Human Sexuality Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
butch/femme
Top/bottom
autoerotic stimulation
interfemural stimulation
oviducts
Fallopian tubes
Coitus
Penis-vagina intercourse.
Infancy (0-2 years)
Native American Two-Spirit
pre-ejaculate
Cowper's gland secrection
lactation
breast feedingmother, wet nurseduration, purpose- ensure health of baby, space pregnancies
sexual identity
sense of self
betrayal
undermining trustloss of innocencecare-giving role is perverted
syphilis
lesion borne-blood-borne crosses placenta to fetus-fluids from 2nd stage rash are highly infectious-2nd stage symptoms: rash may occur anywhere on body (painless, moist, infectious)-bacteria infects lymph glands, nausea, fever, aches in joints, muscleslong term effects=blindness, neurological disorders, paralysis, dementia, heart and lung disease, death-fetal death, illness
Pilaga
Gran Chaco of Argentina-multigenerational dwellings-husbands get adopted into the dwelling-childhood sexuality fully accepted-must marry a male from a different village-divorce is rare
week 13
morning sickness usually disappearscorrelated with decline in HCG
intersex
female genotype, male phenotype (xx,penis)male genotype, female phenotype (xy,clitoris)
avoidant lovers
25%difficulty with trusting suspicious, overly cautious
embryo
The prenatal organism from implantation on the uterine wall to the 8th week of pregnancy.
pseudocyesis
Physical symptoms of pregnancy manifested without conception
asymptomatic infection
An infection without symptoms.
monilia vaginitis
Yeast infection, candida albicansCauses=microbes normally present in vagina overgrow when vaginal pH changes as result of stress, hormone changes associated with pregnancy, menstruation, birth control, diabetes, antibiotics, feminine hygiene products.Transmission=sexual and non-sexual modes, partner needs treatment to prevent reinfection of femaleSymptoms=Yeast odor, cottage cheese-like discharge, burning, painful intercourseDetection=microscopic exam of dischargeLong Term effects=cause thrush (respiratory), infant effects at birth
muscin
Secreted into vagina at ovulation-alkaline, clear, copious, stretchy like raw egg white; allows rapid movement of sperm into uterus and tubes-basis for impregnation without ejaculation in vagina
matrilocal
In Pilaga Indian society:After marriage, husband lives with his wife and her family.
ejaculate
To discharge semen-consists of prostatic and seminal fluids and 300 million sperm (less than 1% of the ejaculate)-average ejaculate 4 cc in volume-ejaculate is a carbohydrate/protein vehicle for transporting sperm; entirely edible, about 36 calories-prostaglandins in semen can cause pleasurable or painful contractions in uterus of female
Testes
produce sperm and hormonesLeydig's Cells --> TestosteroneSertoli Cells --> Sperm
Erotica
Sexually explicit works expessing physical desire, passion, and attraction among people who freely choose to engage in sexual activities together.
home testing
dipstick placed in urine streamsensitive to detect HCG as early as 6-8 days post fertalization25%-30% false negativeshigher accuracy if 6-8 days post implantation
week 12-14 PF
genitalia and glands differentiate
Superego
Freud- the part of personality containing the conscience
Idealistic
gay rape
93% of rapists are straight
social dimension
experience others as peopleothers serve as mirror for selfoccasional sexual interaction with other childrenstrong attachments to parents"romantic" attachments with playmategradual abandonment of transitional objects
body size
strength, height signals masculinity in group short males feel inferior
erotic power play, exchange
Requires mutual interdependence-involves consensual sex play, not sexual assault-results in ecstatic state, not misery
orgasmic phase
General Features-switch to sympathetic tone-BP at peak-rhythmic contractions in PC-pleasurable sensations-release of oxytocinFemale System-cervical os opens-release of fluid via urethra-spasmodic skeletal muscle contractionsMale System-emission (ejaculation)-orgasm
transgenerational
Same-sex behavior involves partners of different pyschosexual agesMarind Anim-godfather with young boy
vasectomy
Cutting and stitching the vas-prevent sperm from being mixed with prostatic and seminal fluid-shut down of sperm production-does to alter capacity to ejaculate, orgasm or hormone production-simple surgery using local anesthetic
dildo
Used during masturbation or partner sex to stimulate body orifices
out-call
Sex takes place at customer's lodging
Tantra
Achieving spiritual unity via physical ecstasy-moving from reality to Reality (unity)-eye contact, mutual synchronized breathing, conscious touch, sounds of love
erotophilia
Celebration, sex is spiritual and essential for human happiness
gotad
"Female-free zone" located outside the village in which post-pubescent boys are strictly gender-segregated during the day.Also where married men spend social time away from females.Used in the Marind-Anim society.
female condom
Made of polyurethane-stronger, more durable, looser fit, more expensive
orgasm
occurs from stimulation of different genital tissues-different patterns of orgasm in different woman-ejaculation not proof of male orgasm-multiple orgasm in some men
ovulation
Ovum leaves follicle-14-16 days before end of cycle period of maximum fertility
Ejaculation
Expulsion of semen through the penis.
Lesbian
A female with a homosexual orientation.
