Section I Unit I Theory Objectives Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Discuss the spread and control of infectious agents.
Made up of 6 Components
1) Infectious Agent
2) Reservoir
3) Portal of Exit
4) Mode of Transmission
5) Portal of Entry
6) Susceptible Host
Compare and contrast medical asepsis and surgical asepsis.
Medical asepsis is the use of practices aimed at destroying pathological organisms after they leave to avoid the spread of infection from one person to another. Surgical asepsis refers to destruction of organisms before they enter the body.
Identify factors that increase the risk of infection for health care personnel.
1) Sick patients
2) Needle sticks
3) Hazardous chemicals/drugs
4) Infectious waste
5) Falls
6) Back injury
Compare and contrast standard precautions with transmission-based precautions.
Standard precautions are used in the care of all patients regardless of their diagnosis or infection status. Transmission-based precautions are used in addition to standard precautions for patients w/ suspected infections w/ pathogens that can be transmitted by airborne, droplet, or contact routes.
Describe assessment data needed to determine an adult client's safety status.
Age, Level of Awareness (Normal is Alert & oriented to person, place, and time (x 3)), Sensory Perception, factors – stress, Physical condition e.g. mobility status, Medications – tricyclic antidepressants, loop diuretics, alpha agonists, alpha blockers, dopamine agonists, benzodiazepines, Assessment Tools e.g. Morse Fall Scale
Identify factors that may be safety hazards in the adult client's environment.
Improper Heating Systems – carbon monoxide poisoning
Food – e-coli
Physical – stairs, throw rugs
Thermal – hot coffee, Chemical – drugs, cleaning agents, Radiation – sun
Microbial – immunosuppressed patient exposed to polio
Lead Paint
Temperature Extremes – heat exhaustion, hypothermia
Discuss factors that put an adult client at risk for injury.
Developmental Risk Factors
Individual Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Health Care Agency Risks
Describe health-promotion activities and interventions appropriate for clients to prevent injury.
1) Patient Education – Health Promotion to decrease patient's risk for injury 2) Orientation to unit 3) Explain medications – patients should always take as prescribed 4) Explain equipment – canes, walkers, ice packs, heating pads 5) Implement Nursing Interventions to provide safe environment, Bed in low position, orient to room, Call bell within reach, Provide assistance when getting OOB if patient is unstable, Slippers when ambulating, Reduce clutter in room, Decrease verbal stimuli/noise 6) Confused patient’s, Move closer to nurse’s station, Bed alarm device – will signal if patient gets OOB, Family participation, Cover IV sites/ tubing, Restraints as a last measure 7) Safe Practice – use 2 unique patient identifiers before beginning any procedure or administering medications
Discuss alternatives to using restraints.
Orient/Reorient to Surroundings
Modify Environment – move pt. closer to nurses station
Sitter – Provides Companionship and Supervision
Visual and Auditory Stimulation
Change or Eliminating Bothersome Treatment, e.g. initiate oral rather than NG feedings,
Toileting Routines
Interventions – relaxation techniques, involve pt.
Diversionary and Physical Activities
On Going Assessment and Use Creative Alternatives
Discuss hazards associated with the use of restraints
Hazards of Restraints:
Skin Breakdown
Describe appropriate steps in dealing with a fire in a health care facility.
Fire Safety – RACE; Rescue (Individuals in immediate danger), Alarm (Activate the fire alarm), Contain (Fire by closing all doors), Extinguish or Evacuate (Extinguish the fire or evacuate if necessary)
Describe the role of the RN in management of a client experiencing dysfunction in meeting his/her safety needs.
Describe the role of the RN in relationship to other members of the health care team.
Describe the role of the RN in helping to break the chain of infection.
Hand Hygiene
Adherence to thorough hand washing
Standard Precautions, and Transmission Based Precautions can prevent many nosocomial infections
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