Human Physiology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
XY
Male
T wave
Ventricular repolarization
spermitogensis
creation of sperm
Thyroid gland
contains Iodine!
Where is ADH produced?
Hypothalamus
Troponin
3 binding sites
-tropomyosin
-actin binding site
-Ca++
oogenisis
creation of the egg
Bacteria causing Ulcers
Heliobacter Pylori
3 filtration layers
Glomerular Capillay endothelium
Basement membrane
Epithelium of Bowman's capsule 
Overall transcellular process of reabsorption is active
TRUE
mineralocorticoids
aldosterone is main example
secreted by zona glomerulosa
regulate Na absorption and K secretion at kidney
 
Epiphysis
the end of long bones
Glycolytic Fibers
fatigue easily-relatively few mitochondria
relatively larger
fewer capillaries
sarcomere
functional contractile unit of skeletal muscle cell
Amylase is produced
in the pancreas
Adrenal Gland Cortex
Cortisol and aldosterone
Triglycerides (Fat/Lipid) become...
Free fatty acids
TSH
- thyroid stimulating hormone- anterior pituitary- stimulates thyroid gland to release thyroid hormone
tension
force exerted by contracting muscle
glycogen
a white, tasteless polysaccharide, (C6H10O5)n, molecularly similar to starch, constituting the principal carbohydrate storage material in animals and occurring chiefly in the liver, in muscle, and in fungi and yeasts.
where is transport maximum seen?
with glucose.
 
 
hormone
-secreted by cells called endocrine cells
-secreted into blood and carried to targets
-very low concentrations
-act by binding receptors
hormones associated with adrenal cortex
called adrenocorticoids
mineralocorticoids
Glucocorticoids
Pancreas
sits on spinal coloumn
endocrine and exocrine gland
b cells and a cells
b- insulin
a- glucagon
Energy from Protein in kCal/g
4 kCal/g
Bolus
Mushed up food in the mouth
Diabetes II
Insulin receptors not properly functioning
CRH
- corticotropin releasing hormone - anterior pituitary - stimulates secretion of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)
prolactin
- anterior pituitary- enhances breast development, milk production
dopamine (PIH)
- prolactin release inhibiting hormone- anterior pituitary- inhibits secretion of prolactin
sodium bicarbonate
a white, crystalline, water-soluble solid, in powder or granules, NaHCO3, usually prepared by the reaction of soda ash with carbon dioxide or obtained from the intermediate product of the Solvay process by purification: used chiefly in the manufacture of
diaphragm
a muscular, membranous or ligamentous wall separating two cavities or limiting a cavity.
pathogen
any disease-producing agent, esp. a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism.
pyrogen
a substance, as a thermostable bacterial toxin, that produces a rise in temperature in a human or animal.
fetus
(used chiefly of viviparous mammals) the young of an animal in the womb or egg, esp. in the later stages of development when the body structures are in the recognizable form of its kind, in humans after the end of the second month of gestation.
Filtration is influenced by?
Net filtration pressures
Filtration Coefficient 
proximal tubule
many mitochondria (provides many ATP)
tight junctions that are leaky 
Nonspecific Filtration
occurs when plasma flows through glomerular capillaries and the fluid passes into Bowman's space.
atrioventricular node
built in pause button
near tricuspid valve
conducts slowly
perkinje fibers
terminal fibers extending from bundle branches
contractile cell
-90 resting potential, lower than cell
plateau phase to ensure heart does not go to tetany
sodium channels open quickly
muscle shortening
contractile element- consists of the sarcomeres
-what actually produces the tension
Gastrin Hormone
Stimulates liver and pancreas to produce gastric juices
Glucagon is a response to _______ blood sugar
low
muscle twitch
mechanical response of muscle to single AP
tetanus
- repetitive AP's = muscle contraction maintained- unfused: overall increasing but up/down til get to top- fused: steadily increases til plateau at top
duodenum
the first portion of the small intestine, from the stomach to the jejunum.
renin
a proteolytic enzyme secreted by the kidneys that is involved in the release of angiotensin.
humoral immunity
immunity conferred to an individual through the activity of B cells and their progeny, which produce circulating antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance and recognize the substance upon renewed exposure.
estrogen
any of several major female sex hormones produced primarily by the ovarian follicles of female mammals, capable of inducing estrus, developing and maintaining secondary female sex characteristics, and preparing the uterus for the reception of a fertilized
How much Na is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule?
