Phlebotomy Abbreviations Flashcards

Terms Definitions
National healthcareer association
2-h PPBS
2 hour postprandial blood sugar
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Alkaline phosphatase: protein found in all body tissues. Tissues with particularly high amounts of ALP include the liver, bile ducts, and bone. This test is done to diagnose liver or bone disease, or to see if treatments for those diseases are working. It may be included as part of a routine liver function test.
Alanine aminotransferase: test is often part of an initial screening for liver disease. ALT is found inside liver cells. But if the liver is inflamed or injured, ALT is released into the bloodstream. Blood levels tell how well the liver is functioning and whether a disease, drug, or other problem is affecting it.
Ordered for symptoms of liver disease, including jaundice dark urine, nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain.
Antinuclear antibodies: test measures the amount and pattern of antibodies in your blood that work against your own body (autoimmune reaction).
Activated partial thromboplastin time: test is used after you take blood-thinners to see if the right dose of medicine is being used. If the test is done for this purpose, an APTT may be done every few hours. When the correct dose of medicine is found, you will not need so many tests. Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) is a blood test that measures the time it takes your blood to clot. A longer-than-normal PTT or APTT can be caused by liver disease, kidney disease (such as nephrotic syndrome), or treatment with blood thinners, such as heparin or warfarin (Coumadin).
Aspartate aminotransferase: measures the amount of this enzyme in the blood. AST is normally found in red blood cells, liver, heart, muscle tissue, pancreas, and kidneys. AST formerly was called serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). Low levels of AST are normally found in the blood. When body tissue or an organ such as the heart or liver is diseased or damaged, additional AST is released into the bloodstream. The amount of AST in the blood is directly related to the extent of the tissue damage. After severe damage, AST levels rise in 6 to 10 hours and remain high for about 4 days.
Basic metabolic panel: group of blood tests that provides information about your body's metabolism.
This test can be used to evaluate kidney function, blood acid/base balance, and your levels of blood sugar, and electrolytes. Depending on which lab you use, a basic metabolic panel may also check your levels of calcium and a protein called albumin.
Blood urea nitrogen: A common blood test reveals important information about how well your kidneys and liver are working. Measures the amount of urea nitrogen that's in your blood.
Your liver produces ammonia — which contains nitrogen — after it breaks down proteins used by your body's cells.
The nitrogen combines with other elements, such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, to form urea, which is a chemical waste product.
The urea travels from your liver to your kidneys through your bloodstream.
Healthy kidneys filter urea and remove other waste products from your blood.
The filtered waste products leave your body through urine.
Culture and sensitivity: A culture is done to find out what kind of organism (usually a bacteria) is causing an illness or infection.

A sensitivity test checks to see what kind of medicine, such as an antibiotic, will work best to treat the illness or infection.

A culture is done by collecting a sample of body fluid or tissue and then adding it to a substance that helps promote the growth of bacteria or other disease-causing organisms. If there are bacteria (or other organisms) in the sample, they will grow in the culture. Bacteria usually grow quickly in a culture (2 days), while other types of organisms, such as a fungus, can take longer.

Test may be done on many different body fluids, such as urine, mucus, blood, pus, saliva, breast milk, spinal fluid, or discharge from the vagina or penis.
Complete blood count: information about the kinds and numbers of cells in the blood, especially red blood cells , white blood cells , and platelets. A CBC helps your doctor check any symptoms, such as weakness, fatigue, or bruising, you may have. A CBC also helps him or her diagnose conditions, such as anemia, infection, and many other disorders.
Cardiac care unit
Creatine kinase: enzyme involved in the synthesis and use of energy-providing molecules, it's predominantly found in the cells of the heart, skeletal muscles and brain. The amount of CK in the blood depends upon gender, activity level and ethnicity but normally ranges from 22 to 198 activity units per liter of serum, according to the Muscular Dystrophy Association. Levels can shoot up to 200,000 units per liter during certain health conditions.

There are three major subtypes of CK based on the site of isolation. CK-BB is commonly isolated from the brain, gastrointestinal tract and the urinary tract. CK-MB is found in heart, while the skeletal muscles and heart are the main sites for the subtype CK-MM. CK-MM is the main creatine kinase subtype in the blood of healthy individuals. The presence of other CK subtypes in the blood can indicate various health conditions.

CK plays a major role in the production of energy in the body, making it necessary for the proper functioning of most tissue and organs. CK facilitates the process of energy transduction in muscles and other tissues by catalyzing the formation of energy molecules known as adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. The concentration of CK is higher in muscles, heart and brain because of increased energy utilization and generation in these sites.

Any variation in the levels of CK in the body may lead to health issues. disturbances in the activity of CK in the brain may increase the severity of Alzheimer's disease. Increased activity of CK in the heart tissue of certain ethnic groups can increase the risk of hypertension.

Elevated levels of CK in the blood may indicate a variety of conditions ranging from heart disease, muscular dystrophy, nerve damage to thyroid disorders and kidney malfunction.