Turner syndrome
A female genetic condition characterized by short stature, slow or no sexual development at puberty, heart abnormalities, and lack of ovarian function.
onset of labor
sure of hormonesuterus stimulates OXYTOCINsexual stimulation speeds up labor
tubal ligation
cutting and stitching.4% LAF .4% TAF
autogynephile
biologic male with male core gender identity who gains satisfaction from perceiving self and being perceived by others as female under some circumstances but has a male social role at other timesfemale when "dressed"89% heteosexual, 64% marries, 28% had gay sex74% report expressing different aspect of personality while dressed54% began prior to age 10most have normal families
Dimensions model
profile of scores on several individual scales/dimensionseach scale is scored on a continuum of heteroerotic and homoeroticscales:erotic attraction- sexual feeling/ fantasyemotional attachment- loving, relationshipssexual behavior- partneredsexual identity- sense of selfsexual role- presentation to societycognitive schema- collective mind set
amniotic fluid
the watery fluid surrounding a developing fetus on the uterus
sexual body language
leering, ogling, brushing against, hovering
polygamy
more than one concurrent spouse84% of known societies allow polygamymore common as an ideal
pre-industrialized societies
puberty is the biological transition to reproductive statuspuberty marks transition into adulthood
Perineum
the muscular region covered with skin that extends from the vaginal opening to the anal opening in the female, and from the scrotum to the anal opening in the male.
courtship paraphilia
Stages of consensual courtship of sexual partner-Finding phase=mutual locating-Affiliative phase-mutual verbal and nonverbal-Tactile phase=mutual non-genital physical contact-Copulatory phase=mutual overt sexual behavior
latex condoms
Prevent major prevention of fluid borne STIs (90-95%)
water-based lubricant
Best used in the vaginal area
phonesex operators
Probably have the safest work environment
pedophilia
Sexual arousal from contact with or fantasy involving a prepubescent child
brothel girl
-works out of home/apartment shared with group of prostitues-managed by pimp or madam-24 hour on call
prodromal phase
usually reoccurence is signaled by itching or tinging sensations in genitals or face, aching or tenderness in groin, burning urination, for 36 hours prior to eruption
sodomy
Anal or oral intercourse, sex toys, non-procreative sex
gender schema
Visual feedback from appearance of his/her own genitals-Identification with same-sex parent-Exhibit preference for type of play
sequential ambisexual
Assumption that the cross-sex and same-sex roles will occur in different phases of lifeBatak=boys engage in same sex behavior when younger and cross-sex behavior when older
corpus spongiosum
enlarges enormously, but does not harden during arousal
zygote
Days 0-4 PF -single fertilized cell replicates into a clump of undifferentiated cells-moves to the uterus, begins to implant in endometrium
mifepristone + gemeprost
Medical abortion by chemical expulsion-Multiple does, vaginal suppositories over 24 hours-weeks 12-19 LMP-hospital clinic-expulsion more rapid than labor induction
vectors model
Two continua produce 4 quadrants; androgyny, masculinity, femininity, undifferentiated
Endometriosis
growth of the endometrial tissue at abnormal locations in pelvic cavity, e.g.ovaries or oviducts -- can cause infertility. can be controlled by birth control pills, surgically removed
Erotophobia
An attitude toward sexuality in which individuals are generally uncomfortable with sexual topics, respond negatively and uncomfortably to sexual issues, and tend to avoid sexual information and activities.
Fetish
A sexual preference for a nonhuman object or a body part that most members of a culture do not consider sexual.
Ovaries
The female organs that produce sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone and where follicle cells are stored and mature into ova.
Gender identification
A developemental stage in children between the ages of 3 and 5 during which they begin to understand which sex they are.
Hostile environment
A distressing work or educational environment resulting from overt or covert sexually related activities or intrusions.
presenting engagement
when fetus head turns down, fetus carried lowed in pelivis reduces pressure above, increases pressure below
foam, jelly, cream
foam shaken wellapplicator is filled by attaching it to end of tube
LGBT Community U.S.
2.8% of men, 1.4% women self-identified as gay or lesbian9% male 3% female in 12 largest cities, 3-4% suburban and 1% ruralGay-Straight AlliancePFLAG- parents and friends of lesbians and gaysQueer Nation- younger generation
Epididymus 
A highly coiled tube located on the edge of the testes where sperm mature
luteal phase
the third phase of the menstrual cycle, following ovulation
tension building phase
(may last weeks)abuser is moody, sullen, suspicious, accusatory, threatens or commits minor assaults, propery damgage, verbal abuse
typical sexual behaviors
many types of sex-related behaviors initiated by children with peers, siblings, both genderscommon - hug, stroke, kiss, touch, expose body, masturbation, sex playuncommon- oral stimulation of anus or genitals, insertion of objects, penis penetration of vagine40% of boys and girls recall childhood masterbation80% of mothers report masturbation/genital play50% interactive sex play with peersmasturbation is "self care" and pleasure20% accidental view parents have sex
cross-cultural limits to adult-child contact
age normsincest tabooscoercion- prohibits violation of ethic of free participation
Although the brains of males and females look very similar, receptors in cells differ in _______ and ______.