67%
Na in the renal tubule undergoes ____ absorption
Active
Are there any areas of the renal tubule that are impermeable to water?
YES
How many nephrons are there per kidney?
1 million
How does ADH regulate?
Stimulates insertion of aquaporins into apical membrane
Net Filtration Pressure
NFP= PGC-PiGC-PBS
*Typical NFP = 10 mmHg 
What is the Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation?
pH=6.1 + log [HCO3-]/[CO2]
how much Na is reabsorbed in Distal tubule and collecting ducts?
~8%
asynchronous recruitment
allows for different motor units to take turns maintaining muscle tension
Oxidative phosphorylation
in the presence of oxygen, glycogen and fatty acids can be processed completely through oxidative pathways
contracting muscles for an extended ammount of time.
Fiber Diameter
The greater the fibers cross sectional are, the more force can be generated
Early Pregnancy Tests detects
hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin detectable in blood and urine
How much liquid does the average person discharge in a day?
1-2 liters
What part of the testes are sperm produced?
Seminiferous
Hormones relating to digestion
Gastrin, Secretin, Intrinsic Factor, Cholecystokinin (Digestive Enzyme)
hormonal stimulation
- excites virtually all smooth muscle fibers- epinephrine, norepinephrine, oxytocin, histamine- binding of hormone can open membrane channels/activate intracellular 2nd messenger
muscle contraction
- caused by filaments sliding- myosin cross-bridges as ATPase- when ATP cleaved to ADP and Pi, myosin energized1. binding of cross bridge to binding site on actin2. release of ADP and Pi, allows power stroke (pulls toward M line)3. new ATP binds to cross-bridge, dissociates cross-bridge from actin (relaxation)4. myosin ATPase cleaves ATP, energizes myosin (cross bridge extends toward new site on actin)
vein
one of the system of branching vessels or tubes conveying blood from various parts of the body to the heart.
kidney
either of a pair of bean-shaped organs in the back part of the abdominal cavity that form and excrete urine, regulate fluid and electrolyte balance, and act as endocrine glands.
Filtration is....
movement of fluid from the blood to the lumen of tubule
A Drop in MAP will activate what reflex?
Baroreceptor reflex
where is Creatinine clearance used?
clinical settings to estimate GFR
in order to have diffusion work the [] of the substance must be < or > in the tubular lumen?
greater
Regional specialization of renal tubules
proximal tubule
distal tubule and collecting ducts
 
Post absorptive state
nutrients are not being absorbed by the GI tract and energy must be supplied by the body's endogenous stores
keep plasma glucose at appropriate levels to supply brain
role of calcium
-binds to Ca binding site on troponin
-troponin 'dragging' tropomysoin away from actin
-myosin binds to actin
-the Ca was released from SER and must be pumped back in via ATP pumps during relaxation
effects of glucagon on lipids
promotes breakdown of triglycerides freeing up glycerol and fatty acids
glycerol for gluconeogenesis
fatty acids transported to liver and converted to ketones
Saliva contains these 2 enzymes
lysozyme (destroys bacteria) and amylase (digestion)
What does the birth control pill inhibit the release of?
LH and FSH
Mesentry
"gut bag" that keeps all our GI tract in place in our body
pH of the urine
can be between 2 and 9
What does LH stimulate for males?