Your doctor may order a creatine kinase test to screen you for any of the conditions that commonly lead to increased CK levels in the blood. MedlinePlus suggests that it is important to inform the doctor about any medications that you might be taking including ampicillin, amphotericin B, aspirin and alcohol.
Creatine kinase-MB: Creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) is a protein derived from heart muscle. Levels of this protein are significantly elevated when the heart muscle is damaged, as occurs during myocardial infarction (heart attack).
Comprehensive metabolic panel: test that measures your sugar (glucose) level, electrolyte and fluid balance, kidney function, and liver function.
This panel measures the blood levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, carbon dioxide, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, protein, albumin, bilirubin, and liver enzymes.
Differential: The blood differential test measures the percentage of each type of white blood cell (WBC) that you have in your blood. It also reveals if there are any abnormal or immature cells. This test is done to diagnose an infection, anemia, and leukemia. It may also be used to see if treatment for any of these conditions is working.
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid:

A colorless compound used to keep blood samples from clotting before tests are run. Its chemical name is ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid.
Tube colors: lavender, royal blue, pink
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate: Sed rate is a blood test that can reveal inflammatory activity in your body. A sed rate test isn't a stand-alone diagnostic tool, but it may help your doctor diagnose or monitor the progress of an inflammatory disease. When your blood is placed in a tall, thin tube, red blood cells (erythrocytes) gradually settle to the bottom. Inflammation can cause the cells to clump together. Because these clumps of cells are denser than individual cells, they settle to the bottom more quickly.

The sed rate test measures the distance red blood cells fall in a test tube in one hour. The farther the red blood cells have descended, the greater the inflammatory response of your immune system.
The ESR is useful in detecting inflammation in the body that may be caused by infection, some cancers, and certain autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and Kawasaki disease. The ESR alone can't be used to diagnose any one specific disease, however.
Fasting blood sugar: A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level between 100 and 125 mg/dL (5.6 and 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you'll be diagnosed with diabetes.
Glucose tolerance test: Measures how well body is able to breakdown glucose or sugar. Glucose is the sugar the body uses for energy. Patients with untreated diabetes have high blood glucose levels. Glucose tolerance tests are one of the tools used to diagnose diabetes.

Above-normal blood glucose levels can be used to diagnose type 2 diabetes or high blood glucose during pregnancy (gestational diabetes). Insulin levels may also be measured. (Insulin is the hormone produced by the pancreas that moves glucose from the blood into cells.)
Human chorionic gonadotropin: produced during pregnancy. It is made by cells that form the placenta, which nourishes the egg after it has been fertilized and becomes attached to the uterine wall. Levels can first be detected by a blood test about 11 days after conception and about 12 - 14 days after conception by a urine test. In general the hCG levels will double every 72 hours. The level will reach its peak in the first 8 – 11 weeks of pregnancy and then will decline and level off for the remainder of the pregnancy.
Hematocrit: Hematocrit is a blood test that measures the percentage of the volume of whole blood that is made up of red blood cells. This measurement depends on the number of red blood cells and the size of red blood cells.

The hematocrit is almost always ordered as part of a complete blood count.
Low hematocrit may be due to:

Destruction of red blood cells
Nutritional deficiencies of iron, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6
High hematocrit may be due to:

Congenital heart disease
Cor pulmonale
Low blood oxygen levels (hypoxia)
Pulmonary fibrosis
Polycythemia vera
High-density lipoprotein: High-density lipoproteins. These lipoproteins are often referred to as HDL, or "good," cholesterol. They act as cholesterol scavengers, picking up excess cholesterol in your blood and taking it back to your liver where it's broken down. The higher your HDL level, the less "bad" cholesterol you'll have in your blood.
Hemoglobin: Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Hemoglobin also plays an important role in maintaining the shape of the red blood cells. In their natural shape, red blood cells are round with narrow centers resembling a donut without a hole in the middle. Abnormal hemoglobin structure can, therefore, disrupt the shape of red blood cells and impede their function and flow through blood vessels. If a hemoglobin test reveals that your hemoglobin level is lower than normal, it means you have a low red blood cell count (anemia). Anemia can have many different causes, including vitamin deficiencies, bleeding and chronic diseases.

If a hemoglobin test shows a higher than normal level, there are several potential causes, such as the blood disorder polycythemia vera, living in a high altitude, smoking, dehydration, burns and excessive vomiting.
Hgb Alc
Glycosylated hemoglobin: Hemoglobin to which glucose is bound. Glycosylated hemoglobin is tested to monitor the long-term control of diabetes mellitus.

