Ancient Greece and Rome Flashcards

Terms Definitions
arete
manliness
plato
...
aristocrats
Rich landowners
First triumvirate
...
Consuls
Roman officials
mercenaries
hired foreign soldiers
Republican government
Roman government
Greeks were (mono/poly)
polytheistic
greatest ancient historian
thucydides
satraps
Governors of Persian provinces
Heroic Age
first era called?
tribunes
officials elected by plebians
How Macedonia conquered Greece
...
first to speak greek
myceneans
Zeus
The kind of greek gods
archipelago
a large group of islands
Polis
a greek city-state; a fortress,included the farm area around the Polis
Paul
a jew from Asia Minor
Structure of the Roman government
...
What was the first Polis?
Lyttus
"majestic one" octavian renamed himself this
augustus
Dome
A half-round or hemisphere shaped roof
philosophes
Social critics of the eighteenth century who subjected social institutions and practices to the test of reason.
aristocracy
a privileged class holding hereditary titles; after the monarchy in the polis it became more of an aristocracy
A.D. 476
the fall of the Rome
Archimedes
most famous Hellenistic scientist that applied the causes of illnesses and looked for cures
bishop
high church official responsible for everyone in his diocese
Goals of Pericles
1.Rebuild and beautify Greece.
2.Strengthen empire.
3. Strengthen government
Epic
A narrative poem that celebrates heroic deeds
When was Peisistratus forced to flee?
556
What type of state was Athens?
Ionian
Peloponnesian War
War between Athens and Sparta.
nobles. could be on the senate
patricians
Warriors
What was the education in Sparta training children to become?
ethics
the branch of philosophy that studies what it means to live a good, moral life
triumvirate
A group of three, especially in authority
Tel
archaeological site that looks like a mound; layers that contain remains from different civilizations
helots
Slaves to the Spartans that revolted and nearly destroyed Sparta in 650 B.C.E.
Resurrection
What Christians call Jesus' rise from the dead
Alphabet
types of script did the Greek develop
Trojan war
economic rivalry between Mycenae and Troy (rich trading city) that controlled the vital straits connecting Med. and black seas
acropolis
high city with marble temples to different gods
Homer
The blind storyteller who composed the Iliad and other epics between 750 and 700 BC
Hannibal
A brilliant strategist, he led his army and 60 elephants across the Alps to avenge Carthage's first defeat by Rome
What did the Aedile do?
Maintain public buildings
What was the Areopagite Council?
Old advising archons
Greek Theatre
Introduced the Fates and explained tribal, family, and state law. There was comedy and tragedy.
these people had an egalitarian society
the minoans
Nero
Who was a mad, murderous emperor of ancient rome?
Persian Wars
The wars in which Greece fought against the Persians
patrician
a member of the ruling class or aristocracy of ancient Rome
Form of government in which citizens elect representatives to vote for them
Indirect Democracy
tyranny
one ruler; by force; didn't make all the rules
aqueduct
a conduit that resembles a bridge but carries water over a valley; a roman engineering achievement
Apostles
A group of men who received special training from Jesus
Midas Touch
Expression that applies to anyone who easily acquires riches.
The Odessey
tells many struggles of Odysseus after fall of Troy.
He encounters a sea monster and a beautiful sorceress who turns men to pigs.
Virgil
Roman Poet that made the Aeniad to show how heroic Rome;s past was compared to Greece
Republic
a form of government in which the leader is not a monarch and certain citizens have the right to vote
city-state
independent nation that is only a city and it's surrounding countryside
What was the early history of Rome called?
Regnal
Who brought reforms into Athens in the 7th century?
Solon
Roman Mythology
Much of the Roman mythology was adapted from the Greek stories of their gods. Many of the Greek gods have a Roman counterpart. It is interesting to see the changes and adaptations of the mythology from the Greek to the Roman mythology.
basic political unit of greece is the city state, or this
polis
Aristocrat
A member of the most powerful class of ancient Greek society
martyr
someone who is killed for his or her religious or other personal beliefs
dictator
A ruler who has complete power over a country: 6 months
Julius Caesar
one of the most successful Roman army commanders
When Mycanean power faded...
