bio 255 minitest 1 Flashcards

abdominopelvic cavity
Terms Definitions
anatomical position
body in an erect stance, facing forward; arms straight, palms forward, fingers pointing downward at slight angle; legs straight or slightly apart, toes pointing forward & flat
body regions
areas of the body that are identified during a physical examination
cephalic
= pertaining to the head
(facial, frontal, & cranial)
facial
= pertaining to the face
buccal
= pertaining to the cheek
orbital (optic)
= pertaining to the eye socket
oral
= pertaining to the mouth
otic
= pertaining to the ear
mental
= pertaining to the chin
nasal
= pertaining to the nose
cranial
= pertaining to the cranium (brain)
frontal
= pertaining to the forehead
cervical
= pertaining to the neck
trunk
= thoracic (chest) to lumber (lower back)
thoracic (thorax)
= pertaining to the chest
sternal
= pertaining to the breastbone
pectoral (mammary)
= pertaining to the breast
abdominal (abdomen)
= pertaining to the anterior trunk below the ribs
coxal
= pertaining to the hip
umbilical
= pertaining to the navel
pelvic
= pertaining to the pelvis
pubic
= pertaining to the genital region
inguinal
= pertaining to the groin
back
= the posterior side of the trunk
scapular
= pertaining to the shoulder blade
vertebral
= pertaining to the spinal column
lumbar
= pertaining to the lower back
upper limb
= acromial (shoulder) to digital (fingers)
acromial (deltoid)
= pertaining to the shoulder
axillary
= pertaining to the armpit
brachial
= pertaining to the arm
antebrachial
= pertaining to the forearm (lower arm)
antecubital
= pertaining to the anterior elbow (front of elbow)
carpal
= pertaining to the wrist
manus
= pertaining to the hand
palmar
= pertaining to the palm of hand
digital
= pertaining to fingers (or toes)
olecranal
= elbow (antebrachial & antecubital)
lower limb
= gluteal (buttock) to digital (toes)
gluteal
= pertaining to the buttock
femoral
= pertaining to the thigh
patellar
= pertaining to the anterior knee (knee cap)
popliteal
= pertaining to the posterior knee (back of knee)
crural
= pertaining to the leg (entire lower leg)
sural
= pertaining to the posterior leg (calf - back)
fibular (peroneal)
= pertaining to the side of leg (outer lower leg)
tarsal
= pertaining to the ankle
pedal
= pertaining to the foot
calcaneal
= pertaining to the heel
plantar
= pertaining to the sole
digital
= pertaining to the toes
directional terms
= a group of anatomical terms used to describe the location of body parts
anterior
= front of the body (facing forward)
posterior
= back of the body (facing backward)
superior (cranial)
= toward the head end or upper part of the body; ex: the heart is superior to the pelvis
inferior (caudal)
= away from the head end or toward the lower part of the body; ex: the chest is inferior to the head
anterior (ventral)
= toward the front or belly side; ex: the nose is on the anterior side of the head
posterior (dorsal)
= toward the back; ex: the spinal cord extends down the posterior side of the body
medial
= toward the midline, which is an imaginary line that extends vertically down the middle; ex: the sternum (breastbone) is medial to the ribs
*middle finger = always medial
lateral
= away from the midline; ex: the ears are lateral to the nose
superficial (external)
= toward the surface of the body; ex: the skin is superficial to visceral organs
deep (internal)
= away from the surface of the body; ex: the heart lies deep to the sternum
proximal
= toward a structure's origin or point of attachment to the trunk; ex: the shoulder is proximal to the elbow
distal
= away from a structure's origin or point of attachment to the trunk; ex: the wrist is distal to the shoulder
plane
= an imaginary flat surface
frontal plane
= extends through the long axis of the body (along the body's length), dividing the body into anterior (front) & posterior (back) portions
sagittal plane
= extends through the body's long axis, dividing into right & left portions
midsagittal
= sagittal plane that divides body into equal right & left halves
parasagittal
= sagittal plane that divides body into UNequal right & left halves
transverse plane
= extends perpendicular to the frontal & sagittal planes to divide the body into superior (upper) & inferior (lower) portions
cross section
= a section made along the transverse plane
cranial cavity
= contains the brain
vertebral cavity
= houses spinal cord
ventral cavity
= spaces on the ventral side of the body, such as thoracic cavity & abdominopelvic cavity
thoracic cavity
= fills the chest region, contains heart, lungs, & major vessels of the heart; also includes smaller cavities: pericardial, pleural cavities, mediastinum
pericardial cavity
= contains the heart
pleural cavities (2 of them)
= each contain a lung
superior mediastinum
= contains major blood vessels & thymus gland; area superior to the heart
muscular diaphragm
= separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
