Psych 221 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Jane Elliot
Teacher - blue eye vs. brown eye discrimination project
Social perception
The process through which individuals form impressions of others and interpret information about them. Ex: expensive car = lots of money
Social influences
The process through which other people affect an individuals thoughts or actions. Ex: parent is a doctor so son becomes a doctor
Social facilitation
The enhancement of a well learned performance when another person is present. Ex: partner tests
Social loafing
A phenomenon that occurs when individuals make less of an effort when attempting to achieve a particular goal as a groups than they would if they were attempting to achieve the goal on their own. Ex: tug o war
First books on social psych
Social psychology and intro to social psychology
SPSSI
Society for the psychological study of social issues
Basic
The fundamental ideas behind behavior and cognitive processes
Applied
Use of the ideas of social psychology to address issues in other fields
Individualistic cultures
Focus oh independent individuals
Collectivist cultures
Emphasize the individual in relation to his or her connectedness to those surrounding him or her
Sociocultural perspective
Focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture
Evolutionary perspective
Focuses in the physical and biological predispositions that result in human survival
Natural selection
Process by which individuals with certain characteristics are more frequently represented in subsequent generations as the result of being better adopted for the environment
Social cognitive perspective
Perspective that builds on behavioral theories and demonstrates that an individuals cognitive process influences and is influenced by behavioral associations
Social learning perspective
Perspective that stressed the particular power of mean ring through social reinforcements and punishments
Confederates
Individuals who are part of the research team and are placed in the experiment to play a particular role
Hindsight bias
The tendency to think that one knew that something would occur all along
False consensus effect
A phenomenon that causes individuals to assume that everyone shares the same opinion they do
Differential construal
The act of judging circumstances differently
Confirmation bias
The tendency to notice info that confirms ones beliefs and to ignore information that disconfirm a ones beliefs
Scientific method
An approach to thinking that involves using systematic observations, measurements, and experiments to assess information
Theory
General framework for understanding a concept that allows us to describe, explain, and predict behavior
Research question
The query that is the first step in the research process
Peer review
Process by which experts in the field review and comment on each others work
Hypothesis
A proposed explanation that can be either supported or disproven with statistics or observation
Variables
Stimuli or characteristics that can take on different values such as level of attraction or age
Operational definition
A definition that assigns one or more specific operational conditions to an event and then identifies how those conditions should be measured
Valid
When a variable measures what it is suppose to measure
Reliable
Consistent measurement
Sample
Selections of who it what will be tested in the research process
Replication
The process of repeating a study to verify effects usually with a different sample of participants
Descriptive research
Research used to obtain info regarding the current status of a population or phenomena to describe the who what where and how questions with respect to variables or conditions in a situation
Naturalistic observation
Research that involves watching behavior in a real world setting
Self report or survey method
Form of data collection in which participants are asked to rate or describe their own behavior or mental states
Archival studies
Research that entails culling Info from existing records ranging from magazine articles to web site analysis
Correlational research
Research in which they do not manipulate variables but observe whether there is a relationship between 2 variables
Third variable
Any other factor that could be responsible for the observed effect
Matched samples design
Research design in which two or more groups of individuals are identical in terms of the third variable
Experimental research
Research that attempts to control all the factors that may effect the results of an experiment
External validity
The extent to which results apply to a general population
Internal validity
The ability to infer cause and effect; that the variable was manipulated was the only factor to change across conditions so was what led to the observation effect
Independent Variable
The variable the experimenter has control over and can alter
Dependent variable
The variable the experimenter does not control that is used to measure whether the change in the independent variable has an effect
Experimental group
In an experiment, the group that gets the main treatment or manipulation
Control group
The group that does it get the main treatment in an experiment, but is used as a baseline to compare results with the experimental group
Random assignment
A required technique in an experiment to be able to infer cause and effect; every participant has any equal chance of being assigned to any group in the experiment
Confound
Any difference other than the levels of the independent variable between the experimental group and the control group
Participant bias
Bias that occurs when a participant's suspicions, expectations, or assumptions about the study influence the result
Placebo effect
A measurable or observable improvement in health or behavior that is not attributed to medication or any other treatment given
Single-blind study
Study in which two groups of participants are not told whether they are given the real treatment or the place so and therefore do not know in which group they are
Experimenter bias
Bias exhibited by the experiment administrator in inadvertently but subtly changing his behavior toward participants because of knowledge of which group is control and which group is experimental; this also occurs when the researcher subconsciously shows bias in his or her evaluation of results in an effort to reach the desired conclusion
