Biology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
pathogen
organism that causes disease
saprophyte
organism that feeds on dead matter
parasite
organism that feeds on a living host, heterotrophic
aerobic organism
organism that requires oxygen
anaerobic organism
organism that does not require oxygen
steady state
state in which members of a population die as quickly as new members are born
exponential growth
population growth that is unhindered because of the abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population
logistic growth
population growth that is controlled by limited resources
conjugation
a temporary union of tow organism for the purpose of DNA transfer
plasmid
a small circular section of extra DNA that confers one or more traits to a bacterium and can be reproduced separately from the main bacterial genetic code
Transformation
the transfer of a DNA segment from a nonfunctional donor cell to that of a functional recipient cell
Transduction
the process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another
endospore
the DNA and other essential parts of a bacterium coated with several hard layers
Strains
organisms from the same species that have markedly different traits
Plasma membrane
layer of bacterium that allows materials to pass in and out of the cell
flagellum
part of bacterium that moves it
capsule
part of bacterium that helps it adhere(stick) to surfaces, helps to ward off infection-fighting agents
DNA
to store the information needed to make an organism a living thing
cytoplasm
to hold the DNA and ribosomes in place
cell wall
to keep the interior of the cell together and to hold the cell's shape
fimbria
part of cell that grasps onto surfaces or another bacterium during conjugation
ribosome
makes proteins in cell
most bacteria are
heterotrophic decomposers
bacterial shapes
coccus - spherical
bacillus - rod shaped
spirillum - helical
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