The level of glycosylated hemoglobin is increased in the red blood cells of persons with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Since the glucose stays attached to hemoglobin for the life of the red blood cell (normally about 120 days), the level of glycosylated hemoglobin reflects the average blood glucose level over the past 3 months.
Human immunodeficiency virus
Low-density lipoprotein: Low-density lipoproteins. These lipoproteins carry cholesterol throughout your body, delivering it to different organs and tissues. But if your body has more cholesterol than it needs, the excess keeps circulating in your blood. Over time, circulating LDL cholesterol can enter your blood vessel walls and start to build up under the vessel lining. Deposits of LDL cholesterol particles within the vessel walls are called plaques, and they begin to narrow your blood vessels. Eventually, plaques can narrow the vessels to the point of blocking blood flow, causing coronary artery disease. This is why LDL cholesterol is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol.
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin: estimate of the amount of hemoglobin in an average red blood cell. Hemoglobin is a substance in the blood that carries oxygen to the cells in the body from the lungs. Red blood cells help carry oxygen in the blood because red blood cells contain hemoglobin. MCH level over 34, is considered to be too high. The main reason that the MCH level would be too high is because of macrocytic anemia. Macrocytic anemia is a blood disorder in which not enough red blood cells are produced, but the ones that are present are large (thus fitting more hemoglobin). Macrocytic anemia is often caused by having too little vitamin B12 or folic acid (a type of vitamin) in the body. A vitamin is one of a group of substances made up partly of carbon (an element) that are essential in small amounts for normal bodily functioning and chemical processes in the body to take place. MCH level below 26, is considered too low. The MCH level can be too low because of blood loss over time, too little iron in the body, or microcytic anemia. Microcytic anemia is a condition in which abnormally small red blood cells are present. Smaller red blood cells means that less hemoglobin fits in each cell. Microcytic anemia is often caused by too little iron. As was mentioned earlier, hemoglobin is substance present in red blood cells that help carry oxygen to cells in the body. Hemoglobinopathy, which is a group of disorders characterized by changes in the structure of hemoglobin, can also cause a low MCH level.
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration: estimate of the concentration (amount) of hemoglobin in a given number of packed red blood cells. The MCHC is calculated by multiplying the amount of hemoglobin by 100 and diving that number by the amount of packed red blood cells. The number of packed red blood cells is also known as the hematocrit. Hematocrit is often abbreviated as Hct and hemoglobin is often abbreviated as Hgb. Since the MCHC is calculated by dividing the hemoglobin by the hematocrit, you may also see MCHC written as Hgb/Hct (that is, hemoglobin divided by hematocrit). MCHC level is over 36%, this is considered to be too high. One reason that the MCHC level would be too high is because of spherocytosis. Spherocytosis is the presence of spherocytes in the blood. Spherocytes are types of red blood cells that contain an abnormally high amount of hemoglobin. If the hemoglobin is not stable, this can also cause the MCHC level to be too high. A high MCHC level can also be caused by having too little vitamin B12 or folic acid (a type of vitamin) in the body. A vitamin is one of a group of substances made up partly of carbon (an element) that are essential in small amounts for normal bodily functioning and chemical processes in the body to take place. MCHC level is below 28%, this is considered too low. The MCHC level can be too low because of blood loss over time, too little iron in the body, or hypochromic anemia. Hypochromic anemia is a condition in which the red blood cells have a decreased amount of hemoglobin
Mean corpuscular volume: "mean cell volume" (MCV), is a measure of the average red blood cell volume that is reported as part of a standard complete blood count. The MCV is calculated by dividing the total volume of packed red blood cells (also known as hematocrit) by the total number of red blood cells. The resulting number is then multiplied by 10. The red blood cells get packed together when they are spun around at high speeds in a centrifuge.

In patients with anemia, it is the MCV measurement that allows classification as either a microcytic anemia (MCV below normal range), normocytic anemia (MCV within normal range) or macrocytic anemia (MCV above normal range). Normocytic anemia is usually deemed so because the bone marrow has not yet responded with a change in cell volume. It occurs occasionally in acute conditions, namely blood loss and hemolysis.
Mean platelet volume: measurement that describes the average size of platelets in the blood. Platelets are not true cells, although they are often referred to as such. Like red blood cells, they are formed in the bone marrow, but are much smaller, and are involved in the clotting of blood, helping to stop bleeding in event of injury. An MPV may be carried out as part of a complete blood count (CBC). The importance of mean platelet volume lies in the fact that it provides an indicator as to whether the bone marrow is manufacturing them normally. Platelets come from cells in the bone marrow known as megakaryocytes. These are extremely large, but after a point, they split up to form platelets, typically releasing over 1,000 into the bloodstream. They flow through blood vessels, and when damage to the vessel wall occurs, they stick to it, and to each other, forming fibrous structures that seal up the breakage. Platelet aggregation works to stop bleeding when tissues, veins, or arteries are cut, or suffer other kinds of physical damage.
Prothrombin time: blood test that measures how long it takes blood to clot. A prothrombin time test can be used to check for bleeding problems. PT is also used to check whether medicine to prevent blood clots is working. Blood clotting factors are needed for blood to clot (coagulation). Prothrombin, or factor II, is one of the clotting factors made by the liver. Vitamin K is needed to make prothrombin and other clotting factors. Prothrombin time is an important test because it checks to see if five different blood clotting factors (factors I, II, V, VII, and X) are present.
Red blood cells: job is to transport oxygen to the body’s tissues in exchange for carbon dioxide, which is carried to and eliminated by the lungs.

Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell.
RBCs help to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body. Carbon dioxide is formed in the cells as a byproduct of many chemical reactions. It enters the blood in the capillaries and is brought back to the lungs and released there and then exhaled as we breathe. Red blood cells (RBCs) are by far the most abundant cells in the blood. RBCs give blood its characteristic red color. In men, there are an average of 5,200,000 RBCs per cubic millimeter (microliter), and in women there are an average of 4,600,000 RBCs per cubic millimeter. RBCs account for approximately 40 to 45 percent of the blood. This percentage of blood made up of RBCs is a frequently measured number and is called the hematocrit. The ratio of cells in normal blood is 600 RBCs for each white blood cell and 40 platelets.
Rapid plasma regain: screening test for syphilis. It looks for antibodies that are present in the blood of people who have the disease. It is used to screen people who have symptoms of sexually transmitted infections and is routinely used to screen pregnant women for the disease.

Several states also require that couples be screened for syphilis before getting a marriage license.

The test is also used to see how treatment for syphilis is working. After treatment with antibiotics, the levels of syphilis antibodies should fall.
Serum separator tube: A blood collection tube containing a clot activator and a mass of gel with a density between those of serum and cells. During centrifugation, the gel comes to lie between serum and cells. Prevents contact between serum and cells. Gold or red-gray top tubes. Also called "stat" tubes, and tiger-speckled or jungle-top tubes. Invert tubes 5 times. Clotting takes a minimum of 30 minutes.
Red cell distribution width: measure of the variation of red blood cell (RBC) volume that is reported as part of a standard complete blood count. Usually red blood cells are a standard size of about 6-8 μm. Certain disorders, however, cause a significant variation in cell size. Higher RDW values indicate greater variation in size. Normal reference range in human red blood cells is 11–15%.
Short turnaround time
White blood cells: White blood cells help fight infections. They are also called leukocytes. Your body produces more white blood cells when you have an infection or allergic reaction -- even when you are under general stress.

