Human Sexuality 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
leather
zygote
Fertlized egg
interfemural stimulation
psychogenic stimulation
Non-Western Childhood sexuality
anilingus
Rimming, oral/anal stimulation
gonorrhea
Fluid borne-gonococcus bacterium-transmitted via coitus, anal sex, fallatio, cunnilingus-contact with infected mucous membranes in the vagina, penile urethra, anus and mouth-symptoms usually evident within a few weeks -Male symptoms=whitish, yellowish, discharge from penis, painful urination-inflammation of prostate, bladder, seminal vesicles, epididymis, causing fever, pain in pelvis5-20% dont show symptoms-Vaginal inflammation, discharge, no symptoms in 50% (early), fever, abdominal pain, painful intercourse-infertility, dementia, blindness, meningitis, -multiple advanced antibiotics, 30% of infections resistant to antibiotics
S/M
sadomasochism (pain)-binding, whipping, piercing, burning, scarification-painful sensations not intentional harm
couvade
ritual male pregnancy, deliverlessening mother's sufferingearning claim to paternitytransferring suffering to man
homosexual relations
traditional approach- relationship-based, mundane, monogamous, family-orientedradical sex- thrill seeking, liberation, break down of sexual taboos
disempowerment
violation of personal boundarieschronic fearimpaired individuationsusceptible to abuse
syphilis
lesion borne-blood-borne crosses placenta to fetus-fluids from 2nd stage rash are highly infectious-2nd stage symptoms: rash may occur anywhere on body (painless, moist, infectious)-bacteria infects lymph glands, nausea, fever, aches in joints, muscleslong term effects=blindness, neurological disorders, paralysis, dementia, heart and lung disease, death-fetal death, illness
spiritual needs
-enlightenment, worship, prayer-transcendence, "to know God"-spiritual unity
after-birth
Expulsion of the placenta.
House prostitute
A brothel worker.
cross-dresser (TV)
biologic sex is ego-syntonicautogynephileautoandrophile
monogamy
single spousewhole lifetimeone spouse at a timemost prevanlent in industrial societies, but only 16% of all societiesby population its the most common
pedophilia
primary sexual attraction to prepubescen childrenexclusive, persistent, necessary for sexual arousalmore common attraction to boysno attraction to adults
erotophobia
Condemnation, sex for procreational use only
progestins (P)
Progesterone-hormone on corpus luteum
sexual prejudice
Stereotyped beliefs, negative attitudes, discriminatory actions, verbal abuse, hate crimes
viability
Ability to complete development outside the uterus using any/all available medical technology-Week 24 Pf-50-80% pre-term babies survive with extensive care
urophilia
Water sports, golden showers-Sexual arousal from urinating on or being urinated on during sex; handling, smelling, tasting urine
VENIS
Very Erotic Non Insertive Sex-
desire phase
Biological Drive-feeling horny, sexually chargedPsychological motivation-external stimuli (body language)-internal feelings-conscious expectations, cultural norms
muscin
Secreted into vagina at ovulation-alkaline, clear, copious, stretchy like raw egg white; allows rapid movement of sperm into uterus and tubes-basis for impregnation without ejaculation in vagina
Uterus/womb
v. thick musclereceives fertilized egg, implants in wallshaped like inverted pearbetween rectum and bladdertilts forwardheld in place by ligamentsmiddle is powerful muscle (myometrium)walls = endometrium
Exhibitionism
Achieving sexual arousal and gratification by displaying one's genitals to others without their consent.
breaking the waters
leakage of amniotic fluid
vectors
two continua produce 4 quadrants: androgyny, masculinity, femininity, undifferentiated
sexual orientation
attraction defined as positive responsiveness (erotic, emotional, physiological) to a partner based on perceived gender
reconciliation phase
(may last months)abuser apologizes, tries to make amends, declares loves, agrees to seek treatment
matrilineal
family ties and inheritance traced through mother and female ancestors (jews)
breasts
anxiety about size and shape, indicator of sexual attractiveness
spontaneous abortion
Miscarriages-80% of all conceptions are spontaneously aborted-90% occur prior to week 13 PF
prolactin
Stimulates milk production in the breasts.
