Beef Production exam 1 Flashcards

Agriculture
Terms Definitions
What is a breed
animals resemble one another through selection and breeding, and pass those traits uniformly to their offspring
Breeds are primarily created by...
breeders & industry
are cattle native to North America
No
Types of cattle
Bos indicus and Bos taurus
Bos indicus breeds
Brahman
Brahman - Origin
Origin - India (Mix of 4 of 30 Indian breeds)
1st breed developed in U.S. (1924)
Brahman - color and characteristics
Color: light grey, red, and black
Characteristics: Heat tolerant, crossbreeding
Over 900,000 registered
Bos Taurus breeds
British Breeds, Continental European Breeds
British Breeds
angus, red angus, Hereford, and shorthorn
Angus - origin
Origin: Arrived in U.S. in 1873
Origin: Scotland
Angus - association, color, and characteristics
Association created in 1883
Color: Black
Polled
Characteristics: Maternal, Quality Carcasses, most popular
Small size
Red Angus - Origin
Origin: Scotland
All angus registered together in Britain
Red Angus - Color, association, characteristics
Derived from red culls from angus herds ( recessive gene)
Separate association I U.S. in 1954
Color: Red
Polled
Small size
Maternal
Hereford - Origin
Origin - England
Arrived in U.S. in 1817
- Henry Clay brought to Kentucky
Hereford - Color, Characteristics, Association
Association created in 1881
Color: Red with white markings
small to medium size
horned or polled
Docile temperament
Hardiness
Shorthorn (dual purpose breed) - Origin
Origin - England
Originally called the Durhams
Arrived in U.S. in 1873
Shorthorn - Association, Color, Characteristics
Association created in 1872
Color: red, white, and roan
polled or horned
medium size
Mild disposition
Common Continental European Breeds
Charolais, Chianina, Gelbvieh, Limousin, Maine - Anjou, Salers, and Simmental
Charolais - Origin
Origin - France
Arrived in U.S. in 1935 (CA & TX)
Charolais - Association, Color, Characteristics
Association created in 1940s - 1950s
Color: Off-white, cream, light straw
Horned or Polled
Large size
Growth
Late - maturing
Chianina- Origin
Origin - Italy
one of the oldest breeds
arrived in U,S, in 1971 (semen)
Chianina - association, color, characteristics
association created in 1972
Polled
Large size
Defined muscling
Color: white to steel gray
Have black pigmented skin
Gelbvieh - origin
Origin - Germany
Arrived in U.S. in 1971
Gelbvieh - association, color, characteristics
Association created in 1971
Color: red, gold
Polled or Horned
Maternal
Calving ease
Large size
Limousin - Origin
Origin: France
Arrived in U,S, in 1969
Limousin - association, color, characteristics
Association created in 1969
- cattle in Canada
Color: black or red
Polled
Medium size
" the carcass breed"
Maine - Anjou - Origin
Origin: France
also known as Maceele breed
Arrived in U.S. in 1969
Maine - Anjou - Association, color, characteristics
Association created in 1969
Color: black or red with white strips
Polled
Large size
Docile
Feed efficiency
Salers - Origin
Origin - France
old & genetically pure breed
Arrived in U.S. in 1975
One of the last European breeds
Salers - association, color, characteristics
Association crated in 1974
Color: deep cherry red or black
Horned or Polled
Medium size
Fertility & Calving ease
Simmental - origin
Origin: Switzerland
Fleckvieh (more purebred Simmental)
old & widely distributed breed
Simmental - Association, color, characteristics
association created in1968
Color: yellow, black, and red
horned or polled
medium size
Growth
Common Composite Breeds
beefmaster, braford, brangus, and Santa Gertrudis
Beefmaster - Origin
South TX, 1954
Beefmaster - association, color, characteristics
association created in 1961
horned or polle
color: varies (yellow and red common)
small size
fertility & longevity
Beefmaster - cross of three breed
50% Brahman
25% Hereford
25% Shorthorn
Beefmaster - selected by six essentials
weight, conformation, milking, fertility, hardiness, and disposition
Braford - Origin
Origin: Florida, 1974
Braford - association, color, characteristics
Association created in 1969
Color: red with white markings
horned or polled
small size
maternal and longevity
Braford - a cross of two brreds
3/8 Brahman
5/8 Hereford
Brangus - Origin
Origin: USDA -LA, 1932
Brangus: association, color, characteristics
association in 1949
Color: black
polled
small to medium size
maternal and hardy
Brangus - a cross of two breeds
3/8 Brahman
5/8 Angus
Santa Gertrudis - Origin
Origin - King Ranch, TX 1910
Santa Gertrudis - association, color, characteristics
association created in 1951
horned (most common) or polled
Color: dark red
small to medium size
Fertility and longevity
Santa Gertrudis - a cross between two breeds
3/8 brahman
5/8 Shorthorn
Bull
intact male
cow
mature female
steer
castrated male
heifer
immature female
calf
young male or female
freemartin
infertile female twin
yearling
calf reached 1 yr
calving
parturition
herd
group of cattle
Two types of cattle scientific classification
bos inicus and bos taurus
Domestication of cattle
6500 B.C.
Derivation of the word "cattle"
from the latin word " capiitale"
means wealth or property
Christopher Columbus
cattle to western hemisphere in 1493
Hernando Cortez
Cattle to Mexico 1519
English colonists
cattle to New England in 1609
In New England
prized for transportation, leather, work, and fat more than meat. used mostly for work
Westward expansion
essential for pioneers
Roaming in the Southwest
Descendants of Cortez cattle (long horn)
Number of Cattle (1000s hd)
Number of Cattle

Beef cows - 1028
Stocker cattle - 370
Replacement heifers - 150
other heifers - 160
steers (500lb & over) - 225
Bulls ( 500lb & over) - 75
Calves (less than 500lb) - 450
Cattle on feed 15
Top ten beef cow states
1.) Texas - 4,015
2.) Nebraska - 1,805
3.) Missouri - 1,757
4.) Oklahoma - 1,754
5.) South Dakota - 1,688
6.) Montana - 1,506
7.) Kansas - 1,328
8.) Kentucky - 1,028
9.) Iowa - 925
10.) North Dakota - 922
Why Cattle?
world---------------------------acers----------% of Land
agriculture land--------12.29 billion
arable land-----------3.37 billion------------27.4%
Permanent pastures----8.59 billion------69.9%
Permanent croplands-----0.33 billion-----2.7%
United States----------------------acers-------------------% of Land
agriculture land--------------1,033.88 billion----------
arable lands---------------------437.07 billion-----------42.3%
permanent pastures ---------590.95 million----------57.2%
Permanent croplands----------5.06 million------------0.5%
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