There are five major types of white blood cells:
•Lymphocytes (T cells and B cells)

A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. It may be due to:
•Bone marrow deficiency or failure (for example, due to infection, tumor, or abnormal scarring)
•Collagen-vascular diseases (such as systemic lupus erythematosus)
•Disease of the liver or spleen
•Radiation therapy or exposure

A high number of WBCs is called leukocytosis. It may be due to:
•Bone marrow tumors
•Infectious diseases
•Inflammatory disease (such as rheumatoid arthritis or allergy)
•Severe emotional or physical stress
•Tissue damage (for example, burns)
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Food and drug administration
Materials safety data sheet: or product safety data sheet (PSDS) is an important component of product stewardship and occupational safety and health. It is intended to provide workers and emergency personnel with procedures for handling or working with that substance in a safe manner, and includes information such as physical data (melting point, boiling point, flash point, etc.), toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity, storage, disposal, protective equipment, and spill-handling procedures. MSDS formats can vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements.
Occupational safety and health administration: agency of the United States Department of Labor. Congress established the agency under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, which President Richard M. Nixon signed into law on December 29, 1970. OSHA's mission is to "assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women by setting and enforcing standards and by providing training, outreach, education and assistance".[2] The agency is also charged with enforcing a variety of whistleblower statutes and regulations. OSHA is currently headed by Assistant Secretary of Labor David Michaels.
Blood borne pathogens: infectious microorganisms in human blood that can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Needlesticks and other sharps-related injuries may expose workers to bloodborne pathogens. Workers in many occupations, including first aid team members, housekeeping personnel in some industries, nurses and other healthcare personnel may be at risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens.

Direct contact. Infected blood or body fl uid from one person enters another person’s body at a
correct entry site, such as infected blood splashing in the eye.
■ Indirect contact. A person’s skin touches an object that contains the blood or body fl uid of an
infected person, such as picking up soiled dressings contaminated with an infected person’s
blood or body fl uid.
■ Respiratory droplet transmission. A person inhales droplets from an infected person, such as
through a cough or sneeze.
■ Vector-borne transmission. A person’s skin is penetrated by an infectious source, such as an
insect bite.
Center for disease control and prevention
Expanded precautions
High-efficiency particulate air
Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus: bacterium that causes infections in different parts of the body. It's tougher to treat than most strains of staphylococcus aureus -- or staph -- because it's resistant to some commonly used antibiotics. MRSA infections are transmitted from person to person by direct contact with the skin, clothing, or area (for example, sink, bench, bed, and utensil) that had recent physical contact with a MRSA-infected person. MRSA infections can cause a broad range of symptoms depending on the part of the body that is infected. These may include surgical wounds, burns, catheter sites, eye, skin and blood. Infection often results in redness, swelling and tenderness at the site of infection. Sometimes, people may carry MRSA without having any symptoms.
National institute of occupational safety and health
Protective equipment
Personal protective equipment
Severe acute respiratory syndrome: Contagious respiratory disease. The infection is spread easily from person to person through respiratory droplets.
Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus: Enterococci are bacteria that are naturally present in the intestinal tract of all people. Vancomycin is an antibiotic to which some strains of enterococci have become resistant. These resistant strains are referred to as VRE. Enterococci bacteria become a problem when they cause infection. These infections can occur anywhere in the body. Some common sites include the intestines, the urinary tract, and wounds. For some people, especially those who are weak or ill, these infections can become serious.

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci infections are treated with antibiotics, which are the types of medicines normally used to kill bacteria. VRE infections are more difficult to treat than other infections with enterococci, because fewer antibiotics are effective against the bacteria.
Arterial blood gases: test measures the acidity (pH) and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood from an artery. This test is used to check how well your lungs are able to move oxygen into the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood.

As blood passes through your lungs, oxygen moves into the blood while carbon dioxide moves out of the blood into the lungs. An ABG test uses blood drawn from an artery, where the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels can be measured before they enter body tissues
Angiotensin-converting enzyme: a glycoprotein (dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase) that catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II by splitting two terminal amino acids. ACE-inhibiting agents are used for controlling hypertension and for protecting the kidneys in diabetes mellitus.

Angiotensin II is a very potent chemical that causes the muscles surrounding blood vessels to contract, thereby narrowing the vessels. The narrowing of the vessels increases the pressure within the vessels causing high blood pressure (hypertension). Angiotensin II is formed from angiotensin I in the blood by the enzyme angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors are medications that slow (inhibit) the activity of the enzyme ACE, which decreases the production of angiotensin II. As a result, the blood vessels enlarge or dilate, and blood pressure is reduced. This lower blood pressure makes it easier for the heart to pump blood and can improve the function of a failing heart. In addition, the progression of kidney disease due to high blood pressure or diabetes is slowed.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone: ACTH is made in the pituitary gland in response to the release of another hormone, called corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), by the hypothalamus. In turn, the adrenal glands then make a hormone called cortisol, which helps your body manage stress. Cortisol is needed for life, so its levels in the blood are closely controlled. When cortisol levels rise, ACTH levels normally fall. When cortisol levels fall, ACTH levels normally rise.
Antidiuretic hormone: hormone that is produced in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. It is then stored and released from the pituitary gland, a small gland at the base of the brain.

