Section I Unit II Lecture Notes Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Physiology of Movement
Purposeful coordinated movement of the body requires the integrated functioning of the skeletal, muscular, and nervous system
Skeletal System
1) Provides bony support structure for movement
2) Attachment of ligaments and muscles
3) Protection of vital organs
4) Mineral storage – some regulation of calcium
5) Production of red blood cells (RBC’s)
Skeletal Muscles
1) Are the working elements of movement because of their ability to contract and relax
2) Isometric contraction – tightening and relaxing of a muscle group without moving body parts e.g. contraction of gluteal muscles
3) Isotonic exercise – cause muscle contraction and change in muscle length e.g. walking, swimming, moving arms and legs with light resistance
Nervous System
1) Provides initiation and voluntary control of movement
2) Cerebellum and inner ear balance are assisted through nervous system control
3) Neurotransmitters transfer electric impulses from the nerve across the neuromuscular junction to the muscle
Body Mechanics
The efficient use of the body as a machine and as a means of locomotion. Use of proper body mechanics reduces risk of injury
Correct Body Alignment
1) Head erect
2) Face forward, in same direction as feet
3) Chest held upward & forward
4) Spinal column is elongated and the curves of the spine are within normal limits
5) Abdominal muscles are held upward and the buttocks downward
6) Knees are extended
7) Feet are at right angles to lower legs
8) Line of gravity goes through the center of the knees and in front of the ankle joints
9) Base of support on soles of the feet and weight is distributed through the soles and heels
Body Balance
1) A body in correct alignment has greater stability
2) The nervous system is responsible for muscle tone and regulation and coordination of the amount of pull exerted by individual muscles
3) Stability is achieved when
a) Center of gravity is close to its base of support; Center of gravity usually 55% of standing height and located midline
b) The line of gravity goes through the base of support
c) The base of support is wide – feet shoulder width apart
Mechanics of Friction
Friction is a force created when two surfaces rub against one another
To reduce friction
1) Reduce surface area by having patient place arms over chest
2) Have patient help when moving – a passive patient produces greater friction
3) Lift rather than push – use pull sheet
Factors Affecting Body Alignment & Mobility
1) Developmental Considerations; Older Adult – progressive loss of total bone mass; may walk more slowly and appear less coordinate. May take smaller steps, keeping feet closer together resulting in a decrease in the base of support. Greater risk for falls because body balance is unstable.
2) Musculoskeletal Problems; Scoliosis, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, trauma
3) Central Nervous System Problems; Parkinson’s disease, hemiplegia, multiple sclerosis
4) Fatigue and Stress
Impaired Mobility / Immobility
1) May result from illness or trauma
2) May be prescribed for therapeutic reasons
3) The risk of disabilities related to immobilization depends on the extent and duration of immobilization
Activity Tolerance
1) The type and amount of activity a person is able to perform
2) Physiological, emotional, and developmental factors influence the patient’s activity tolerance
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