resolution phase
General Features-Return to PSNS tone-decongestion-decrease in BP-detumescence in cavernosa causes loss of erection-causes loss of enlargement
necrophilia
Sexual arousal from viewing, having sex with, mutilating a corpse-Sex murder versus "copping a feel" during dissection lab
partial birth abortion
Labor induction instillation-injection of prostaglandins causes uterine contractions-dilation of cervix-fetus usually born dead
female condom
Made of polyurethane-stronger, more durable, looser fit, more expensive
vaginal infibulation
Fusion of the labia majora
Jaundice
A symptom of hepatitis characterized by a deep yellowing of the skin and eyes.
Cunnilingus
Oral sex performed on a female.
Masturbation
Any sexual activity performed on oneself by oneself, typically focusing on manipulation of the geitals to orgasm.
female role in conception
blood- nourishes zygoteuterus- contains dormant embryo
sponge
for all spermicides use 20 minutes before ejaculation
FTM
biologic female who develops male core gender identity and expresses male gender traits (with or without genital surgery)
gender-conforming
same-sex behavior does not require a disparity of gendermost gays and lesbians in U.S.
Endometriosis
a condition in which the endometrium grows abnormally outside the uterus; the symptom is unusually painful periods with excessive bleeding
Evolutionary Psychology
The study of psychological mechanisms that have been shaped by natural selection
shock caller
proceeds almost immediately to lewd proposition or shouting obscenities
divorse
7 year marriage duration on average50% of marriages end in divorcedivorse is easy to obtainunhappy marriages
acne
sign of testosterone but not a desirable sign of masculinity
Gender schema
an internalization of a culture's gender-based classification of social reality.
testosterone
Male sex hormone made in the testes
premature ejaculation
Failure to exercise voluntary control over the timing of ejaculation-most common male problem-organic causes extremely rare-anxiety, guilt, lack of experience, partner conflict, males with anorgasmic partners
sex tourism
$5.5 billion per year market-wealthy tourists go to undeveloped worlds such as Thailand, phillippines, cuba for sex
Grafenburg spot
The sacred spot-source of sexual pleasure in women
vibrator
Used by males or females during masturbation or sex-produces a distinctive type of stimulation-not a preferred substitute for sex with a partner
Kegel exercises
Strengthens the pelvic floor muscles and may increase ejaculation control and strength of orgasm.
serial monogamy
In Pilaga Indian society:Having one sexual partner
Phase 1,2,3,4
Phase 1=Acute Infection: exposure to virus, HIV neg. similar to chronic viral infection, CD$ count greater than 1000, may be infectiousPHase 2=Asymptomatic infection-normal health, thought to be HIV infectious carrierPhase 3: Chronic Lymphadenopathy-swollen glands, chronic non specific illness, HIV+, known to be infectious, CD4 cell is 500Phase 4=AIDS, constitutional disease, neurological disease, opportunistic infections, secondary cancers
transient, situational dysfunction
Experiences orgasm during some activities but not others-coital anorgasmia is considered normal-fatigue, vaginal tissue damage-lack of sufficient stimulation, lack of communication, inexperienced sexual partner
colostrum
First food for the infant, released from breast of mother.-Contains mother's antibodies to infection thus providing infant with temporary immunity to those pathogens the mother has encountered.
continuum model
Masculinity and femininity are found at the opposite poles of a continuum with androgyny as midpoint
Hymen
membranous fold of skin covering the vaginal opening. Broken during sex, though often earlier due to athletics,etc. Some born without.
Seminiferous tubules
Tightly wound microscopic tubes that comprise the testicles in the male, where sperm cells are generated.
Erotophilia
An attitude toward sexuality in which individuals are comfortable with sexual issues, seek out sexual information, enjoy sexual behavior, and respond with positive reactions to sexual topics.
Prodromal symptoms
Warning signs, such as itching, burning, or pain, that an outbreak of an an infection such as herpes may be impending.