ADH helps manage the amount of water in the body by acting on the kidneys.
Your health care provider may order ADH levels if you have:
•Buildup of fluids in your body that are causing swelling or puffiness
•Excessive amounts of urine
•Low sodium ("salt") levels in your blood
•Thirst that is intense or uncontrollable
Alkaline phosphate: protein found in all body tissues. Tissues with particularly high amounts of ALP include the liver, bile ducts, and bone. This test is done to diagnose liver or bone disease, or to see if treatments for those diseases are working. It may be included as part of a routine liver function test.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: sometimes called Lou Gehrig's disease, is a rapidly progressive, invariably fatal neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells (neurons) responsible for controlling voluntary muscles (muscle action we are able to control, such as those in the arms, legs, and face). The disease belongs to a group of disorders known as motor neuron diseases, which are characterized by the gradual degeneration and death of motor neurons. In ALS, both the upper motor neurons and the lower motor neurons degenerate or die, and stop sending messages to muscles. Unable to function, the muscles gradually weaken, waste away (atrophy), and have very fine twitches (called fasciculations). Eventually, the ability of the brain to start and control voluntary movement is lost.
Adenosine triphosphate: Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), an energy-bearing molecule found in all living cells. Formation of nucleic acids, transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and many other energy-consuming reactions of metabolism are made possible by the energy in ATP molecules. The energy in ATP is obtained from the breakdown of foods. An ATP molecule is composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus atoms. There are three phosphorus atoms in the molecule. Each of these phosphorus atoms is at the center of an atomic group called a phosphate. The phosphate groups are linked to one another by chemical bonds called phosphate bonds. The energy of ATP is locked in these bonds.
Creatine kinase-BB
Creatine kinase-MM: predominantly found in skeletal muscle, yet it is also the primary CK isoenzyme present in heart muscle. In fact, serum levels of CK-MM elevate as early as six hours after the onset of myocardial infarction (MI). Serum assays for CK-MM are sensitive for the detection of MI, but lack cardiac tissue specificity and, therefore, are used in conjunction with serum assays for the other CK isoenzymes, CK-MB and CK-BB, to confirm MI diagnosis.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: group of lung diseases that block airflow and make breathing difficult.

Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the two most common conditions that make up COPD. Chronic bronchitis is an inflammation of the lining of your bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from your lungs. Emphysema occurs when the air sacs (alveoli) at the end of the smallest air passages (bronchioles) in the lungs are gradually destroyed.

Damage to your lungs from COPD can't be reversed, but treatment can help control symptoms and minimize further damage. In healthy people, both the airways and air sacs are springy and elastic. When you breathe in, each air sac fills with air like a small balloon. The balloon deflates when you exhale. In COPD, your airways and air sacs lose their shape and become floppy, like a stretched-out rubber band.

Cigarette smoking is the most common cause of COPD. Breathing in other kinds of irritants, like pollution, dust or chemicals, may also cause or contribute to COPD. Quitting smoking is the best way to avoid developing COPD.
Cerebrospinal fluid: test to look at the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

CSF acts as a cushion, protecting the brain and spine from injury. The fluid is normally clear. The test is also used to measure pressure in the spinal fluid. This test is done to measure pressures within the cerebrospinal fluid and to collect a sample of the fluid for further testing. CSF analysis can be used to diagnose certain neurologic disorders, particularly infections (such as meningitis) and brain or spinal cord damage.
Ears, nose, and throat
Follicle-stimulating hormone: This hormone is released by the anterior pituitary gland.

In women, FSH stimulates production of eggs and a hormone called estradiol during the first half of the menstrual cycle.

In men, FSH stimulates production of sperm.
Your doctor may order this test if you have signs of certain reproductive or pituitary disorders. In some situations, it may also be done to confirm menopause.

The FSH test is usually done to help diagnose problems with sexual development, menstruation, and fertility. The test is used to help diagnose or evaluate:

Women who have polycystic ovary syndrome, ovarian cysts, irregular vaginal bleeding, or infertility
Children who start sexual development at a very young age
Men who have infertility
Men who do not have testicles or whose testicles are underdeveloped
Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test: blood test to detect antibodies to the bacteria Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis. This test is routinely done to confirm whether a positive screening test for syphilis (either VDRL or RPR) means you have a current syphilis infection.

It may also be done when other syphilis tests are negative, to rule out a possible false-negative result.
Growth hormone: test measures the amount of growth hormone in the blood. Growth hormone is released from an area just below the brain called the anterior pituitary gland.

Too much growth hormone can cause abnormal growth patterns called acromegaly in adults and gigantism in children.
Too little growth hormone can cause a slow or flat rate of growth in children, and changes in muscle mass, cholesterol levels, and bone strength in adults.

High levels of growth hormone may indicate:

Growth hormone resistance
Pituitary tumor
Low levels of growth hormone may indicate:

Growth hormone deficiency
Hypopituitarism (low function of the pituitary gland)
Hepatitis B surface antigen: earliest sign of an active hepatitis B infection. This antigen may be present before symptoms of an HBV infection are present. If this antigen is present for more than 6 months, then you probably have a chronic (long-term) HBV infection. This means you can spread HBV to others throughout your life.
Hepatitis C virus: Hepatitis C infection is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is difficult for the human immune system to eliminate HCV from the body, and infection with HCV usually becomes chronic. Over decades, chronic infection with HCV damages the liver and can cause liver failure. 'Hepatitis' means inflammation of the liver. HCV is one of several viruses that can cause hepatitis. It is unrelated to the other common hepatitis viruses (for example, hepatitis A or hepatitis B). HCV is a member of the Flaviviridae family of viruses. Other members of this family of viruses include those that cause yellow fever and dengue.
Potassium hydroxide
Ova and parasites: test is used to detect parasites and eggs in the intestines. This is a relatively easy and common examination. You produce the sample on your own at home and the stool is then analyzed in a lab.
Purified protein derivative: The Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) is an antigen used in the diagnosis of Tuberculosis infection. An antigen is a substance that causes your immune system to produce a specific immune response against it. When the bacteria that cause Tuberculosis come in contact with the antigen, this will create an allergic reaction.
Prostate specific antigen: test measures the blood level of PSA, a protein that is produced by the prostate gland. The higher a man’s PSA level, the more likely it is that he has prostate cancer. However, there are additional reasons for having an elevated PSA level, and some men who have prostate cancer do not have elevated PSA.
Rheumatoid arthritis: long-term disease that leads to inflammation of the joints and surrounding tissues. It can also affect other organs.
Rheumatoid factor: test measures the amount of rheumatoid factor in your blood. Rheumatoid factors are proteins produced by your immune system that can attack healthy tissue in your body.