Double-blind study
Study in which neither the experimenter not the participant knows which group is experimental and which is control
Deception
Providing participants with false or incomplete knowledge
Debriefing
Procedure of giving participants a full explanation of the hypothesis being tested, procedures used to deceive the participants, and the reasons for deception
Institutional review board (IRB)
A committee that has been established to approve and oversee research that involves human and nonhuman animal subjects
Informed consent
When the subjects are told at the beginning of a study as much information as possible about the participation in the study to determine if they would like to be involved
Operationalization
Important idea - define variable as close as possible
Inter rater
Part of reliability - consistency across judges
Non reactive measure
Participants are not aware they are being measured ... Unaware of the purpose .... Response can't be guarded or fake
Self concept
Your mental representation or overall sense of you
Self schema
Beliefs about aspects of your identity that organize the processing of info related to the self
Self efficacy
A persons belief in ones ability to achieve certain goals
Social identity theory
A theory in which we develop our identity from our group memberships
Individualism
At the culture level, focus on the self as independent from there and defining individual goals over the collective
Collectivism
A cultural focus on the self as interdependent and defined by the connectedness of people to one another, in particular, the people closest to them
Twenty statements test
A measure of self concept that asks individuals to self report who am I
Introspection
The process of thinking about your own thought
Affective forecasting
The process of predicting the impact future events will have on our overall emotional states
Self discrepancy theory
A theory in which our concepts of self are influenced by how close our actual selves are to the selves we would like to be
Self awareness
When attention is brought about on the self- looking in a mirror
Self perception theory
A theory in which if we are unsure of the attitudes we hold we look to our behaviors and use that to make inferences about our attitudes. Outside observer
Facial feedback hypothesis
A hypothesis that states that a change in our facial expressions can lead to subsequent emotional change
Intrinsic motivation
The drive to perform an action because we enjoy it and are likely to engage in it more fully and with greater curiosity and pleasure
Extrinsic motivation
The drive to perform an action in response to an external pressure or obligation to avoid punishment or to achieve some outside benefit
Self esteem
A persons evaluation of his or her self worth
Attribution
Deciding who or what is responsible for the outcome of a situation, another way we cope with failure and respond to success in order to maintain self esteem
Self serving attribution
A self protection strategy in which we are likely to believe that external factors are responsible for situations in which we perform poorly
Unrealistic optimism
When we tend to imagine that the outcomes of situations will be better for us than for other people
Social comparison theory
A theory wherein we compare ourselves to other in different situations because there is no give. Standard against which to measure out abilities and opinions
Downward social comparison
The process of comparing yourself to someone who is less capable or worse off than you are
Birging
Basking in reflected glory; a strategy by which we reinforce out positive self concepts by identifying ourselves with successful others
Corfing
Cutting off reflective failure; a strategy by which we try to disassociate ourselves from others who have failed or behaved poorly
Self handicapping
A process that involves setting up an obstacle before engaging in a task as a way to give ourselves a ready made excuse in car we don't perform well
Ingratiation
A way of controlling others impressions of us through flattery
Spotlight effect
A belief that out behaviors appearances and internal states are obvious to others
Self verification theory
A theory wherein we want others to see us as we see ourselves - even when out self concepts are negative
Self monitoring
Process through which people regulate their behavior to be perceived well by others
Dispositional attribution
Inferring that a persons traits, something internal, caused his or her behaviors
Situational attribution
Inferring that the situation in which a person is in, something external, caused his or her behavior
Correspondent inference theory
Theory that people base their inferences regarding the source of others behaviors on whether or not the behavior was freely chosen, if the consequences are distinctive, and if the behavior was socially desirable
Covariation theory
Theory that people base their inferences regarding the source of others behaviors on whether or not there is a consensus regarding the way one ought to respond, the distinctiveness of the response, and the consistency of the persons response across situations
Corresponding bias
The tendency of people to make Dispositional attributions for others behaviors
Fundamental attribution error
A more commonly known name for corresponding bias
Spontaneous trait inference
Process of automatically inferring traits from another person behavior
Three stage model of attribution
A model in which an observer automatically characterizes a behavior automatically makes a Dispositional inference and uses conscious effort to correct for situational constraints is the observer has the cognitive capacity to do so
Need for cognition
The need that some individuals have to think, solve problems, and understand their world accurately
Actor observer effect
The tendency people have to make Dispositional inferences for others behavior but situational attributions for their own
Belief in a just world
People have to believe the world is fair and adjust their other beliefs to maintain that stance by concluding that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people
Primacy effect
Phenomenon whereby the first pieces of info to which we are exposed have the most impact on out judgments
