Human Geography Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
DisasterFamineAsylumWar
mobility
geography
"earth writing"
ECUMENE
permanently inhabited places
Cartography
The science of mapmaking
emigration
migration FROM a location
demography
study of human populations
place
the uniqueness of a location
What sets the prices?
The market
Fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomi­nation, or sect).
Lifeworld
taken-for-granted pattern and context for everyday living through which people conduct their lives
Esperanto
A constructed international auxiliary language incorporation aspects of numerous linguistic traditions to create a universal means of communication.
minerals
natural resources found in the ground
hearth
the node point where something originates
animism
believe plants and stones have spirits
economic base
community's collection of basic industries
Culture
Body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that together constitute the distinctive tradition of a group of people
scale
relationship between the portion of earth being studied and earth as a whole
religion
a specific system of belief, concerning divinity or the divine. Often involving ritual, a code of ethics, philosophy of life, various sociological and material aspects of culture.
Maps
a visual display of geographic information
green revolution
development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through technology, pesticides and fertilizers transferred from the developed world to developing world to alleviate problem of food supply in those regions of the globe
rights to state guarantees of socio-economic well-being, including employment, health care, pensions or family benefits
ethnicity
Racism
belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and racial differences produce inherent superiority of a particular race.
commercial farming
in developed countries. Nearly all farmers raise crops and livestock to sell in the market.
continent
A large land mass with easily recognizable borders
branch
large and fundamental division in a religion
language family
languages grouped into larger units. Indo-European Language Family = largest, most speakers. (English, German, Romance Languages).
agriculture
deliberate effort to modify a portion of earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance of economic gain
What does M.A.D. stand for?
Mutual Assured Destruction
Geographical imagination
The capacity to understand changing patterns, changing processes, and changing relationships among people, places, and regions.
remote sensing
acquisition of earths surface data from a satallite
federal state
an internal organizationof a state that allocated most powers to units of local governament.
cultural landscape
the visible expression of human activity
International Migration
(permanent) movement from one country to anotherType of migration
large-scale
a relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. large scale maps usually have higher resolution and cover much small regions than small scale maps
Economic activity involving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector.
secondary economic activity
sino-tibetan family
language area that spreads through most of SE Asia nad China, and is comprised of Chinese, Burmese, Tibetan, JApanese and Korean
Toponym
Place names given to certain features on the land such as settlements, terrain features, and streams.
Developing countries
Countries with a less productive economy and a lower quality of life.
Which continent has the greatest number of inhabitants?
North AmericaEuropeAsiaAfrica
command economy
production of goods and seervices is determined by a central government
racist
a person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism
population distribution
thing that describes how people are spread over an area
Examples of decolonlization:
US independence from Britain, 1776 (those revolting colonies!). Early 19th century revolts against Spain and Portugal in the Americas. Most other regions become independent after 1945. Indian sub-continent in 1947, India and Pakistan separate reflecting religious differences. SE Asian French territories given independence in 1954. Most of Africa decolonized after 1960. Political independence did not necessarily translate into economic independence.
colony
territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent
Characteristics of a nation
Shared history, language, and/or culture.
standardizations of legal practices and trade
criminal justice, environmental regulation, and civil rights
Contagious Diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout the population.
material transport
moving things, not people - commodity exchange, buying, selling, trading
commercial/market economy
free price and production systems – guided by profit motive.
underclass
ppl trapped in an unending cycle of economic and social problems
irredentism
the policy of a state wishing to incorporate within itself territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linguistic links with the country but that lies within a neighboring state
primary economic activities
involved with the harvest or extraction of raw materials; fishing, agriculture, ranching, mining
reference maps
maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame of reference, typically latitude and longitude.
Underground Railroad
a secret group of routes, safe places and people that helped enslaved people escape to freedom
sound shift
a slight change in a word across languages within a subfamily or through a language family from the present backward toward its origin
primary vs. secondary languages
primary= spoken most often, first language learned. secondary= learned in school, not 1st language learned, etc.
landlocked state
country that does not have a direct outlet to the sea
Ellen Churchill Semple
people can adjust to the environment and act according to cultural values that may not be rooted in the environment
pull factor
induces ppl to move into a new location
Nodes and Links
Nodes (point like entities) and Links (linear features that connect the nodes) – facilitate interaction – system of places and connections along which interaction is facilitated- nodes can be hierarchical – hierarchy of nodes within a network means that some nodes are more important than other nodes, they attract more interaction (ex, larger cities, LAX (airports))
dispersed rural settlements
farmers living on farms isolated from neighbors
doubling time
time it takes for a population to double; at a 3% growth rate, a population will double in less than 25 years!