High levels of rheumatoid factor in the blood are most often associated with autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren's syndrome. But rheumatoid factor may be detected in some healthy people, and people with autoimmune diseases sometimes have normal levels of rheumatoid factor.
Rapid plasma reagin: screening test for syphilis. It looks for antibodies that are present in the blood of people who have the disease.
Systematic lupus erythematosus: long-term autoimmune disorder that may affect the skin, joints, kidneys, brain, and other organs. Autoimmune disease, which means the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. This leads to long-term (chronic) inflammation.

The underlying cause of autoimmune diseases is not fully known. There is no cure for SLE. The goal of treatment is to control symptoms.
Triiodothyronine: test is performed as part of an evaluation of thyroid function. It measures the blood level of the hormone T3 (triiodothyronine), some of which is produced directly by the thyroid gland.
Thyroxine: A T4 test measures the blood level of the hormone T4, also known as thyroxine, which is produced by the thyroid gland and helps control metabolism and growth. The T4 test is performed as part of an evaluation of thyroid function.

Two blood tests may be performed as part of a T4 test:

total T4, which measures the entire amount of thyroxine in the blood, including the amount attached to blood proteins that help transport the hormone through the bloodstream
free T4, which measures only the thyroxine that's not attached to proteins (this is the portion of T4 in the blood that's available to affect the functioning of many types of body cells)
Thyroid-stimulating hormone: blood test is used to check for thyroid gland problems. TSH is produced when the hypothalamus releases a substance called thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). TRH then triggers the pituitary gland to release TSH. See pictures of the thyroid gland and the pituitary gland .

TSH causes the thyroid gland to make two hormones: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). T3 and T4 help control your body's metabolism.

Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are needed for normal growth of the brain, especially during the first 3 years of life. A baby whose thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone (congenital hypothyroidism) may, in severe cases, be mentally retarded. Older children also need thyroid hormones to grow and develop normally.

This test may be done at the same time as tests to measure T3 and T4.
Upper respiratory infection: The upper respiratory tract includes the sinuses, nasal passages, pharynx, and larynx. These structures direct the air we breath from the outside to the trachea and eventually to the lungs for respiration to take place.

An upper respiratory tract infection, or upper respiratory infection, is an infectious process of any of the components of the upper airway.

Infection of the specific areas of the upper respiratory tract can be named specifically. Examples of these may include rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal cavity), sinus infection (sinusitis or rhinosinusitis) - inflammation of the sinuses located around the nose, common cold (nasopharyngitis) - inflammation of the nares, pharynx, hypopharynx, uvula, and tonsils, pharyngitis (inflammation of the pharynx, uvula, and tonsils), epiglottitis (inflammation of the upper portion of the larynx or the epiglottis), laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx), laryngotracheitis (inflammation of the larynx and the trachea), and tracheitis (inflammation of the trachea).
Urinary tract infection: Your urinary tract is the system that makes urine and carries it out of your body. It includes your bladder and kidneys and the tubes that connect them. When germs get into this system, they can cause an infection.

Most urinary tract infections are bladder infections. A bladder infection usually is not serious if it is treated right away. If you do not take care of a bladder infection, it can spread to your kidneys. A kidney infection is serious and can cause permanent damage. Usually, germs get into your system through your urethra, the tube that carries urine from your bladder to the outside of your body. The germs that usually cause these infections live in your large intestine and are found in your stool. If these germs get inside your urethra, they can travel up into your bladder and kidneys and cause an infection.
Atrioventricular: combination that means pertaining to the atria (the upper chambers of the heart) and the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). AV node is an electrical relay station between the atria and the ventricles. Electrical signals from the atria must pass through the AV node to reach the ventricles. The AV node is a major element in the cardiac conduction system that generates electrical impulses within the heart, conducts them throughout the muscle of the heart, stimulates the heart to contract and pump blood, and so controls the heart rate.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation: rare, life-threatening condition that prevents a person's blood from clotting normally. It may cause excessive clotting (thrombosis) or bleeding (hemorrhage) throughout the body and lead to shock, organ failure, and death. In DIC, the body's natural ability to regulate blood clotting does not function properly. This causes the blood's clotting cells (platelets) to clump together and clog small blood vessels throughout the body. This excessive clotting damages organs, destroys blood cells, and depletes the supply of platelets and other clotting factors so that the blood is no longer able to clot normally. This often causes widespread bleeding, both internally and externally.
Deep vein thrombosis: condition in which a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one or more of the deep veins in your body, usually in your legs. Deep vein thrombosis can cause leg pain, but often occurs without any symptoms. Deep vein thrombosis can develop if you're sitting still for a long time, such as when traveling by plane or car, or if you have certain medical conditions that affect how your blood clots.