Crack
A powerful, processed form of cocaine that is smoked or sometimes injected, known for its intense but relatively short high and its highly addictive qualities.
Gender-nonconforming behavior
Behavior that is inconsistent with traditional cultural expectations for a child's sex and considered more appropriate for children of the other sex.
post partum depression
80% of females experience baby blues62% of males experience depressionfatiguepainsupresses libido
sole method
used alone, probably useful to those wanting to space pregnancies rather than avoid pregnancy totally
Luteinizing Hormone
(LH)
secreted by the PG, regulates estrogen  secretion and ovum development in females and testosterone secretion in males
population estimates
96% of rapes involve known offender22% of women have been rapedmale rapist 15-30female victim 16-24
Cognitive dimension of sexuality
development of consciousness and meaning of the sexual experiencepreconscoius-concrete-abstract
characteristics of abstinent teens
higher intelligence, high aspiration for post high school successdoesn't use drugs or alcohol, attends churchteen lives in healthy community
Menstrual Problems (4)
- PMS- Dysmenorrhea (primary and secondary)- Amenorrhea- Toxic Shock Syndrome
core gender identity
Subjective sense of one's own masculinity, femininity, androgyny
microbicides
Kills STI microbes on contact -Used in vagina, anus-used alone or with condoms-currently in clinical trials
uterine tenting
Elevation of uterus up into abdominal cavity
dimensions model
A profile of scores on several individual scales/dimension-each scale scored on continuum of heteroerotic and homoerotic-pattern of scores produce profile for each person-a few distinct, coherent patterns emerge; 4 or 5 styles of sexual orientation-Scales=erotic attraction, emotional attachment, sexual behavior, sexual identity, sexual role, cognitive schema
foreskin
Loose collar of skin which covers over the glans when the penis is flaccid-Is retracted when the penis is erect
genital lesion
Shedding of microbes from lesions on or near tissues associated with sexual activity
Psychosexual stages
Freud's theory that the development of human personality occurs in a series of stages during childhood.
Umbilical cord
A structure of approximately 22 inches in length, consisting of one large vein and two arteries, that transport nutrients, oxygen and fetal waste products back and forth between the fetus and the placenta.
Medical obortion
A method of abortion using drugs rather than surgery to terminate pregnancy.
Corpora cavernosa
Two parellel chambers that run the length of the penis and become engorged with blood during erection.
emotional response of couple
emotional and physcial weel being better relative to other phases of pregnancy and postpartum periodmorning sickness subsidesjoy about the growing fetusafter quickening the female feels like "mother"male lags behind
SRY gene
Y chromosomerare if on the Xmedulla of ovotestis develops into testis
Hypothalamus
a small region in the brain that is important in regulating many body functions, including the fuctioning of sex hormones
stalkers
8% women, 2% of men have been fearful of stalkergender of stalker - 87% malegender of victim - 78% femalemany states require the stalker to threaten the victim to make it a crime
orientation dimension
11% report some type of same gender sexual experience, most develop heterosexual identity
types of gonadotropins (3)
- follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)- Luteinizing hormone (LH- Human chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Produced by anterior lobe of pituitary-regulates development of Graafian follicle and spermatozoa
HAART-multiple antiviral medication
Given in early stages of infection before appreciable decline of CD4 cell count-will slow progression to aids
kept boy
Set up in upscale apartment for sole access by affluent male ( sugar daddy)
Orgasmic phase
The third stage in the EPOR model, during which sexual excitement and pleasure reach a climax.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)
A significantly more intense and debilitating form of PMS.