Time distance decay
The declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source.
population density
average number of people who live in a measurable area
types of spatial behavior and interaction
movement of people, communication (movement of ideas, words, concepts, info), and commodity exchange
Carl Sauer's writings on agricultural dispersion
agricultural breakthroughs could only take place in certain geographical settings where natural food supplies were plentiful, terrain diversified, where soils rich and easy to till, where there was no need for large scale irrigation and drainage
What makes a cultural region?
The parts within have cultural commonalities
Four Major regions for Industry and manufacturing
Western Europe-birthplace of industrial revolution, UK, late 18th century shift towards mechanical manufacturing and industrial processing-Eastern Europe: Silesia (Czek/Slovak republic), Ukraine, various parts of Russia-North America: New england, mid atlantic, great lakes-East Asia: Japan, china
The Gods
The Mayas, the Aztec, and the Inca all belived in three important gods. the sun god, the moon goddess, and the maize god.
space-time budget
how far you could go in a period of time
space - time path
actual location of a person at certain times
Who is the leading producer of chicken and who to they sell most to?
US: Japan, China and Russia.
proportional symbols map
a thematic map in which the size of a chosen symbol-such as a circle or triangle-indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region
Why the four major regions popular in industry and manufacturing?
proximity for raw materials, proximity to markets, labor costs/ labor relations
ground truthing
interpreting isoline maps
periphery
underdeveloped w/specialized economies, low productivity
topological subway (network) maps
state
country; politically organized territory;---soverign government --- permanent resident population --- organized economy ---recognized by most of the world
Observation
interviews, participant observation, lab experiments, remote sensing
spanglish
combination of spanish and english
Symbolic Landscape
Times Square, Eiffel Tower
Public services
Government, employment (including public school employee)-16% of all US jobs
Skeptical
“globalization is nothing new – we have all been here before”
sovereignty
Quality of having supreme, independent authority over a territory. Freedom from outside control.
Fragmented State
Several discontinous piece of territory Ex. Indonesia
affect
(psychology of space and place). emotions, moods (aka hot or wet cognition).
Balkanized
After Balkanization has taken place. Ex: the Balkans
Diffusion
process by which a characteristic spreads across from one place to another over time
overpopulation
number of people and available resources
baby boom
(1945-1965) massive birth rate increase
*economy booming, GI Bill = soldiers buy homes, education
*technology increase, able to have more kids
*largest portion of population
pull
(+)something positive about the place to which you move
complementarity
the actual or potential relationship between two places usually referring to economic interactions
indo-european family
language fammily including Germanic and Romance languages that is spoken by 50% of the worlds people
movement to create political systems and associated social and economic structures based on Islamic Law
Jerusalem
nationalism
loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality, heritage represents ethnic identity reflects language, religion, rituals, dress, etc.
nation-state
a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
the number of people in an area
population
prorupted state
compact state with large projecting extension
Huff (potential) model
PI= (A1/DH-1^2)/ (SIGMA(A2/DH-2^2)) OR the probability of you shopping at center 1 is the attractiveness of place one divided by the distance between place 1 and your house (squared). all divided by the summation of each opponent place's attractiveness divided by their distance between their location and your house, with the distances squared.
renewable energy
resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.