Deep vein thrombosis is a serious condition because a blood clot that has formed in your vein can break loose, travel through your bloodstream and lodge in your lungs, blocking blood flow (pulmonary embolism).
Tissue plasminogen activator: enzyme converts plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for blood clot breakdown. Tissue plasminogen activator is a protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots. It is a serine protease found on endothelial cells, the cells that line the blood vessels. tPA is used in some cases of diseases that feature blood clots, such as pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke, in a medical treatment called thrombolysis. The most common use is for ischemic stroke. They can either be administered systemically, in the case of acutemyocardial infarction, acute ischemic stroke, and most cases of acute massive pulmonary embolism, or administered through an arterial catheter directly to the site of occlusion in the case of peripheral arterial thrombi and thrombi in the proximal deep veins of the leg.[1]
Human leukocyte antigen
Plasma separator tubes: Green Top Tubes


Sodium Heparin
Lithium Heparin
Ammonium Heparin


The interior of the tube wall is coated with lithium heparin, ammonium heparin or sodium heparin. The anticoagulant heparin activates antithrombins, thus blocking the coagulation cascade and producing a whole blood / plasma sample instead of clotted blood plus serum. Plasma separator tubes (PST) are tubes with lithium heparin and gel contain a barrier gel in the tube. The specific gravity of this material lies between that of the blood cells and plasma. During centrifugation the gel barrier moves upwards providing a stable barrier separating the plasma from cells. Plasma may be aspirated directly from the collection tube, eliminating the need for manual transfer to another container. This barrier allows for the stability of certain parameters in the primary tube under the recommended storage conditions for up to 48 hours. Check the heparin additive before use. Do not use heparin plasma tubes for TDM measurements, lithium heparin for lithium determinations, sodium heparin for sodium determinations, ammonium heparin for ammonia determinations or any type of heparin for blood banking procedures.


Clinical Chemistry -The clinical chemistry laboratory performs a wide variety of analytic procedures, both specialized and routine. These include tests for the evaluation of endocrine and metabolic disorders, therapeutic drug monitoring and toxicology, protein electrophoresis, lipid panels, as well as those tests commonly called routine such as hepatic function tests, electrolytes and markers of cardiac damage.


For plasma determinations in the chemistry department. Many institutions use red stoppered tubes for routine chemistry tests and green stoppered tubes for STAT chemistry tests.
Sodium polyanetholesulfonate: an anticoagulant and inhibitor of complement and lysozymes, included in bacterial culture media.
Bleeding time: length of time it takes bleeding to stop after incision is made. Bleeding normally stops within 1 to 9 minutes. However, values may vary from lab to lab.
Bilirubin, uric acid, phosphorus, and potassium: Bilirubin is a brownish yellow substance found in bile. It is produced when the liver breaks down old red blood cells. Bilirubin is then removed from the body through the stool (feces) and gives stool its normal brown color.
When bilirubin levels are high, the skin and whites of the eyes may appear yellow (jaundice). Jaundice may be caused by liver disease (hepatitis), blood disorders (hemolytic anemia), or blockage of the tubes (bile ducts) that allow bile to pass from the liver to the small intestine. Uric acid is produced from the natural breakdown of your body's cells and from the foods you eat.

Most of the uric acid is filtered out by the kidneys and passes out of the body in urine. A small amount passes out of the body in stool. But if too much uric acid is being produced or if the kidneys are not able to remove it from the blood normally, the level of uric acid in the blood increases.

High levels of uric acid in the blood can cause solid crystals to form within joints. This causes a painful condition called gout. If gout remains untreated, these uric acid crystals can build up in the joints and nearby tissues, forming hard lumpy deposits called tophi. High levels of uric acid may also cause kidney stones or kidney failure.
Intravenous: Intravenous means "within a vein." It usually refers to giving medications or fluids through a needle or tube inserted into a vein. This allows immediate access to the blood supply. For example, your doctor may prescribe medications to be given through a vein, or an intravenous (IV) line.
Platelet function assay: The PFA-100 is a platelet function analyser that aspirates blood in vitro from a blood specimen into disposable test cartridges through a microscopic aperture cut into a biologically active membrane at the end of a capillary. The membrane of the cartridges are coated with collagen and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or collagen and epinephrine inducing a platelet plug to form which closes the aperture.
Why Get Tested?
To help determine the cause of or potential for excessive bleeding, to monitor and evaluate platelet function, and to monitor the presence and effectiveness of antiplatelet medications

When to Get Tested?
When you are bruising easily or experiencing excessive bleeding, when you are taking medications that can alter platelet function, and prior to or during certain surgeries
Date of birth
International classification of diseases, ninth revision, clinical modification
Winged collection set
Central venous catheter: A central venous catheter, also called a central line, is a long, thin, flexible tube used to give medicines, fluids, nutrients, or blood products over a long period of time, usually several weeks or more. A catheter is often inserted in the arm or chest through the skin into a large vein. The catheter is threaded through this vein until it reaches a large vein near the heart.
Eutectic mixture of local anesthetica: EMLA contains lidocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5% as an oil-in-water emulsion.[4] By definition, a eutectic mixture has a melting point that is lower than either constituent alone; therefore, this mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine in a 1:1 ratio is present in liquid phase. EMLA is available commercially as cream, gel, and anesthetic disc. The cream and the disc are approved for topical use in children undergoing minor (e.g., venipuncture) and major (e.g., skin-graft harvesting) dermal procedures. The cream can be used in either setting, whereas the disc should be used only during minor procedures because of its inability to cover more than a limited surface area (up to 40 cm2).
Peripherally inserted central catheter: You have a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). This is a tube that goes into a vein in your arm. It will help carry nutrients and medicine into your body. It will also be used to take blood when you need to have blood tests.