8 weeks PF
prolonged production of P and E from the corpus luteum of the ovary to stablize pregnancy for 8 weeks PF
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
a technique for prenatal diagnosis of birth defects, involving taking a sample of cells from the chorionic villus and analyzing them
Orgasm phase of female genitals
- Clitoris remains retracted under hood- Orgasmic platform contracts- Rectal sphincter contracts
Functions of Estradiol (6)
- Feminizes female body at puberty- female menstrual cycle- maturation of sperm in males- maintains bone density, prevents osteoporosis- feedback inhibition of the gonadotropins- stops growth of the limb bones at the end of puberty
EIA, Western Blot, PCR
EIA tests determine presence of HIV antibodies in blood-tests extremely sensitiveWestern Blot=tests are required to firmly establish the presence of antibodies after the second positive EIA testPCR=most sensitive (1 in 100,000 cells) but very expensive, tests directly for HIV RNA
3 Tube-like things in penis
2 cavanerous bodies (corpus cavernosa) analogous to cavities of clitorisfill with blood during erection1 spongy body (corpus spongiosum) which lies underneath
Partner rape
A rape that occurs in the context of an ongoing romantic and sexual relationship.
Human Chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
a hormone secreted by the placenta; it is the hormone detected in pregnancy tests
What are the main hormonal actions of the GnRH?
causes release of gonadotropins
breast cancer
1 in 8 women have or had it-lump in breast, discharge from nipple, wrinkled or reddened skin of breast-detection=breast self exam at mid cycle-mammography-biopsy of masstreatment=mastectomy/lumpectomy-removal of all or part of breast, radiation, chemo, or hormone therapy
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
A gradual failure of the immune system, leading to serious infections and death.
Excitement Phase changes in female genitals (4)
- clitoral shaft increases in size- vestibular increase in size- Labia majora separate away from vaginal opening- Labia minora increase in size and deepens in color
What are the main hormonal actions of oxytocin? (4)
- Milk let-down- uterine contractions during labor- role in orgasm (?)- Other non-reproductive functions
gestation
pregnancy
Sexual response cycle
Desire
Arousal
Plateau
Orgasm
Resolution
homosocial
same gender social organizations
incidence
number of new cases
Platypelloid Pelvis
Flattened inlet, prominent sacrum...flatter than Gynecoid
Heterosexuality
Emotional and sexual attraction between men and women
Sadism
Deriving enjoyment from inflicting emotional or physical pain on another person.
bulimia
characterized by episodes of uncontrolled, often secret, overeating, which the person then tries to counteract by purging--vomiting, fasting, excessive exercising or dieting, or using laxatives or diuretics
Malignant
lethal/ liklely to cause death
Laparoscope
Small instrument through which structures withing the abdomen and pelvis can be viewed
epidydimis
the tightly coiled genital duct located on the side of each testis in which sperm are stored
age for interest in bodily changes
10-11
Bisexuality
Emotional and sexual attraction to both males and females.
erection
enlargement and stiffening of the penis caused by engorgement with blood
Nocturnal penile tumescence
Penile erections during sleep
Androgyny
Having the psycological attributes of both females and males.
Vulva
external genitals of the female, including the pubic hir, mons veris, labia majora, labia minora, cliterors, and urinary and vaginal openings
afterbirth
the expelling of the placenta, remaining section of the umbilical cord and the fetal membranes, completion of the third and final stage of labor
gonorrhea (clap)
spread through genital, oral-genital or genital-anal contact. symptoms in men include cloudy discharge and burning during urination. If untreated, leads to inflammation of scrotal skin and swelling at the base of testicle. Symptoms in women include green or yellowish discharge, and if untreated, PID. Treated w/ antibiotics
Infibulation
Ritual removal of the clitoris, prepuce, & labia and the sewing together of the vestibule
Atheoretical
Not influenced by a particular theory
Moves sperm from scrotum to ejaculatory duct through prostate
Vas Deferens
sensuality
oBody Image – Feelings about one’s own body and the way it functions (pressure put on young children to look and be a certain way)
oHuman Sexual Response Cycle – ability to experience pleasure from touch, taste, sight, hearing, and smell with the possibility of reaching orgasm/climax (masters and johnsons sexual response cycle)
oSkin Hunger – the need to be touched and held by others in loving, caring ways (this is a necessity!)
oFantasy – the brain gives people the capacity to have fantasies about sexual behaviors and experiences
Clinical research
In-depth examination of an individual or group that comes to a psychiatrist, psychologist, or social worker for assistance with psychological or medical problems or disorders.
vaginitis
any type of vaginal infection or inflammation
corpus cavernosum
either of 2 elongated erectile structures within the penis or clit which also extend backward into the pelvic floor
enlaged prostate
Prostate gland encircles the upper part of the urethra and lies below the neck of the bladder. It secretes a thin milkly alkaline fluid, containg a high levels of zinc, calcium, citric acid, and acid phosphate. the fluid protects the perm from the acidic environment from the vagina and male urethra. S/S urinary frequency, nocturia, dribbling, and problems with begining and ending stream, are usually the result of an enlarge prostate,
Cohabitation
Living together as though married but without legal sanction.