-people forgot many skills
-art of writing
Alexander the Great
A pupil of Aristotle; he conquered lands from Greece to the Indus Valley from 336 to 306 BC
What new system did the Romans need?
onamastic naming system
Augustus Caesar
Fought Mark Antony and defeated him t the Battle of Actium, his rule marked the beginning of a prosperous and peaceful time in Roman history, he was the commander and chief of the Roman Army
Greek Costume and Dress
Simple and elegant, most Greek clothing was made of wool and flax. They wore tunics and cloaks and learned to dye and weave patterns into the edges of their cloth. Greeks went barefoot at home and wore sandals or boots when traveling.
each of these has its own form of government, laws, and military
polis
Form of teaching in which the teacher asks questions to guide the student to the truth
The Socratic Method
Brief, personal, emotional, down-to-earth
Description the poetry of the Lyric Age of the Greeks
What was the result of the First Messenian War?
Helotizing of Messenians
Roman Clothing Styles
Adapted from the tunics of the Greeks, the Romans adapted and refined their clothing into loose, straight garments covered by a long piece of fabric called a toga. Emperors wore purple togas, senators wore white togas edged in purple trim and citizen wore white. Many people wore tunics day to day to work in.
A household gods, and spirits
What did each household have? (in Ancient Rome)
Dorians invade Laconia to sparta
turned the conquered to slaves, and made them work the land
effect of geography on the development of greek culture
they ate seafood
their building materials were stone
they were swimmers and traveled by sea frequently
they had an expanding society and easier trade
they cant grow on mountains: agriculture limited
they had limited communication between communities
How could a turbine stop a law from passing?
They would sa veto.
Center of dispute between patricians and plebeians
A voice and power in the government
two poems written by homer about the trojan war
the iliad and the odyssey
The Roman Empire Splits

286 AD
The huge empire could no longer be ruled by one person. Communication was not capable, it was simply too large. The emperor Diocletian divided it into two parts, east and west. Maximian was to rule the west and served in the capital of Rome. Eventually civil war broke out and many men wished to rule. Constantine would become ruler, as he desired.
The Republic of Rome

509 BC to 366 BC
After overthrowing the Etruscan king, the Romans developed their own form of government called a republic. They divided the people into two classes; patricians and plebeians. The USA was formed as a republic and many of the founding principles are based on this Roman government.
The Philosophers of Greece

450 BC to 322 BC
The Greeks loved to ask ‘Why?’ and seek knowledge and answer questions of how the world works. Several men became legendary for their truth seeking. Socrates, Plato and Aristotle are some of the most famous. They influenced life back then and their works still do today.
veto
block
Sophists
paid teacher-philosophers
citizens
free residents
Roman republic
...
culture
art/architecture; rules/penalties; clothing; customs/traditions; economy; education; food; housing; language; recreation; religion/beliefs; technology; transportation; type of government
straits
narrow water passages
Monarchy
One person inherits power
Athena
the Parthenon was dedicated
inflation
rapid rise of prices
Provinces
government divisions like states
Plebeian
Less wealthy landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers of the Roman Republic
Cavalry
Soldiers who ride on horses
Another term for "Indirect Democracy"
Republic
olympics
Greek athletic competitions to celebrate the Gods and feed city-state rivalries
Minoan civilization
influenced the Mycenaean civilization
aqueducts
bridgelike stone structures that carried water from the hills into Roman cities
Problems of the Roman republic
...
What general superceded his ally?
Sulla
they had a warlike society
myceneans
An ancient Greek philosopher
Who was Socrates
Rome "borrowed" their religion from this civilization
Greece
organic
something that is/used to be living
Hellenistic Civilization
a blend of Greek,Persian,Egyptian,and Indian culture
phalanx
a massive tactical formation of heavily armed foot soldiers
patricians
members of the landholding upper class
Plague
disease that spreads easily and usually causes death
Aristotle
The Greek philosopher who summarized most knowledge up to his time and developed a type of logical argument
What did the Quastor do?
Investigate crimes
What was a well-ordered government called?