It stimulates testosterone production
release of Ca from SR
- excitation contraction coupling1. endplate potential generated by motor neuron evokes AP at sarcolemma, spreads from center outward in both directions2. AP pepentrates into fiber to individual myofibrils via T-tubules3. membrane of T-tubule abuts that of SR at junctional feet4. SR stimulated to open Ca channels in membrane5. increasing amounts of Ca flood in cytosol, contractile activity continues as long as cytosolic Ca increases
posterior pituitary (neuropophysis)
- receives direct neural input form hypothalamus- releases ADH (vasopressin) and oxytocin into bloodstream- ADH: renal system, controls water excretion- oxytocin: uterine contractions, milk ejection
lipase
any of a class of enzymes that break down fats, produced by the liver, pancreas, and other digestive organs or by certain plants.
allergy
an abnormal reaction of the body to a previously encountered allergen introduced by inhalation, ingestion, injection, or skin contact, often manifested by itchy eyes, runny nose, wheezing, skin rash, or diarrhea.
How do kidneys regulate amoung of water in plasma?
Adjusting reabsorption of water
What causes vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole and decreases capillary hydrostatic pressure leading to decrease in GFR?
sympathetic innervation of the afferent arteriole
actions of thyroid hormone
primary effect is on the Na/K pumps
increase metabolic rate
calorigenic-producing heat
 
change in fiber length
length tension curve relates to the sliding filament mechanism of tension development
OPTIMAL LENGTH
Genotype
Mixture of Alleles such as Aa or AA or aa
smooth muscle contraction characteristics
- initiated by increase in cytosolic Ca (different process)- actin has no troponin/tropomyosin, instead myosin affected by Ca- contraction stops when cytosolic Ca decreases + action of myosin phosphatase- rate of cross bridge cycling much slower than in skeletal- energetics of cross bridge cycling more efficient than in skeletal- latch mechanism: once full contraction achieved, degree of activation need only be fraction of that needed to initiate contraction
location detected by sensory system
acuity of stimulus location- smaller receptor field = greater acuity- greater degree of convergence in ascending pathway = lower acuity
semilunar valve
either of two valves, one in the aorta and one in the pulmonary artery, consisting of a set of three crescent-shaped flaps of tissue and serving to prevent blood from flowing back into the heart after contraction.
Tight junctions in distal tubule and collecting ducts
Tighter compared to proximal tubule.
parasympathetic input in cardiac muscle
travel via vegus nerve
ACH binds to muscarinic receports on SA node
slows down the heart rate by inhibiting funny channels
enhances K channels
Contains of the Stomach (digestive properties)
Mucous, Acid (HCL), Pepsinogen = protein digestion occuring
causes of smooth muscle excitation
- same fiber can receive stimulation of more than one form (unlike skeletal)1. spontaneous electrical activity (pacemaker potential)2. neural stimulation3. hormones4. local tissue factors (blood vessels)
Passive diffusion of Na down its []gradient is coupled to what?
Movement of other solute molecules (2ndary active transport)
What does the hormone Renin regulate? (cardiovascular)
it regulates the vascular blood pressure, and converts angiotensin to change levels
control of whole muscle tension
- motor unit: single motor neuron + all innervated muscle fibers1. slow oxidative2. fast oxidative glycolytic3. fast glycolytic
Hydrostatic pressure of blood in capillaries
Avg pressure = 55 mmHg (higher than systemic capillaries)
DOES NOT  DECLINE as blood travels down the capillary. 
What happens after 52 days of development?
New genetic structure doesn't form, we are simply growing from that point forward
determinants of tension developed by whole muscle
1. amount of tension developed by each fiber2. number of fibers contracting
Where are Parietal cells found, and what do they do?
THey are found in the gastric gland, and they secrete HCL in the stomach
What are differences in type I and II diabetes?
type 1 is childhood onset, insulin dependent, auto immune type 2 is adult onset, insulin resistant, likely from lifestyle
how is the entry of Na into the rtc possible?