Density; type
foreskin
Loose collar of skin which covers over the glans when the penis is flaccid-Is retracted when the penis is erect
genital lesion
Shedding of microbes from lesions on or near tissues associated with sexual activity
involuntary infertility
18.5% of couples desiring to be parents fail to produce offspring
monthly mood cycle
Monthly fluctuation less intense in both males and females-monthly fluctuation more predictable in females, more erratic in males-male and females show equivalent levels of mood fluctuation over a 30 day period
ejaculatory duct
Connects the vas deferens to the urethra, passes through the prostate.-Collects fluids from the prostate and seminal vesicles to form the ejaculate-Ducts from the prostate, seminal vesicle do not open during urination-Duct from the bladder does not open during erection or orgasm
labia minora
inner lips of vagina hairless -between two labia majora -meet at front, forming the clitoral hood (prepuse) 
-swell during sex
-look different for everyone
-very erotically sensitive
Quickening
The first movement of the fetus that is felt by the mother.
Psychological defense mechanism
Originally suggested by Freud, a psychological distortion of reality serving to defend against personally unacceptable thoughts or urges.
Tenting
A widening of the inner two-thirds of the vagina during sexual arousal.
biological side effects of pill
reduced endometrial and ovarian cancerrelief of dysmenorrhea, acnevaginal infections, headachesblood clot, blurred visionsuicide, headaches, liver diseaseheart attacksthreatens "good girl" image
Mullerian tubes
in absence of MIS develop into uterus, oviducts, upper vagina under direction of autosomes
Mons Pubis
The fatty pad of tissue under the pubic hair
phases of homosexual relationship
blending(year 1) - falling in lovenesting(2-3 year) - making a homemaintaing(year 4-5) - resolving conflictsbuilding(year 6-10) - interdependence with individualityreleasing(year 11-20) - merging money, possessions, relinquishing separate controlrenewing(year 21+) - restoring, reflecting
oral sex
40% male, 32% female engaged in oral sexpercieved as not real sexused as birth control and to preserve virginity
Labor has three stages:
1. contractions of the uterus2. Delivery3. Expulsion of the placenta
kept boy
Set up in upscale apartment for sole access by affluent male ( sugar daddy)
sexual dimorphic nucleus (SDN)
Cluster of cells located in hypothalamus relates to sexual behavior
seminal fluid
Fluid comprises 70% of volume of the ejaculate
Crura
3 in long, attached to pelvic bone and holds tissue in place, gets enlarged during arousal
part of clitoris
Mammogram
Low dose X-ray of the breast to detect tumors.
Exotic becomes erotic (EBE) theory
Psychologist Daryl Bem's explanation for the interaction of biology and environment in determining a person's sexual orientation.
reasons to stop coitus during pregnancy
pain for femaledischarge of mucusappearance of bloodleakage of amniotic fluidearly onset of labor contractions( NOT BRAXON-HICKS)
Symbiotic Interaction Theory
A theory based on the premise that  human nature and the social order are products of communication among people
Hormone Binding process (4 steps)
1. Hormone from blood reaches receptor2. Bound receptor activates adenylcyclase3. Cyclic AMP activates enzymes4. Enzymes Alter cell activity
fetonatal binding protein (FNBP)
FNBP in blood stream prevents hormones from altering dimorphic tissue
Casey v. Planned Parenthood
Supreme court grants states the right to impose restriction, which do not impose an "undue burden"-restriction allowed: mandatory waiting period, require counseling of options, info about gestational development, tests for viability, parental consent-unacceptable; spousal notification or consent
Female Ovary equals Male...
Testes on Male is equal to female...
Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS)
A hormonal condition in which the fetus has a reduced reaction to androgens in the uterus, producing a baby with genitals that are not clearly male or female.
Premature ejaculation (PE)
A man's tendency to have an orgasm suddenly with little penile stimulation, typically just before, upon, or shortly after penetration of the penis into the vagina; also referred to as rapid or early ejaculation.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
 
A condition in which a genetic female produces abnormal levels of androgens prenatally and therefore has male-appearing genitals at birth
Pathway for control of gonadotropin secretion GnRH
1. GnRH is synthesized by neuroendocrine cells scattered throughout the anterior hypothalamus2. The hormone is transported down the axon of the cell to the median eminence3. There it is released into blood vessels (portal veins) that carry it to the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland4. Once in the pituitary gland, GnRH stimulates the release of two gonadotropins, LH and FSH, each of which is synthesized by a specific type of glandular cell5. LH and FSH enter the general blood circulation and eventually reach their targets, the gonads
Female Corpora Cavernosa- cavernous body
-erectile tissue that lie side by side in the shaft of the clitoris - become stiff during arousal
Reciprocity of attraction
The idea that someone you like or love likes or loves you back-reciprocates your feelings-with appproximately the same degree of intensity.
What is the main hormonal action of inhibin?
feedback inhibition of gonadotropin secretion
What are the main hormonal actions of estradiol? (6)
- Feminizes body at puberty- Contributes to menstrual cycle- increase density of bone- ends growth of limb bones at puberty- feedback inhibition of gonadotropins- maintains libido (?)
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