abdominopelvic cavity
= large area below the diaphragm, divided into the superior abdominal cavity & inferior pelvic cavity
abdominal cavity
= houses the stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, kidneys, & part of the large intestine
pelvic cavity
= contains the reproductive organs, urinary bladder, & part of the large intestine
serous membranes
= line the inside walls of the ventral cavities; cover most of the visceral (internal) organs of the ventral cavities
parietal layer
= outer layer of each serous membrane that attaches to the cavity wall
visceral layer
= inner layer of each serous membrane that adheres to an inner organ
serous fluid
= produced by the cells in the membrane to reduce friction between the two layers when organs shift position
pericardium
= the serous membrane associated with the heart
pleura
= the serous membrane associated with the lungs
peritoneum
= serous membrane associated w/ the abdominal organs
Thoracic cavity (chest)
= both the pleural cavities (lungs) & pericardial cavity (heart)
parietal pericardium
= around the heart
parietal peritoneum
= around the abdomen
parietal pleura
= lining the lungs
peritoneal cavity
= contains small intestine & other organs
uterus
= in between the rectum & urinary bladder
visceral pericardium
= inner layer of heart
visceral peritoneum
= surrounds organ (of section of sm. intestine)
visceral pleura
= inner layer of outside of lung cavity
abdominopelvic regions
= 9 regions of smaller portions (tic tac toe grid)
quadrants
= second scheme that divides abdominopelvic region into 4 regions: right upper quadrant (RUQ), the left upper quadrant (LUQ), the right lower quadrant (RLQ), & left lower quadrant (LLQ)
epigastric
= center of top section
hypogastric
= center of bottom section
left hypochondriac
= left side (of the person) top section
left inguinal
left side (of person) bottom section
left lumbar
= middle row; left side (of person)
right hypochondriac
= top row; right side (of the person)
right inguinal
= bottom row; right side (of person)
right lumbar
= middle section; right side
umbilical
= center square (middle row/column); belly button area
organ
= a structure w/ a defined shape that is composed of more that one type of tissue, & performs a general role in the body (brain, heart, stomach, & urinary bladder)
system
= larger group of combined organs; performs more general role to support health (11 systems of the body)
homeostasis
= systems seek to maintain this; physiological state of equilibrium for achieving survival
larynx
= upper part of neck; above the thyroid gland
system: integumentary
organ: skin;
function: protection of underlying structures, prevention of fluid loss, temp. regulation (protection)
skeletal system
organs: bones, joints;
function: support & protection of softer body parts, store minerals, produce blood cells (framework)
muscular system
organs: skeletal muscles;
function: provide body movement; produce heat (body movement)
nervous system
organs: brain, spinal cord, nerves;
function: monitor changes in the environment, interpret the changes, & initiate responses (process info.)
endocrine system
organs: pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, gonads ;
function: alter the activities of cells by the release of hormones in an effort to respond to changes in the body (releases hormones)
cardiovascular system
organs: heart, blood vessels ;
function: transport blood throughout all areas of body (transport blood)
lymphatic system
organs: spleen, thymus, tonsils, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels;
function: protection of the body from foreign particles & cells, removal of dead & diseased cells, recycle of fluid back to cardiovascular system (immune system)
respiratory system
organs: nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs;
function: exchange of gases between the bloodstream & external environment (breathing)
digestive system
organs: mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, sm. intestine, pancreas, liver, lg. intestine ;
function: simplify food particles into their basic components to enable their absorption into the bloodstream (digest food)
urinary system
organs: kidneys, ureters, urethra, urinary bladder;
function: form urine in order to maintain water balance, salt balance, pH, & nitrogenous waste levels in the blood (maintain water & pH balance in the blood)
reproductive systems
organs: male - testes, ductus deferens, urethra, penis, scrotum;
female - ovaries, uterine tube, uterus, vagina;
function: produce gametes for fertilization in order to create new individuals (reproduce new individuals)
anatomical position & purpose
Anatomical position - upright, arms at sides, palms forward.
Purpose - allows the uniform use of directional terminology.
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Definition:
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