about 100 plays including Oedipus The King and Antigone
monarchy
a system in government when kings rule over a group of people
peninsula
an area of land nearly surrounded by water.
Empire
a group of countries ruled by one person or one government
Minotaur
half man, half bull that ate the sacrifices from Athens; eventually killed by Theseus
dark age
1200-750 B.C.E most people were very poor. no big constructions.no more art. people forgot to read and write. famine. minoan's were destroyed wide spread collapse, no trade, economy collapsed. myceneans ended.
Hellenistic Era
period when the Greek language and Greek ideas spread to the non-Greek peoples of southwest Asia
Greek gods
Zeus, king of gods
Hera, queen of gods
Poseidon, god of the sea
Hades, god of the underworld
democracy
a type of government in which people rule themselves
Alexander the Great
tutored by Aristotle rebellion and thieves is caused by Alexander in 335 BC
shows his power and cruelty to rebellion
334 BC he invades Persia
quick victory
Peloponnesian Wars
Series of wars between Athens and Sparta
tribute
payment made by a less powerful state or nation to a more powerful one
Tyrant
a single person who see's his power by force
What was the race of armour called by the Greeks?
hopiltodromos
drama
a type of literary work, such as a play, that tells a story and is written to be performed by actors
blockade
the cutting off of an area by enemy forces that closes it to travel and trade
When was the height of the Minoan civilization?
1750 BC-1500BC
wet and windy
in the winter the climate is _____
mythology, religion, Olympics, language
What did Greek city-states have in common?
democratic process in ancient Athens
voting happened at the marketplace, they would round up people who were there shopping to come vote if they didn't have enough voters, anyone could give a speech before voting took place to help persuade voters
Women In Sparta
Mothers and wifes, marred in youth and cooked and clean and look care of kids
Paul's sermon on Mars Hill
he 1st noticed the wide spread idolatry, he told them there was only one true God and he is the creator of the heaven and the earth, some people mocked but some believed and followed
The kings lost power because the aristocrats wanted more power and eventually overthrew them.
How did the kings loose power?
How are Plato's and Aristotle's views on government and how knowlege should be gained simmilar and different.
Plato thought that the middle class should rule in democracy. Aristotle wanted a government that had Democracy and Monarchy. Plato wanted people to be tought by philosophers while Aristotle wanted people to research for knowlege.
Difference between Men and Women in Athens
Women spent their days at home while men were at the agora shopping.
reason
logical thinking
old market woman
Plato
ancient Athenian philosopher
Piraeus
port of Athens
Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
nymph
a beautiful nature spirit
Sappho
writer of lyric poetry
Loyalty
characterized by or showing faithfulness to commitments, vows, allegiance, obligations, etc.:
Aphrodite
goddess of love and beauty
Aeshylus
Greek playwright that composed "Orestia"
Balkan Peninsula
Greece is located here
Pisistratus
Athenian Tyrant, supported athletic contest
Darius I
leader of persians at marathon
Seleucus
Alexander the Great's general who inherited the Persian empire
Darius
Persian King when Persian Wars began
Peloponnesian War
between Sparta and Athens
elephant and whale, Persians helped Sparta win
Euthyna
Accountability for people in office, before and after holding the office
Teamwork
collaborative efforts of people to accomplish common objectives
Four Greek model of power
Egalitarianism(Sparta), Democracy(Athens), Skepticism(Socrates), Tyranny(Plato)
Hydra
(Greek mythology) monster with nine heads
Apella
an assembly of all male citizens
mycenaean civilization
mainland greeks during the bronze age
phalanxes
rows of soldiers standing shoulder to shoulder; Macedonian army
Minoans
lived on Crete, also dominated trade in the eastern Mediterranean from about 2000 B.C.-1400 B.C.
THUCYDIDES
ROTE ABT PELOPINESIAN WAR,NO MYTH- AIM WAS 2 TELL WAT HAPPEND
Minos
mythology states he had a labyrinth, legendary king of Crete
Hoplites
700 BC military system, heavily armed infantry soldiers or foot soldiers
Homer
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
Hoplite
citizen soldiers and they could afford all goods.
Hellinistic
describing the greek culture after the death of Alexander the Great
Dorian
Greeks appear to have temporarily lost the art of writing during the ___ Age
satrapies
the 20 states into which Darius divided the Persian Empire
aristocrates
a member of the powerful ruling class
greeks used ________ art such as architecture and sculpture
visual
Athens exported products
olives, olive oil, silver, wine, pottery
Xerxes
son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C.
