Test 2 - Bias-Based Policing Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Define bias based profiling
When the law-enforcement contact is based on any identifying factor (Race, gender, class, etc); It may also be characterization of any of the aforementioned groups with a preconceived tendency or propensity to engage in criminal activity
Define bias
An inclination of temperament or outlook; especially a personal and sometimes unreason judgment; prejudice
Stress must have an outlet or a target
Suppressing and bottling up our stressful thoughts can break down our immune system. Having a positive attitude and letting go of stress me improve our immune response.
The three phases of stress
Alarm phase, adoption phase, exhaustion phase
Target blaming can suffice in place of an outlet but...
This adds more stress to their lives and the lives of the family members. It can also cause us to blame the "other" (Gender, race, religion, class)
Stress, biases, and action
Biases transform into racial profiling when they affect our actions. Under stress our subconscious biases can surface, And new biases may form quickly. Biases will negatively impact us as people by prompting us to target our motions by blaming others
Define racial profiling
The practice of law enforcement officers Berlind, to any degree, on race, ethnicity, national origin, or religion in selecting which individuals are subject to routine investigative activities, or in deciding upon the scope and substance of law enforcement activity following initial routine investigative activity
Proper name for criminal profiling
Criminal investigative analysis
Criminal profiling is different from bias based profiling. Fact card
What does act 1207 of 2003 require?
That law enforcement agencies in Arkansas must have a racial profiling policy. Prohibits racial profiling. It requires law-enforcement officers to identify themselves by full name in jurisdiction, and state the reason for the stop, and when possible present written ID
Define reasonable suspicion
Facts or circumstances which, before stop, would lead a reasonable person to suspect a crime has been, is, or will be committed
Define probable cause
Facts or evidence that would lead a reasonable person to believe that a crime has been, is, or will be committed and that the person arrested is responsible; must have probable cause before arrest
What must an officer have before making a stop?
Reasonable suspicion or probable cause
What percentage of NYPD stops were on black or Hispanic individuals?
What three studies were done to determine if the Siri that minorities are more likely to have contraband?
NY Atty. Gen., NJ Atty. Gen., Lamberth
Define low discretion
Stops that are based on externally generated reports of a crime or suspicious activity. It could also be a visible violation of law that occurs in the presence of the officer.
What are some examples of low discretion?
Major crimes, severe hazardous violations, reported by third-party who request contact, report of a crime with a suspect
Define high discretion
Stops that are made without externally Generated reports
Examples of high discretion
Minor speeding violations, failure to signal, drove left of center or off-road, obscured license plate, license plate light out
Hi discretion is vulnerable to what?
Which GO do we have to address biased base profiling?
GO 117
And be sure that each stock has a basis for the stop that is...
Legal, clear, and explainable. Have good reasonable suspicion and or probable cause.
Only conduct stops or searches when...
Reasonable suspicion or probable cause are present
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