Eunomia
his work was carried through plato
socrates
a school founded by aristotle
the lyceum
Myth
A traditional story that helps to explain a cultures beliefs
Shelter
A place that provides protection from weather, such as a house
Latins
people from the ancient country of Latium, an area that is now Italy
This Greek city-states was known for its military
Sparta
twelve tables
the base of the Roman republic/law
Roman Roads
a road network for military purposes
Hellenistic
relating to or characteristic of the classical Greek civilization; specifically under the power of Alexander
intellectualism and rational thought
bWhat did they love?
comedies
humourous plays that mocked people or customs
Augustus
the Exalted One. Rome's first emperor that followed right after Julius Caesar, his uncle's death. Builds a stable Gov.
Imperator
commander in chief, the latin origin of the word emperor
Pope
Father or head of the Christian church
Hellenism
The blind love for all things Greek
Diaspora
the scattering of Jews throughout the world
King Philip II
He centralized and Hellenized Macedonia so that Alexander the Great could fight the Persian Wars.
greek education
fairly widespread for the time
well rounded education was emphasized-reading and writing-public speaking and argument-athletics and music
sophists
first to focus on history and philosophy
he is the creator of modern historiography and the father of history
thucydides
338 BCE
When did Ancient Greek culture end flourishing?
Punic Wars
The wars fought between Rome and Carthage
The Eastern most boundary of Alexander's empire is this river valley
The Indus River
taxation
the act of taking money for government purposes
democracy
a form of government in which the people have power and participate
eponym
is a person -either mythical or real -from whose name the name of a nation, idea, or term has been derived.
Philip II
lived in Thebes and admired Greek culture
Myceneans (to Minoans were)
intruders of Minoan civilization, first Greek-speaking people whom we have a written record of.
philosopher
a person who studies and thinks about why the world is the way it is
What was a collection of three men called?
Triumvirate
Constantine
Known for passing the Edict of Milan and moving the capital of the Roman Empire to a Byzantium and renaming the city after himself
Roman Military
The Romans had a very specialized military and were highly trained. The average soldier helped to conquer new territory, keep the peace in provinces and had to stop rebellion where ever it was found. They were talented with shield and lance.
an island that the minoans lived on from 3000 to 1500 BC
crete
Vault
An arched structure used to hold up a cieling or roof
These men are considered the first historians The Greeks
Herodotus & Thucydides
olympic prizes
crown made of olive leaves; statue of that person set up at Olympia
Farmers in ancient Greece grew what ?
barley and wheat
Virgil, Horace, and Ovid
three Latin writers during Augustus' reign
Agora
an open space in a town where people gathered to trade and discuss political and social matters
When did the secret panel who brought in new laws come in and what were they called?
451 decemviri
Cleopatra
She was a lover of both Julius Caesar and Marc Antony. She was queen of Egypt.
they attacked the city of troy in the trojan war
myceneans
Civil War
A war between two regions of the same country
council of 500
a council made up of 50 citizens elected from each of the 10 tribes to run the government in Athens
tyrants won support from..
merchant class and the poor by imposing reforms
Who was on the fourth rung of the grain chain?
Thetes <200
has veto power over the senate. can override laws. plebeians can elect representatives to it
assembly of tribes
The geography of Greece is made up of
Many islands and mountains
What three kin groups were in Rome?
paterfamilias, agnates, and clans (gens)
What was the Praetor System?
was like a trial, it took complaints and investigated them
What was the new assembly in Rome called, which stands for?
Comitia Centuriata (assembly of centuries)
Greek Drama, Music and the Arts
During the height of Greek culture, drama, music and the arts were very important and developed to highly regarded art forms. The open-air theatre was visited by all, and music and other arts such as sculpture and architectural designs were the hallmark of the Greeks.
What is the dictionary definition of liberty?
Liberty is freedom from external or foreign rule.
What was considered a citizen in ancient Rome?
had to be adult male landowners with military service
Pax Romana 27 BC to 14 AD
Under the rule of Caesar Augustus, the Roman people knew a time of peace known as the Pax Romana. It was this time that the republic began to change into an empire. Much of this time of peace was due to the rule of Caesar Augustus and his brilliance at designing the government that would rule the empire for hundreds of years to come.
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