These catheters are used when people need intravenous (IV) medical treatment or routine blood drawing over a long period of time.
Phenylketonuria: Phenylketonuria (fen-ul-ke-toe-NU-re-uh) is a birth defect that causes an amino acid called phenylalanine to build up in your body. Phenylketonuria is caused by a mutation in a gene that helps create the enzyme needed to break down phenylalanine.

Amino acids are the building blocks for protein, but too much phenylalanine can cause a variety of health problems. People with phenylketonuria (PKU) — babies, children and adults — need to follow a diet that limits phenylalanine, which is found mostly in foods that contain protein.
Vascular access device
Partial pressure of carbon dioxide
Partial pressure of oxygen
Respiratory therapists
Blood culture: blood culture is a test to find an infection in the blood. The blood does not normally have any bacteria or fungi in it. A blood culture can show what bacteria or fungi are in the blood. To test for an infection in the blood, a sample of blood is collected and placed in a cup with special substances that allow the bacteria or fungus to grow. The type of bacteria or fungus that grows is checked with chemical tests and by looking at the culture under a microscope. Two or three blood samples from different veins are often taken to make sure a bacteria or fungus is not missed. If no bacteria or fungus grows, the blood culture is called negative. A blood culture is often done when a person has a fever because this is the time when the bacteria or fungus is most likely to have spread to the blood.
Chain of custody: Chain of custody (CoC), in legal contexts, refers to the chronological documentation or paper trail, showing the seizure, custody, control, transfer, analysis, and disposition of physical or electronic evidence.
Fever of unknown origin: his unusual form of fever is defined by the presence of fever greater than 38.3°C (101 °F) "off and on" for more than three weeks without specific cause for the fever identified.
National institute of drug abuse
Therapeutic drug monitoring: branch of clinical chemistry and clinical pharmacology that specializes in the measurement of medication concentrations in blood. Its main focus is on drugs with a narrow therapeutic range, i.e. drugs that can easily be under- or overdosed.[1] TDM aimed at improving patient care by individually adjusting the dose of drugs for which clinical experience or clinical trials have shown it improved outcome in the general or special populations
Nasopharyngeal: Nasopharyngeal (nay-zo-fuh-RIN-gee-uhl) carcinoma is cancer that occurs in the nasopharynx, which is located behind your nose and above the back of your throat.
Sweat electrolytes is a test that measures the level of chloride in sweat. Although genetic tests have become important methods for diagnosing cystic fibrosis in children, the sweat chloride test is still the standard. Sweat testing is the standard method for diagnosing cystic fibrosis. People with cystic fibrosis have higher amounts of sodium and chloride in their sweat, which the test can detect.

Some people are tested because of symptoms such as poor nutrition, repeated sinus or respiratory infections, foul-smelling stools, or infertility (in men). In the U.S., newborn screening programs test for cystic fibrosis, and the sweat test is used to confirm these results.
Respiratory syncytial virus: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a virus that causes infections of the lungs and respiratory tract. It's so common that most children have been infected with the virus by age 2. Respiratory syncytial (sin-SISH-ul) virus can also infect adults.

In adults and older, healthy children, the symptoms of respiratory syncytial virus are mild and typically mimic the common cold. Self-care measures are usually all that's needed to relieve any discomfort.
Clinical and laboratory standards institute
Quantity not sufficient
Activated coagulation time: The ACT test is commonly used to monitor the effect of high dose heparin before, during, and shortly after surgeries that require intense anticoagulation measures, such as cardiac bypass surgery, cardiac angioplasty, and dialysis. It is ordered in situations where the PTT test is not clinically useful (i.e., high-dose heparin therapy or presence of lupus anticoagulant). The ACT test is sometimes used, along with the PTT, to monitor the therapeutic effect of a direct thrombin inhibitor, such as argatroban or bivalirudin.
Alternate site testing
B-type natriuretic peptide: B-type natriuretic peptide (brain natriuretic peptide; BNP) is a 32-amino acid-ringed peptide secreted by the heart to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance.(1) BNP is stored in and secreted predominantly from membrane granules in the heart ventricles, and is continuously released from the heart in response to both ventricle volume expansion and pressure overload.(2)
Congestive heart disease: Heart failure is a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to the rest of the body.
Electrocardiogram: An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a test that records the electrical activity of the heart.
Grams per deciliter
Point of care testing
Troponin T
Increase in the ratio of formed elements to plasma caused by leaving tourniquet on too long. Can alter test results.
Occur if tourniquet is too tight or left on too long. Destruction of red blood cells resulting in release of hemoglobin and cellular contents into plasma. Can alter test results. The serum of plasma is pinkish or red in hemolyzed sample due to rupture of red blood cells.
Small red spots on skin caused by tourniquet that is too tight.
ad libitum (ad lib)
As much as wanted; freely
ante cibum (ac)
Before meals
bis in die (bid)
Twice daily
Blood pressure
cubic centimeter (cc)
Cubic centimeters
cum (/c)
gram (g)
Gram or grams
granum (gr)
Grain or grains
gutta, guttae (gtt)
Drop or drops
hoc nocte (hn)
hora somni (hs)
At bedtime
occulus dexter (OD)
Right Eye
Oculus Sinister (OS)
Left Eye
per anum (pa)
By, or through, the anus
per os (po)
By, or through, the mouth
post cibum (pc)
After meals
pro re nata (prn)
According to circumstances
quaque die (qd)
Every day
quague hora
Every hour
quater in die (qid)
Four time daily
signa (sig)
Let it be labled
Sine (/s)
statim (stat)
Immediately; at once
suppositoria (suppos)
tabella (tab)
ter in die (tid)
Three times daily
Winged infusion set
Urine analysis
/ 160

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online