Assembly
male citizens had the power to make and pass laws
oral traditions
stories passed down by word of mouth
Demagogues
A popular leader who obtains power by means of impassioned appeals to the emotions.
Olympic Games
Each polis competed in these, which brought peace to Greece and respect to the winners
Hades
(religion)the god of the world of the dead
What type of democracy did Athens have?
Direct Democracy
tyranny
form of government in which one person rules and keeps power through force
Age 20
At what age could Spartan Warriors look for a wife?
Gymnasium
A place to exercise the body and mind
slavery
condition of being owned y, and forced to work for, someone else
Hellenic Culture
the specific artifacts of the ancients as well as the ideas and ideals of democracy, beauty and balance.
Athenians
PEOPLE: A group of people living in a Greek city-state that beleived those should only serve in the army when needed, and thought that all should be able to apart of the governement, which lead this city-state to a democracy.
Philip of Macedonia
king of Macedonia and father of Alexander the Great, transforms a "backward" Macedonia into a powerful kingdom, takes advantage of weakened Greek city states and conquers the northern Aegean; becomes first to unify the Greek city states under one empire
Persian Wars
a series of wars between Persia and Greece
Legacy of Ancient Greece
Drama (comedy and tragedy) Art. Architecture. Philosophy. Democracy (limited and direct). Olympics. Literature (Odyssey and Iliad). Spreading their way of thinking
What are city-states?
a separate independent state with its own traditions, and its own form of government and laws
An aristocracy was not the rule of the best but rather the rule of the..?
important politician
city state or polis
two of the greatest greek city-states were athens and sparta
Describe Ancient Greek religion.
Greek were very religious people that were polythestic. Each city-state had a patron god./Greeks used myth to understand human passion and mysteries of the world.
Peloponnesian War began because
Athens began to abuse their power and take advantage of weaker city-states
From the Iliad and The Odyssey, Greeks learned
their history and their values
Why was it called the Golden Age
50 yrs. of Great leader under Pericles. Parthenon was built, city became cultural center of Hellenic world.
_______ are traditional stories that include gods and goddsses
A. legends B. myths C. fairy tales D. tall tales Answer: B. myths
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...
Slaves
nelot
Xenophon
famous historian
constitutional dictatorship
tyranny
Temple of Hera
Archaic
Hercules
Son of Zeus
servants of Sparta
Helots
Myceanae
a Greek war-like civilization
Writing
Clay tablets
Linear scrips A
Plunder
Valuables seized in wartime
olive trees
an export of Greece
Genos
Clans of Oikos in Athens
Turkey
country once called Asia Minor
Mycenae
center city of Mycenaean civilization
Peloponnesus
a hilly major peninsula in Greece
Mount Olympus
the highest mountain in Greece.
Zeno
founded Stoicism that taught happiness came from reason not emotion
Myron
one of history's greatest sculptors who lived in the golden age. sculped the famous figure the Discus Thrower (Sculptor)f
apeiron
Anaximander's idea that universe is limitless
Poseidon
god of the sea, navigation, horses
veto
a vote that blocks a decision
Aspasia
a well-educated woman who helped shape Athenian politics as an advisor to Pericles; turned Athens into cultural center of Greece
Bema
where the speaker would stand and speak
Legacy
something lasting left by someone who has died
tyrants
in ancient Greece, rulers who seized power by force but who ruled with the people's support; later came to refer to rulers who exercise brutal and oppressive power
What island is located in the Mediterranean, equidistant from the mainlands of Greece, Egypt, and Asia Minor, and was a flourishing sea power from 2500-1500 B.C.?
Crete.
Antigonus
___ became king of Macedonia after Alexander died
Oilgarchy
What type of government did the Spartans have?
Iliad
a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the siege of Troy
Arete
in early Greece, the qualities of excellence that a hero strives to win in a struggle of contest
Archimedes
applied principles of physics to make practical inventions;mastered the use of pulley and lever
an area of land almost entirely surrounded by water
peninsula
what happened during the golden age
art flourished
Olympics
games held every four years to honor Zeus
Direct Democracy
Government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials directly
The Republic
The best-known dialogue of Plato, in which Socrates is shown outlining an ideal state, ruled by philosopher-kings.