Recency effect
The phenomenon whereby the last pieces of info to which we are exposed have heightened impact on our judgements
What is beautiful is good effect
The phenomenon wherein beautiful things are imbued with positivity and activate positive things in the mind
Halo effect
When one positive thing is known or believed about a target person, we tend to infer that the individual is positive overall and this has other positive features
Belief perseverance
Holding on to ones belief even in the face of contradictory evidence
Nonverbal cues
Behaviors, gestures, and expressions that convey thought or emotion without words
Basic emotions
6- happiness fear sadness anger surprise disgust
Attitudes
Having an evaluative component toward a stimulus that is made up of affective, behavioral, and cognitive info
Ambivence
Simultaneously experiencing a strong contradictory emotions or motivations
Implicit additudes
Attitudes that are automatically formed and activated without our even being aware of it
Explicit attitudes
Attitudes of which one is aware and that one can control
Classical conditioning
Type of learning by which a neutral stimulus gets paired with a stimulus that elicits a response. Repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus by itself elicits the response of the second stimulus
Unconditioned stimulus
A stimulus that elicits a response automatically without learning taking place
Unconditioned response
A response that occurs automatically in reaction to some stimulus without learning taking place
Conditioned stimulus
A stimulus that by repeated association with a particular unconditioned stimulus comes to evoke the response associated with the unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned response
A lean red response to the conditioned stimulus that was previously a neutral stimulus
Mere exposure effect
The phenomenon whereby objects become better liked with exposure- we like things more with which we are familiar
Name letter effect
The tendency to show a preference for letters in our own name and prefer stimuli that contain those letters
Operant conditioning
A type of warning in which the frequency of a behavior is determined by reinforcement and punishment
Positive reinforcement
Addition of a desirable item in order to reinforce a behavior
Negative reinforcement
Removal of something unpleasant in order to increase the likelihood of a behavior happening again
Positive punishment
Addition of a undesirable stimulus in order to reduce a behavior
Negative punishment
Removal of something pleasurable in order to decrease the frequency of a behavior
Observational learning
Acquiring an attitude or behavior she to the observation of others exhibiting that attitude or behavior
Implicit association test
Test that measures how easily we associate categories with positive or negative attitudes
Theory of planned behavior
The theory that attitudes, social norms, and the perceived control of the individual lead to behavior
Accessibility
Degree to which a concept is active in our consciousness
Chronic accessibility
Accessibility arising from frequent and recent exposure to a construct that has permanence -- accessible all of the time
Cognitive dissonance
The anxiety that arises from acting in a way discordant with your attitudes. Resolved by adjusting ones attitudes to be in line with the behavior
Post decision dissonance
Cognitive dissonance that results from having to reject one appealing choice in favor of another
Self affirming theory
In the face is threat, people will try to restore their self worth by reaffirming their values
Impression management
The process by which people either consciously or unconsciously attempt to monitor how they appear to others by regulating the information conveyed about themselves in a social interaction and thus attitudes change is more likely when counter attitudinal behavior occurs in public
Persuasion
The way people communicate in order to influence other people's attitudes and behaviors
Central route
A type of processing that occurs when an individual had the ability and motivation to thoroughly listen to and evaluate a persuasive message
Peripheral route
Type of processing that occurs when an individual lacks the ability and motivation to thoroughly listen to and evaluate a persuasive message and is therefore influenced by external cues like attractiveness of the speaker
Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)
A model of persuasion that proposes that there are two different routes, central and peripheral, that an individual may take when processing a message. Impacted by cognitive capacity and individual differences of the perceived
Source
The person or persons who deliver a message
Sleeper effect
The effect whereby the persuasive impact of a non credible source increases over time
Valence
The degree of attraction or aversion that a person feels toward a specific object event or idea
Fear based appeal
An attempt to provoke fear in the audience in order to persuade then not to do something
Message content
Tactics used to communicate a concept to an audience
Message construction
How the message is put together
Outcome relevant involvement
The degree to which the economic or social outcome promoted in the message is important to the receiver
6 weapons of influence
Reciprocation, commitment and consistency, social proof, liking, authority, and scarcity
Reciprocation
Desire to not appear as moochers or freeloaders. Paying someone back to helping someone back
Commitment and consistency
How we believe we are and continue to do it (generous so donate)
Social proof
Notion that others actions suggest to us what is correct
Liking
Enjoy saying yes to people we like and not to people we don't like
Authority
Respect people who are in greater power than you
Scarcity
Saying you have minimum of something is a popular way to sell it
Forewarning
Process of being informed ahead of time that a favored attitude will be challenged
Reactance
When individuals feel that their freedom is threatened they instinctively want to restore their freedom
Inoculation
The process of building up resistance to unwanted persuasion
Stockholm syndrome
Captives come to identify with and even love their captors
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