Carriers that are coupled to movement of other solute molecules
Posterior
ADH, Oxytocin
Healthy BMI margins
18.5
Corpus Luteum
Produces progesterone
leucocyte
white blood cell.
Does Na undergo reabsorption?
YES
osteoclasts
responsible for bone resorption
Pancreas secretes
bicarbonates, amylase, insulin
phenotype
physical expression of genotype
catecholamines
- epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine- same biosynthetic production (tyrosine -> DOPA -> dopamine -> norepinephrine -> epinephrine)- stored in gland, released upon synpathetic nervous system stimulation/hypoglycemia/exercise- mediate fight or flight response
Forces involved in filtration
Starling Forces
What is our plasma Volume?
3
Growth Hormone
secreted by anterior pituitary
increase cell size (hypertrophy)
increase cell number (hyperplasia)
 
hypothyroidism
reduced secretion of thyroid hormones
decreased protein synthesis
cold intolerant-low metabolism
slowed heart rate
myxedema-fluid is held onto and makes thick skin
Carb digestion requires..
Water and Amylase
What are plasmids formed from?
Virus
adaptation
at constant stimulus intensity receptors gradually desensitized (decreased AP firing)
GnRH
- gonadotropin releasing hormone- anterior pituitary- stimulates secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
where does most reabsorption occur?
proximal tubule
ANP causes
Increase in GFR by dilating
Vascular elements of a nephron:
Afferent arteriole
Glomerulus        
Efferent arteriole
Peritubular capillaries
Vasa recta        
antagonism
two hormones whose actions work against each other
Graves' Disease
auto-immune disorder in which antibodies bind and activate TSH receptors, therefore increasing thyroid hormone release
Glycoloysis
with or without oxygen
means of rapidly producing large amounts of ATP
last for about a minute
Lipid % of our daily value
20-35%
Chemical Digestion occurs
Mouth and Small Intestines
Proteins are broken down into...
Amino Acids
Protein % of our daily value
15%
divergence
info from single afferent neuron synapses with many interneurons
steroid hormone
- derived from cholesterol- steroidogenic enzymes in cell determine which steroids produced- diffuse across cell membrane, enter blood stream (no intracellular storage)- insoluble in plasma, in circulation combine with binding proteins- small fraction of free steroid is biologically active- glucocrticoids (cortisol, corticosterone), androgens (testerone, androstenedione), estrogens
diastolic
(of blood pressure) indicating the arterial pressure during the interval between heartbeats.
systolic
(of blood pressure) indicating the maximum arterial pressure occurring during contraction of the left ventricle of the heart.
lymph
a clear yellowish, slightly alkaline, coagulable fluid, containing white blood cells in a liquid resembling blood plasma, that is derived from the tissues of the body and conveyed to the bloodstream by the lymphatic vessels.
Countercurrent multiplier
Sum of permeability characteristics of ascending and descending limbs of loop of henle
what maintains GFR relatively ocnstant inspite of variations in MAP?
Myogenic autoregulation
What are the actions of Angiotensin II?
Vasoconstriction
how much filtered solutes and water are abosrbed in the proximal tubule?
70%
cells in the distal and collecting ducts with receptors for __________. can regulate water and solute handling?
hormones
What is the primary solute in extracellular fluid?
Na+
sinoatrial node (SA)
located in right atrium
determines heart rate in normal situations
Latent Period
Period when an action potential arrives at a mucle fiber and a twitch beings
Heterotroph
We are heterotrophs - all nutrient obtaining organisms
What hormone stimulates the release of breast milk?
Oxytocin
First line of defense in your mouth
tonsils
Endocrine and Exocrine
Endocrine secrete internally, exocrine secret outside its own system (sweat) ***pancreas is both***
determinant of force developed
number of actomyosin complexes
isokinetic contraction
tension developed with constant rate of movement of load
phasic receptors
fast adapting, more sensitive to changes in stimulus intensity
cortisol (glucocorticoid)
- facilitates response to stress- catabolic effect on protein/fat- stimulates gluconeogenesis
trachea
the tube in humans and other air-breathing vertebrates extending from the larynx to the bronchi, serving as the principal passage for conveying air to and from the lungs; the windpipe.
urinary bladder
a distensible, muscular and membranous sac, in which the urine is retained until it is discharged from the body.