Case Study
A carefully drawn, in-depth biography of an individual or a small group of individuals that may be obtained through interviews, questionnaires, and historical records.
rugae
the folds of tissue in the vagina
dilation
gradual opening of the cervix that begins with contractions
postpartum psychosis
most serious and rarest postpartum mental illness, unlike the other disorders, postpartum psychosis is thought to be purely biologically based and related to hormonal changes, affected women tend to have difficulty sleeping, be prone to agitation and hyperactivity, and intermittently experience delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia
HIV and AIDS
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A catastrophic illness in which a virus invades and destroys the ability of the immune system to fight disease. The AIDS viruse appears to be passed primarily through sexual contact, sharing needles and less commonly through administration of contaminated blood products. AIDS results from infection from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
noncancerous enlargement of the prostrate
happens bc of hormonal changes assoc w aging
signs: frequent peeing, difficulty starting the flow of pee, pee urgency
Behavior Modificiation
Based on operant conditioning & classical conditioning principles, used to change behaviors
Conscious
Part of the personality that contains information of which we are currently aware
seminal vesicals
sack like structures that lie above the prostate and produce about 70% of the seminal fluid
Embryo
What the conceptus is called for the first 8 weeks of gestation; happens when the blastocyst implants into the wall of uterus
how many people have premarital intercourse
70% females78% males
Os
opening in the cervix that leads to the interior of the uterus
What temperature are sperm produced?
(Male) Around 94 degrees.
root
the base of the penis, which extends into the pelvis
external os
the opening in the cervix that connects the lumen of the vagina with the cervical canal
at the ____ stage, when the conceptus has developed a central cavity, it implants in the wall o the uterus
blastocyst
Gonads
Sex glands; a woman's gonads are her ovaries; a man's gonads are his testes.
expulsion phase
the second stage of male orgasn, during which the semen is expelled from the penis by muscular contractions
transition
the first stage of labor, ends when the contractions become more intense and come quicker
Urinary tract infections (NGU/NSU)
infections in the urethra characterized by a burning sensation when urinating, burning or itching around urethral opening, unusual discharge
Squeeze Technique
A tx for premature ejaculation in which the partner applies strong pressure w/ her thumb on the frenum & her second and third fingers on the topside of the penis (one above and one below the corona) until the man loses the urge to ejaculate.
Corpus Spongiosum
A spongy body running the length of the underside of the penis
Define the following:
troilism, saliromania, necrophilia, zoophilia, coprophilia, urophilia
Troilism- three people having sex together
 
Saliromania- desire to damage or soil a woman on her clothes or the image of a woman such as on a painting or a statue
 
Necrophilia- sexual contact with a dead person; very rare form of behavior
 
Zoophilia- sexual contact with an animal; bestiality & sodomy
 
Coprophilia- deriving sexual satisfaction from contact with feces
 
Urophilia- deriving sexual satisfaction from contact with urine
25. What term is used to describe the rubbing of the genitals together?
Tribadism
human sexuality,
An area of research and study focusing on all aspects of humans as sexual beings.
cremaster muscle
the muscle that raises and lowers the testicle in response to temperature changes and sexual stimulation
menopause
is known as that the onset occurs when estrogen levels drop because of cessation of ovarian fuction. Documented when a women does not have a menses for 1 year.
