Chapter 2 Principals of Drug Actions Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Agonist
Chemical or drug that binds to a receptor and creates and effect on the body.
Antagonist
Chemical or drug that binds to a receptor but does not create an effect on the body, it blocks the receptor site from accepting an agonist.
Bioavailability
Amount of drug that reaches the systemic circulation.
Drug administration
Method by which a drug is made available to the body.
Enteral
Use of the intestine.
First-pass effect
Initial metabolism in the liver of a drug taken orally before the drug reaches the systemic circulation.
Hypersensitivity
Allergic or immune mediated reaction to a drug, which can be serious, requiring airway maintenance or ventilatory assistance.
Idiosyncratic effect
Abnormal or unexpected reaction to a drug, other than an allergic reaction, as compared with predicted effect.
Inhalation
Taking a substance, typically in the form of gasses, fumes, vapors, mists, aerosols, or dusts, into the body by breathing in.
Local effect
Limited to the area of treatment ( inhales drug to treat constricted airways)
Lung availability/total systemic availability ratio (L/T ratio)
Amount of drug that is made available to the lung out of the total available to the body.
Parenteral
Any way other than the intestine, most commonly an injection ( e.g, intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intrathecal , r intraosseous).
Pharmacodynamics
Mechanisms of drug action by which a drug molecule causes its effect in the body.
Pharmacogenetics
Study of genetic factors and their influence on drug response.
Pharmacokinetics
Time course and disposition of a drug in the body, bases on its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination.
Receptor
Cell component that combines with a drug to change or enhance the function of the cell.
Structure-activity relationship (SAR)
Relationship between a drug chemical structure and the outcome it has on the body.
Synergism
Drug interaction that occurs from two or more drug effects that are greater than if the drugs were given alone.
Systemic effect
Pertains to the whole body, whereas the target for the drug is not local, possibly causing side effects (capsule of acetaminophen for a ha)
Tachyphylaxis
Rapid decrease in response to a drug.
Therapeutic index (TI)
Difference between the minimal the therapeutic and toxic concentrations of the drug, the smaller the difference, the greater chance the drug will be toxic.
Tolerance
Decreasing intensity of response to a drug over time.
Topical
Use of the skin or mucous membrane (lotion)
Transdermal
Use of the skin (patch)
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