Movement of Na into rtc across the apical is ______(active/passive)?
Passive
transcellular transport requires what?
active transport (primary or secondary) across 1 membrane and passive transport (diffucsion or facilitated diffusion) across the other.
Iodine
needed by the thyroid gland, T3 and T4
muscle fiber
the muscle cell
may extend the length of the entire muscle
Meiosis (Genetic Diversity)
reduces chromosomes sets from diploid to haploid. They duplicate before they split
Aside from Menopause, what is progesterone's function?
Implantation of pregnancy
Anterior Pituitary
CTH, TSH, FSH, LH, Prolactin, Growth Hormone (Super hormones)
villi
add more surface area to GI tract increasing absorption
fight or flight
- mediated by catecholamines- increase blood glucose (stimulate glycogenolysis/gluconeogenesis)- increase lipolysis- increase heart rate/stroke volume- dilate coronary blood vessels/skeletal muscles
steroid/thyroid receptors
- found within cells (cytosol or nucleus)- hormone/receptor complex interacts with DNA as transcription regulation factor- slower response
mouth
the opening through which an animal or human takes in food.
ovulation
to produce and discharge eggs from an ovary or ovarian follicle.
active transport
the movement of ions or molecules across a cellular membrane from a lower to a higher concentration, requiring the consumption of energy.
Glomerular capillary endothelium              
Fenestrated capillaries w/ large pores
Contains (-) charged surface proteins which repel (-) charged plasma proteins 
What is the normal pH of the blood?
7.3-7.45 (7.4)
What is reabsorption?
movement of material from the tubular lumen, back into the palsma flowing through the peritubular capillaries.
any material that is reabsorbed by diffusion is said to
Follow water reabsorption
Freely filterable solutes
solutes that are small and readily make it through the filtration barrier
Is the ascending limb permeable to both Na/Cl/K and water?
Just Na/Cl/K only
follicular cells
cells in the thyroid gland around a glycoprotein which they secrete called colloid--> everything you need to make thyroid hormone
isotonic contraction
tension is generated which is at least equal to the force opposing it
-sarcomeres shorten and the series elastic elements lengthen
What causes hyperthyroidism
over production of the thyroid gland, characterized by bulging eyes
Ectopic Pregnancy
Occurs outside of ova duct and in other layers of uterus
What characterizes a cancerous tumor?
Abnormal cell structure, spreading, raised, not clearly defined edges
Steroidal Hormones
they are water soluble and may pass through the target cells bi-layer They bind in cytoplasm and make mRNA = proteins
ATP in muscle metabolism
- needed to fuel contractile activity1. creatine kinase reaction: PC + ADP ATP + C2. anaerobic metabolism: glycolysis (contributes during more intense exercise)3. aerobic metabolism: oxidative phosphorylation (used in decreased/moderate exercise intensity level)
receptive field
area of body covered by receptors from single afferent neuron
fast glycolytic
- greatest number of fibers per unit- fatigue quickly- fast conduction/contraction- large type IIB fibers
lymph node
any of the glandlike masses of tissue in the lymphatic vessels containing cells that become lymphocytes.
lymphocyte
a type of white blood cell having a large, spherical nucleus surrounded by a thin layer of nongranular cytoplasm.
bile duct
a large duct that transports bile from the liver to the duodenum, having in humans and many other vertebrates a side branch to a gallbladder for bile storage.
Clearance (Renal Plasma Clearance)
"virtual" measurement of the volume of plasma from which a substance will be completely cleared in one minute by excretion in the urine.