myth
story passed down about a god or hero
Democacy
a form of government in which the people govern themselves
oligarcy
a goverment ruled by a few powerful pepole
Solon and Cleisthenes
chose by ruling Athenian aristocrats as sole archon in 594 BCE and giving full power to make changes, reforminded aristocrat; created new Council of FIve Hundred
Trojan Horse
a gigantic hollow wooden horse, left by the Greeks upon their pretended abandonment of the siege of Troy
Result of Persian War
Greeks organized other Greek-city city states
F.J Turner
felt that the frontier thesis was the reason for Democracy
The Persian Wars
who: Persian vs. Greece (esp. Sparta and Athens)
what: Persia vowed revenge to destroy Athens after Ionian colonies rebelled
when: 490-479 B.C.
where: Greece
why: After Persia was defeated, Athens Golden Age began
Democritus
Many consider him to be the "father of modern science". His hypothesis on atoms is remarkably similar to modern science's understanding of atomic structure, atomic theory
relative location
location of a place using a cardinal direction and another place; examle: Greece is northeast of egypt
What are greece's lasting legacies?
Libraries, theature, columns, modern medicine, modern math, ect.
Mountains and Water
What divided groups of people into independent city-states
What was the greatest example of Greek unity against a common enemy?
against the Persians
the way of life of a group of people, including their customs, traditions, and values
culture
The Peloponnesian Wars began when
the Spartan Army attacked Athens because Sparta and other Greek city-states were jealous of Athen's wealth and power
In what ways can Greek mythology still be seen today?
•literature •art •monuments •politics •architecture
By the end of the 6th century most of the Greek city-states had cast off the rule of who?
kings and princes
What products from the Greek mainland were traded? What products did the Greeks get in exchange?
Olive oil, pottery, and wine from Greek mainland were traded. In exchange, the Greeks got grain, timber, and metal.(Outside world).
what started wars in greece, and what were they trying to claim?
the shortage of farmland started wars, they were trying to claim land
extensive
in detail
Pheidippides
ran marithin
Stoicism
what Zeno founded
revolt
to rise up against
Draco
1st king 621 BC
Greece
Located in ouhern Europe
Achaeans
early name for the Greeks
Aristophanes
wrote Lysistrata (women banding together to end the Peloponnesian war, funny)
Solon
started democracy in Ancient Greece
Helot
a farm laborer in ancient Sparta
Respect
behavior intended to please your parents
Labyrinth
extensive maze in which minotaur lived
Hector
The oldest child of King Priam
Leonidas
leader of the greek fprces at Thermopylae and king of sparta
4 aspects of a city-state
-small population
-small size
-meeting place
-setting on a hill
city-state
A city and its surrounding lands functioning as a independent political unit
Hellenistic
imitate Greeks; age of Alexander the Great; period when the Greek language and ideas were carried to the non-Greek world
aristocrat
members of a rich power family; miembros de una familia rica y poderosa.
frescoes
water color paintings done on wet plaster
harbor
sheltered place with deep water close to shore
What was the influence of Pisistratus?
helped farmers
Funeral Oration
pericles praises Athenian form of government and rights and duties of individual
Penisula
Landmass surrounded by water on 3 sides
Rome becomes a republic and a democracy begins in Athens.
509-508 b.c.
ephors
5 overseers; had the power to overrule the senate and assembly
Trading Greeks
allowed Greek ideas to spread, and learn from other cultures, they got their alphabet and began using coins for money.
Who were the olympic games ment to honor?
Zeus
Classical Civilization
A civilization that has a lasting influence over a vast number of people or society.
Greek unity
Greek unity crumbled after the Persian wars.
delian league
an alliance with other greek cities formed by athens
Himation
A piece of clothing that is thrown over left shoulder and wrapped around the body
Socratic method
used questions to help a person arrive at a conclusion
Triology
a set of three plays combine to be one
Rhodes
a Greek island lying east of Crete in Aegean Sea
persians and greeks
who is the battle of plataea between?
barbarians
A member of a tribe not belonging one of the great civilization.
grapes and olives
What were the two major crops of Ancient Greece?
9. Agora
- central area in Greek cities used as a marketplace and meeting place
Trojan War (1250 B.C.E) Involved? Outcome?
Involved: Achaeans, Trojans. Outcome: Greeks won, the city of Troy was destroyed.
479 BC - 431 BC
Years of the Golden Age of Athens
Epic poem
a long poem that tells the deeds of a great hero, such as the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer
Name the string of islands that form a chain between the Peloponnesus and the coast of Asia Minor
Crete, Rhodes, and Cyprus
Explain why ancient Greece should be considered a great civilization. Give an example from each of the five parts of civilization.
L--they had math and science A--they adapted to where they lived G--a very strong and organized government S--they specialized in trading R--they had many different religions and beliefs
Whar was the major reason for Sparta's victory over Athens?
Sparta was more of a land power and thens was more of a Sea power.
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