prostate gland
gland located at the base of the bladder that produces about 30% of the seminal fluid released during ejaculation
postpartum depression
occurs in 10-15% of new mothers and can have its onset any time in the first year postpartum, related to hormonal changes brought on by sleep deprivation, weaning, and the resumption of the mentrual cycle
Oral Stage
Mouth, lips, & tongue are primary erogenous zones
Theoretical explanations for why fetishes exist
(3)
1) learning theory- fetishes result from classical conditioning in which a learned association is built between the fetish object and sexual arousal and orgasm (ex: man who first saw his uncle’s penny loafers and begin kissing and licking them leading to an orgasm and being turned on ever since)
 
2) cognitive theory- fetishists have a serious cognitive distortion in which they perceive a non-conventional stimulus (ie: black leather boots) as erotic; their perception of arousal is distorted, they’re driven to sexual behavior when aroused but the arousal may cause feelings of guilt and self loathing
 
3) sexual addiction model- person has a pathological relationship with a sexual event or process, substituting it for a healthy relationship with others
What is a condom?
A barrier form of contraception, there are male, female, lamb skin, linen, latex, polyurethane, and eel skin types.
what is the menstration situation with most mammals
the endometrium is reasbsorbed
embryonic membranes
formed during the first 2 or 3 weeks of development, includes the amnion, amniotic fluid, yolk sac, and chorion
Causes of Ovarian Cancer
- never given birth
-history of breast cancer
-fam hist of ovarian cancer
-high meat/ animal fat diet
-prolonged use of talcum powder b/w anus & vag
-smoking
signs: enlargement of abdomen (caused by accumulation of fluid)
prevention: frequent pelvic examinations
Bibliotherapy
the use of a self help book to treat a disorder; effective for orgasmic disorders in women; shown to be effective for couples with a mixture of sexual disorders both in men and in women
4 types of media infulence
1. Cultivation - make things become norm2. Agenda-Setting - stations decided what they want to report3. Social Learning - mimic what's on TV4. The Internet
What is the vestibule?
This is the inner portion of the vulva.
Fetal Alcohol Effect (FAE)
a birth defect caused by lower levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, symptoms include moderate intellectual and behavioral deficits that resemble FAS children but at a less severe level
Define the 2 different types of voyeur
1) Scotophilia- sexual variation in which the person becomes sexually aroused by observing other’s sexual acts and genitals
 
2) Voyeurism- sexual pleasure comes from viewing nudes, often while the voyeur is masturbating
40. What is Kama Sutra
Famous Indian sex manual of the 3rd century that offers candid and explicit advice for achieving ultimate sexual pleasure
women's interest in sex tends to peak in which stage and what's the hormonal state
late follicular phase, when testosterone levels are high
What are the four major theoretical views on why rapes occur?
1) victim precipitated rape- woman was ‘asking for it’
2) psychopathology of rapists- theoretical view that rape is an act committed by a psychologically disturbed man
3) Feminist- theorists view rapists as a product of our culture; men using sex to demonstrate power; eroticization of violence in our society; gender inequality is to blame
4) Social disorganization- sociologists believe that crime rates including rape rates increase when the social organization of a community is disrupted; the community can enforce its norms against crime
What is the perineum?
It's the bottom of the vulva - it can tear during birth.
What is involved in couple therapy? What assumption is this therapy based on? What are the goals of this therapy?
Sex couple therapy is based on the assumption that there is a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal conflict and sex problems. Sex problems can cause conflicts and conflicts can cause sex problems.
 
- the relationship itself is treated with the goal of reducing antagonisms and tensions between the partners. As the relationship improves, the sex problem should be reduced.
- Goal: improve the relationship.
What does research tell us about the following factors that contribute to rape; cultural values, sexual scripts, early family influences?
- rape is significantly more common in cultures that are characterized by male dominance
- society’s expectations about dating and sex through culturally transmitted sexual scripts; message: man is supposed to be oversexed and the male aggressor
-  young men who are sexual aggressors were likely to have been abused when they were little
What did Ford and Beach have to say about the 76 Society?
In 1951 Ford and Beach studied 76 societies around the world and found that 64% of them viewed same sex behavior for some member of the community at certain times to be “normal” and appropriate.The role of same sex behavior vary tremendously from one culture to the other
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