 
expressed in VOLUME OF PLASMA PER UNIT TIME 
effects of glucagon on Proteins
promotes breakdown of protein in liver
promotes gluconeogenesis
If you ingest sugar, what will happen to your insulin levels?
They will spike
slow oxidative
- few fibers per unit- slow rate of nervous conduction/contraction- fatigue resistant- small type I fibers
mechanism of smooth muscle contraction
1. Ca binds to calmodulin2. Ca/calmodulin complex binds to MLCK3. phosphorylates myosin cross bridges4. phosphorylated cross bridges bind to actin5. cross bridge cycling: change in myosin (not actin) allows, myosin cross bridge does not have ATPase but less than skeletal muscle)
initiation of muscle contraction
- by increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration1. Ca released from SR2. Ca binds to troponin complex (T, I, C subunits)3. conformational change in tropomyosin4. exposes binding sites on actin
cells in what renal tubul;e are specialized to allow regulation of reabsorption and secretion?
Distal tubule and collecting ducts.
single unit smooth muscle
-cells act as a 'single unit'
-due to extensive linking with gap junction
-contain pacemaker cells which can initiate depolarization of the entire muscle
-stretching may induce contraction
-resting level of contraction 'tone'
Does the Medulla of the hypothalamus trigger calming or stress response?
Medulla is stress = sympathetic
intesity detected by sensory system
determined by frequency of AP firing and number of receptors stimulated
as solutes are reabsorbed by ACTIVE transport in mediated transport, what happens to the tubular osmolarity and the osmolarity of plasma?
tubular osmolarity is decreased, and osmolarity of plasma is increased.
Somatomedins (insulin like growth factors)
produced in the liver and are released into bloodtream for transport to target tissues
-hormone in response to GH
What will the outer cell become in development?
Embryonic layer will become placenta
What is respiratory acidosis
inc in acidity of blood due to inc in Pco2.
= HYPOVENTILATION 
 
What is contact inhibition in cells?
When cells are growing and come in contact they should register to stop growing
If you have a reduced glomerular filtration rate what happens?
Decrease in the amount of Na that passes through the distal tubule where it is monitored by the macula densa
How much of the blood pumps through the kidneys
1/3 of the blood from the heart
if ultrafiltrate is 600 mOsmls in the middle of the descending limb what will it be at the bottom?
1200 mOsmsls it goes from 300->600->1200 (max) then begins to decrease as it ascends
Is Na secreted?
NO
Adenoma
A benign growth
Voluntary Mouth Movement
tongue
WATER:
Freely filtered (occurs distally)
macro nutrients
carbs, lipids, proteins
micro nutrients
vitamins and minerals
karyotype
characterization of chromosomal complement of species, including number, form and size of chromosomes
ACTH
- adrenocorticotropic hormone- anterior pituitary- stimulates adrenal cortex to release cortisol
Is K+ reabsorbed at all?
YES
Glucosuria  
excretion of glucose in urine.
adrenal cortex
zona glomerulosa
zona fasiculata
zona reticularis
-different zone contain different complements of enzymes involved in hormone production
muscle stretching
series elastic element 
the tendons
dones not actively generate force rather it passively transmits the force generated by the contractile elements to the skeletal components to which it is attached
Chondrocytes
lay down cartelidge
responsible for increase in bone length
Protein Digestion requires
Water and Pepsin
Pepsin is found in..
the stomach
What causes a goiter?
Iodine deficiency
semi-digested food found in stomach
Chyme
progesterone
- important during pregnancy- regulates menstrual cycle- increases body temperature
medulla
the marrow of the bones.
Body filters entire plasma volume every ___minutes?