Masculinism
assumption that world is, and should be, shaped by men for men
parallel
circle drawn around the globe parallel to equator at right angles
minisystem
society with single cultural base and reciprocal social economy -- specialization and freely giving leftober to to others who reciprocate
dialects
are variations in every day speech that are mutually comprehensible. Based on social class, regional isolation
subsistence economy
getting goods or services from oneself/family/friends – typically without currency or great accumulation of excess
Approx. World Population
6.89 billion. us census estimate
robinson projection
projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction but it minimized the errors in each
agribusiness
the set of economic and political relationships that organize food production for commercial purposes; includes activities ranging from seed production, to retailing, to consumption of agricultural products
Industrial Revolution
Originated in Northern England and spread, its the spread of the use of technology to make products better and faster. It made new social, economic and political inventions
evolved as reform religion of Hinduism about 500BC, Asia
Christianity
acculturation
the process of adopting the cultural traits or social patterns of another group.
migration
the movement of people to a new place
Thematic Maps
Maps of a specific theme tell stories
dialect chains
a set of contiguous dialects in which the dialects nearest to each other at any place in the chain are most closely related
individual activity space
the places/routes that a person travels on a typical day
structural adjustment
economic policies imposed on LDCs by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as reducing gov spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and eliminating governmental waste and corruption
Human Geography
The study of spatial organization of human activity and of people’s relationships with their environments.
arithmetic density
total number of objects in an area
hyperglobalist view
open markets and free trade will promote democracy and human rights, end nation-state and denationalization of economies, decrease national gov't influence and increase liberalism
Absolute Location
the identification of place by some precise and accepted system of coordinates. expresses location independent of others
Regional geography
Study of the ways unique combinations of environmental and human factors produce territories with distinctive landscapes and cultural attributes
contagious diffusion
the spread of disease, innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place
Genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention.
plant domestication
chloropleth map
uses colors or tonal shadings to represent categories of data for different geographic areas
activity spaces
The space within which daily activity occurs.
territory
Which of the following is NOT an example of a boundary?
unitary state
places power in the hands of central government
literal meaning of the word "geography"
greek word: Earth Writing
sanitary landfill
place to deposit solid wasate where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and discourage vermin
Later Important world empires
Southeast Asia, Muslim city-states of coastal North America, grasslands of West Africa, around gold and copper mines of East Africa, in feudal kingdoms and merchant towns of Europe
Branch (of a religion)
A large and fundamental division within a religion
toponymy
the place names of a region or the study of place names
choropleth map
a thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit of area
quinary economic activities
are generally considered a subset of quaternary activities and are those that involve high-level decision making and scientific research
Maize god
Maize means corn, so the maize god brought the people crops and a good harvest every year if the people did small things for the gods.
Vernacular or Perceptual region
Place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
ethnicity, language, and religion
core elements of culture. common way to defeat a culture: take away (suppress) language & religion. also: rebirth of language is a way to express, celebrate culture ( Hebrew).
birth rates falling because
women become more educated and active economically
Analysis scale
the size at which we measure and study features and processes, ex. Geographers use data from the US census, the census only prevents a variable at the lever of the census track (5000ppl)
suffrage
- is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right
section
(in most of the U.S. west of Ohio) one of the 36 numbered subdivisions, each one square mile (2.59 sq. km or 640 acres), of a township.
What comprises a geopolitical code?
Who are the current and potential allies?Who are the current and potential enemies?How can we maintain our allies?How can we counter our current enemies?
Most populated countries in the world
1. China – 1, 304 million2. India – 1, 104 million3. USA – 296 million4. Indonesia – 222 million5. Brazil – 184 million6. Pakistan – 162 million
Competition betweeen core states, original phase at the end of the 15th century...
Spain and Portugal divide up the world and Europeans take control of the Americas. Portugal gets Brazil: Spain gets the rest of North and South America. (Treaty of Tordesillas)
Briefly describe the Somali Pirates. Why has piracy made a comeback?What three people make up pirates.
2 major vessels and 100 smaller ones were held for ransom last year by Somali pirates. One major vessel was carrying oil from Saudi and the other was carrying russian battle tanks from Ukraine to Kenya.Piracy has made a comeback over the past 10 years because of 1) The collapse of the Somali national government caused no control over their territory of land or water. Local clan warlords and Ethiopian troops are trying to make peace, however the troops were recently evacuated, and It is a FAILED STATE and2) The collapse of the state has meant that foreign fisherman can come and illegally fish in Somali waters. This displace Somali fishermen, who turned to become pirates. ARGH! To be a pirate, you need a FISHERMAN who knows the water, MUSCLE to board this ships and hurt people and GEEKS to run the boat with GPS, satellite phones and modern vessels.
What does the World Trade Organization do?
Makes sure trade is fair and barriers are kept low.
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