Anthropology Key Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Homo Sapiens
(Latin: "wise man")

is the scientific name for the human species. Homo is the human genus, which also includes Neanderthals and many other extinct species of homonid
Homo Heidelbergensis
is an extinct species of the genus Homo which lived in Africa, Europe and western Asia from at least 600,000 years ago, and may date back 1,300,000 years. It survived until 200,000 to 250,000 years ago. It is probably the ancestor of Homo sapiens in Africa and the Neanderthals in Europe, and perhaps also the Denisovans in Asia.

It was first discovered near Heidelberg in Germany in 1907 and named by Otto Schoetensack
Hint:
Heisenberg lived in these three area's to cook crystal meth.
Australopithecus Africanus
was an early hominid, an australopithecine, who lived between ~3.03 and 2.04 million years ago in the later Pliocene and early Pleistocene.

In common with the older Australopithecus afarensis, Au. africanus was of slender build, or gracile, and was thought to have been a direct ancestor of modern humans.

Fossil remains indicate that Au. africanus was significantly more like modern humans than Au. afarensis, with a more human-like cranium permitting a larger brain and more humanoid facial features.
Hint:
US VS. IS
Australopithecus afarensis
is an extinct hominid that lived between 3.9 and 2.9 million years ago.

A. afarensis was slenderly built, like the younger Australopithecus africanus. It is thought that A. afarensis was more closely related to the genus Homo (which includes the modern human species Homo sapiens)

The most famous fossil is the partial skeleton named Lucy (3.2 million years old) found by Donald Johanson and colleagues
Ardipithecus
is a fossil hominine.

It is still a matter of debate what was the relation of this genus to human ancestors, and whether it is a hominin, or not.

Two species are described in the literature: A. ramidus, which lived about 4.4 million years ago[2] during the early Pliocene, and A. kadabba, dated to approximately 5.6 million years ago (late Miocene)
Paranthropus robustus (or Australopithecus robustus)
was originally discovered in Southern Africa in 1938. The development of P. robustus, namely in cranial features, seemed to be aimed in the direction of a "heavy-chewing complex".

Because of the definitive traits that are associated with this robust line of australopithecine, anthropologist Robert Broom erected the genus Paranthropus and placed this species into it.

Paranthropus robustus is generally dated to have lived between 2.0 and 1.2 million years ago. P. robustus had large sagittal crests, jaws, jaw muscles, and post-canine teeth that were adapted to serve in the dry environment that they lived in.
Hint:
"Heavy Chewers" Large jaw muscles and post-canine teeth.
Paranthropus boisei or (Australopithecus boisei)
was an early hominin, described as the largest of the Paranthropus genus (robust australopithecines).

It lived in Eastern Africa during the Pleistocene epoch from about 2.3 until about 1.2 million years ago.[1]
Hint:
#Mealsboiiiiiiii Eastern Africa - Pleistocene Epoch 2.3 - 1.2
Homo erectus
meaning "upright man," from the Latin ērĭgĕre, "to put up, set upright")

is an extinct species of hominin that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene, with the earliest first fossil evidence dating to around 1.8 million years ago and the most recent to around 143,000 years ago.

The species originated in Africa and spread as far as England, Georgia, India, Sri Lanka, China and Java.
Hint:
Originated in Africa and spread (6) to England,Georgia, India, Sri Lanka, China and Java
Pithecanthropus erectus (Java Man)
is the name given to fossils discovered in 1891 at Trinil - Ngawi Regency on the banks of the Solo River in East Java, Indonesia,

one of the first known specimens of Homo erectus. Its discoverer, Eugène Dubois, gave it the scientific name Pithecanthropus erectus, a name derived from Greek and Latin roots meaning upright ape-man.
Hint:
Upright APE-MAN
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