24
The osmotic gradient established by reabsorption of solute increases ____ of the peritubular fluid
Osmolarity
hyperthyroidism
heat intolerant, metabollic rate is really cranked up
increased protein catabolism
irritablitly, insomnia, excitable reflexes
increased T3 or T4, decreased TSH
 
Addison's Disease
hyposecretion of cortisol and aldosterone
hypoglycemia, poor stress tolerance
excess Na excretion and K retention
C Cells
which synthesize and secrete calcitonin, a hormone that plays a role in calcium regulation
hyperglycemia
fasting glucose concentration is too high
indicative of diabetes mellitus-disease involving defects of insulin production of target tissues
Insulin
secreted by b cells
anabolic hormone- promotes synthesis of energy storage molecules
increase in plasma glucose levels directly stimulate b cells to secrete insulin
synthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides
synthesis of glycogen in liver
protein synthesis
Using GLUT-4
Energy from Fat in kCal/G
9 kCal/G
load
force (resistance) exerted by object opposing contracting muscle
types of receptors
1. mechanoreceptors: mechanical deformation2. thermoreceptors: temperature changes3. nociceptors: pain, tissue damage4. electromagnetic: light5. chemoreceptors: taste, smell, oxygen, osmolariy
Aquaporins
Channels in cell membranes which allow water to flow through
macula densa
specialized cells in distal tubule. release paracrine agents=vasoconstriction of afferent arteriole.
pH is regulated by:
Respiratory system and Kidney
Brush border?
highly folded apical membranes that increase surface area of proxima tubule.
Alkalosis occurs whe pH levels hit >
7.45
Can K+ pass through leaky tight junctions in proximal tubule?
YES
intercalated disks
junctions that contain both desmosomes and gap junctions
fast oxidative fibers
intermediate size fibers
fast myosin ATPase high oxidative capacity
Epiphyseal Plate
located between the epiphysis and shaft in growng bowns
Also known as the growth plate
twitch
is the mechanical response of an individual muscle cell or motor unit to a single action potential
What is the glomerular filtration rate in ml/min
120ml/min
Most of digestion occurs
in the small intestine
Displasia
is the error in synthesis in cells
isometric contraction
tension developed without movement of load
types of muscle
1. skeletal (striated)2. smooth3. cardiac (striated)
4 stimulus aspects
1. type2. intensity3. location4. duration
vectors
an insect or other organism that transmits a pathogenic fungus, virus, bacterium, etc.
acquired immunity
immunity arising from exposure to antigens.
Vasa recta
Arrangement of blood vessels in renal medulla that allows the []gradient to be maintained.
If blood pressure decreases, what is stimulated for secretion?
Renin.
How can u regulate plasma Na levels?
Regulating reabsorption
What is the most important regulator of aldosterone secretion?
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
water diffuses from an area of low osmolarity (tubular lumen) to an  area of higher osmolarity (peritubular fluid)?
TRUE
Is the descending limb permeable or impermeable to water? And inmpermeable or permeable to Na/Cl/K?
Permeable, impermeable
Tubular elements of a nephron
Bowman's capsule
Proximal Tubule
Loop of Henle
Distal Tubule
Collecting ducts
Renal pelvis
Mesangial Cells  
Cells that lie betw/ and around glomerular capillaries.
Secrete cytokines.
have contractile filaments that allow them to alter blood flow through capillaries. 
contractile cells
make up 99 percent of the heart
utilize actin and myosing to create tension
Smooth Muscle
sheets
in the walls of internal organs and blood vessels
very efficient with energy
uninucleated, not striped
no t tubles or sarcomeres
-still utalizes Ca++ but does not have an SER like skeletal muscle
Cross Over (Meiosis)
this is important for genetic diversity - it is not random = exchange of information
Ureter
where blood enters the bladder, its in the bottom, bladder extends upwards
neural stimulation
- excites smooth muscle- controlled by autonomic nervous system- releases norepinephrine and acetylcholine- receives both excitatory and inhibitory input- neuromuscular junction has no specialized endplate region, called diffuse junction- Ca/Na channels evoke AP- current travels along cell membrane, eventually abuts membrane of SR
local tissue factors
- excite smooth muscle (blood vessels)- decreased oxygen/increased CO2/decreased pH (lactic acid) causes relaxation/vasodilation- increased K+/adenosine and decreased Ca have same effect
strength of stimulus
proportional to strength of response, more response potential exceeds threshold so greater AP frequency
aorta
the main trunk of the arterial system, conveying blood from the left ventricle of the heart to all of the body except the lungs.
nostril
either of the two external openings of the nose.
