Patho cellular dynamics and cell injury Flashcards

DNA
Terms Definitions
Organelles
Little organs
Examples of organelles
Mitochondria, ribosome, nucleus, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum
Plasma membrane
Composed of lipids, hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions, glycoproteins and carbohydrate side chains
Lipids
Major component of the plasma membrane of every cell
Plasma membrane double layer
2 layers of lipid molecules with carbohydrates and proteins intersperses, selectively semi permeable, acts as a barrier
Plasma membrane restricts
Intracellular losses
Plasma membrane governs
Intracellular entry
Plasma membrane separates
Intracellular fluid from extra cellular fluid
Cell or plasma membrane attacked by
Free radicals, high pressure forces, radiation, high glucose concentrations
Free radicals
Substances with free electron on an oxygen molecule
High pressure forces
Hypertension
Radiation
Sunlight
High glucose concentrations
Uncontrolled diabetes
Blood pressure high risk for endothelial injury
140 / 90
Endothelial cells line
Artery
End result of endothelial injury
Development of atherosclerosis
Free radicals are
Environmental substances- pollutants
Cell or plasma membrane maintains
Integrity of cell and guards contents of ce,l
Examples of oncogenes
BRCA 1 and BRCA. 2, APC
BRCA 1
Breast and ovarian cancer
BRCA 2
Male and female breast and prostate cancer
APC GENE
Colon cancer
How genes cause cancer
Inherited or sporadic
Inherited genes
Gene mutations , activates an oncogene or shuts down a tumor suppressor gene , behavioral or environmental influences enhance development of cancer , oncoproteins given mutated blueprints from RNA and DNA leads to cancer cell development
Sporadic gene mutations
Genomic change which activates an oncogene or shuts down a tumor suppressor gene, behavioral or environmental influences enhance development, oncoproteins manufactured from mutated RNA and DNA lead to cancer cell development
Autosomal recessive condition
Requires both genes on corresponding chromosomes to be mutated- cystic fibrosis, involves carriers
Autosomal dominant
Only one gene mutation on one chromosome of the pair needed for disease, familial adenomatous polyposis, APC gene
Cloning process
Extract DNA from a fertilized ovum and place in a different fertilized ovum, incubate in a ovum
Genetic engineering
DNA frm donor is incorportted into recipient ovum, incubated, offspring contains new genes that are exactly like the donor
Virus engineering
Can have new genes incorporated into its genome and can be injected into a human so that virus spreads new genetic material to human cells
Nuclear transfer
Transfer of genetic material
Embryonic stem cells
Cells taken from the blastocyst stage of an embryo , have the potential to become any new organ
Blastocyst cells
Embryonic cells, don't have surface antigens so no incompatibility problems
Stem cells treatment for
Sickle cell anemia, diabetes, Parkinson's, tissue repair of skin, replacement organs, kidneys, heart, liver
How embryonic cells are made
Pluripotent stem cells - cultured undifferentiated stem cells
Ethical problem of embryonic stem cells
Embryo needs to be destroyed in order to harvest embryonic stem cells- is it alive?
Ethical solution to embryonic dilemma
Some adult cells can be coaxed into blastocyst stage without fertilization, created in a lab from adult cells, and a blastocyst can become any cell
Embryonic stem cell cloning
Future cure for many diseases, cloning of healthy cells, can be transferred to a patient for cure, cloning of sick cells to investigate how the disorder arises
Embryonic cells used therapeutically
Inject damage cornea with embryonic stem cells cures from blindness from burns, making new cells for many things
Umbilical cord blanking
Storing newborns cord blood, will be guaranteed match for self, probably for siblings, more successful with family members
Lysosomes
Spherical membrane bound organelles, digestive enzymes
WBCs contain
Many lysosomes, are phagocytes
Lysosomes digest through
Endocytosis, pinocytosis, and phagocytosis
Autolysis
Enzymes rupture from lysosomes and digest whole cell
Lysosomal action example
In myocardial infarction, auto lysis occurs to digest dead cardiac muscle cells
Serum cardiac enzymes
CPK, LDH, SGOT
Cilia
Extensions of the plasma membrane with coordinated whip like motion, found on some cells that require motion
Example of cilia
Respiratory tract cells sweep away debris and propel mucus
Example of cilia dysfunction
COPD- respiratory much cilia apparatus on cells are paralyzed, respiratory tract cells can't sweep away debris or propel mucus
COPD
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Homeostasis
A dynamic steady state at which the body maintains itself at a relatively constant composition, a well functioning cell can maintain
When homeostasis can't be maintained
Cell injury or death
Cell injury
Reversible or irreversible cell can repair self, regenerate self, or change or adapt itself to a new environment
Cell death
Cell necrosis or cell apoptosis , is irreversible
Causes of cellular injury
Physical, chemical, microbial agents, free radicals, hypoxia, genetics, nutritional imbalance, immunologic reactions
Hypoxia is the most
Common cause of cellular injury
Physical agents of cell injury
Mechanical trauma, temperature changes, electricity, radiation, sun damage
Chemical agents of injury
Imbalances of blood constituents, poisoning, toxic inhalants
Microbial invaders causing tissue injury
Bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungus
Free radicals
Oxidizing molecules which attack organelle membranes and the cell membrane , believed to be related to the development of cancers and cardiovascular disease
Antioxidants
Fight off free radical action
Hypoxia injury
Most common, inadequate oxygen supply to cells, caused by ischemia or hypoxemia
Ischemia
Inadequate circulation
Hypoxemia
Inadequate oxygen in blood
Lack of oxygen leads to
Anaerobic metabolism and lactic acid causes injury to cell
genetics as a cause of cell injury
find that some of our DNA contain mutated genes or oncogenes
mutated genes
program our cells to produce abnormal proteins or oncogenes
abnormal proteins are involved in
the development of abnormal cells
nutritional imbalances as related to cell injury
our body makes some proteins, but we need to take in more in our diet as well
what comes from the diet
essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals
cells need what from diet to function
nutrients
cholesterol and fat intake influence
cholesterol build up in arteries
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