Filtered load
quantity of a solute filtered per unit time
How much Na is reabsorbed in the loop of henle?
25%
where does finely regulated reabsorption occur?
distal segments of the nephron
Secondary active transport forms
Co-transport seen with glucose and amino acids
Forces favoring filtration from glomerular capillaries
Hydrostatic Pressure of blood. PGC
Cardiac Muscle
striated
made up of two kinds of cells: contractile and autorhythmic
Hydroxyapaptite
calcium is stored in the bone in the form of these crystals
primary endocrine organs
primary function is the secretion of hormones
Contraction phase
cross bridge cycling and ends at point of peak tension
-Ca++ release exceeds reuptake
What do you need to create a karyotype?
amniotic fluid
Menopause and Corpus Luteum
Progesterone is excessive during this time
Autosomal dominant genes
this means it will definitely be expressed Achondroplastic dwarfism is an example of this, it is there from birth
Liver produces
bile from hemoglobin = aids in fat digestion
myofibril structure
- thin and thick filaments arranged in structured pattern, dark A bands and light I bands- sarcomere = single contractile unit
RAAS acts to do what to blood pressure?
Increase blood pressure
Colloid osmotic pressure inside capillary
created by protein mainly albumin.
b/c fluid leavin is great, osmotic pressure increases as blood travels through. 
size principle of recruitment
going from slow oxidative fibers to fast oxidative fibers and finally fast glycolytic fibers
What are carcinogens?
THey are external factors that lead to cancer, such as virus, diet, industrial chemicals, radiation, obesity, diet lifestyle etc
features of hormonal action
1. actions amplified at target cells2. regulat rates of existing reactions, don't initiate new ones3. actions slow/prolonged (esp. steroids)4. biological effect of hormone proportional to circulating concentration of hormone
fast oxidative glycolytic
- more fibers per unit- fairly fatigue resistant- fast conduction/contraction- larger type IIA fibers
What establishes the medullary osmotic gradient?
Loops of henle of juxtagloerular nephrons
Glucose sparing (fat utilization)
reduce their use of glucose and turn to fat to meet their energy needs
Does the Cortex of the Hypothalamus trigger calming or stress response?
Cortex is calming = parasympathetic
determinants of circulating levels of hormone
1. rate of secretion: pulsatile release, circadian rhythm (moderated by external cues but not driven by them)2. rate of removal: metabolism, clearance
2nd classification of neural pathway scheme
- dorsal column lemniscal system: carries info in dorsal spinal cord column (white matter), crosses to opposite side in medulla, through brainstem --> thalamus via lemniscus, large myelinated nerve fibers, increased degree of spatial orientation (phasic/position info, touch using spatial accuracy)- anterolateral system: carries info in dorsal horns of cord's gray matter, info crosses to opposite side immediately, transmits to brain stem and thalamus, small unmyelinated fibers
what 2 general means by which reabsorption occur?
by mediated transport
by diffusion               
ultrafiltrate in relativity to blood plasma
ISOtonic meaning it is the same concentration of solute to solvent
If you have elevated K+ level in plasma, what happens to the secretion of aldosterone?
Increases the secretion of aldosterona and = increase in K+ secretion by the cells
the default chromosome, an unfertilized egg is
X chromosomes - you need at least one to survive
What is the functional unit of kidney?
nephron ( this is what actually does the work)
If you have a High level of ADH what happens to the aquaporins? And water reabsorption? What about urine output?
Increases, increases. Urine output is low
What is known as the guardian angel gene?
P53, it tells the Tumor to stop growing
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